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the White Mountains, the largest solid area of forestry in the United
States, which will soon be one of the greatest pleasure and recreation
spots of the western country. These forests are becoming famous
for hunting bear, mountain lion, wolf, bob cats, coyotes, deer, turkey
and other smaller game, while the festive, speckled brook trout
abounds in the streams.

The Navajo County of today, with nearly $4,000,000 worth of
assessable property, 15,000 population, with her lumber and coal de-
velopment in view and irrigation projects being promoted, it seems
safe to say will soon be in better shape financially than any other
countv in the State.


\V H () S \V H ()

Dipping Sheep

A Large Flock of Sheep

T N A R I Z O 1ST A 87

Apache County

APACHE COUNTY, situated in the extreme northeastern corner of
the state, was organized in 1879, and in 1881 a portion of the original
Apache was taken to form a portion of Graham, and in 1895 the
present County of Navajo was formed from it. The first settlements
in this section were made about 1876, by Mormons from Utah, on
both sides of the Little Colorado River. The county is a series of
hills, and broad, beautiful, fertile valleys with excellent drainage.
Locations for natural water storage reservoirs are plentiful, and in
the vicinity of St. Johns are a number of private irrigation projects
which are well under way, and there are many fine farms in the
county. It is especially adapted to the production of hay, forage and
grains, and the acreage producing all of these has greatly increased in
the past decade. According to the U. S. Census of 1910, nearly half
the quantity of oats reported grown in Arizona was raised in Apache
County. This report also showed a vast increase in the number of farms
in Apache. This county is also among the large producers of sheep and
cattle. The forests are covered with a heavy growth of tall pine, and
in timber alone the county is worth millions of dollars. Very little of
this timber has been cut, and this industry is yet awaiting the advent
of capital and the transportation facilities necessary to its develop-
ment. The White Mountains furnish the best fishing and hunting to
be found in the Southwest, and annually a large number of people
visit Apache County for the purpose of enjoying these pastimes. The
people of the county are interested in the subject of better highways,
good roads are being built, bridges constructed, and within the past
year an excellent automobile service has been established from Hoi-
brook to St. Johns and Springerville, thus insuring a trip that is a
pleasure, rather than a hardship, as was the case under old condi-
tions. The county seat and largest town in the county is St. Johns,
situated in the center of a rich stock raising section, which has two
churches, an academy, and two weekly newspapers, the Herald and
Apache News. Towns next in importance and size are Concho, Eagar
and Springerville. The public schools of Apache County have flour-
ished, and nearly every settlement boasts its school. Mercantile
houses also exist in the above towns, the most important of which is
the Arizona Co-operative Mercantile Association.

Scattered over the greater portion of Apache County are numerous
ruins of prehistoric people. In the immediate vicinity of St. Johns are
ruins of two large towns which contained probably 3,000 or 4,000
inhabitants each. Near Springerville are others showing the same
characteristics as the former, and all of them display the exercise of
considerable engineering skill.

\\ I I S \V M

Old Indian Village

Indians Loitering in Doorway


Mohave County

By Kean St. Charles

MOHAVE COUNTY lies in the northwestern corner of the state and
is one of the four original political divisions into which Arizona was
divided. The Colorado River forms a portion of its western bound-
ary. It contains many mountain ranges and broad valleys. Until
the advent of the Atlantic & Pacific Railroad its only method of com-
munication with the outer world was by means of the Colorado River,
hence its progress was slow. The county is now crossed by the A. T. &
S. F. Ry., and the county seat, Kingman, is 380 miles east of Los
Angeles. Since its organization, in 1864, Mohave County has been
the scene of active mining operations, and mining is still its principal
industry, almost every known metal being found in the mountains,
and even turquoise and other stones are mined. Within Mohave are
located two of the largest and richest gold mines of the world, the
Tom Reed and Gold Road. Lands along the Colorado River, in the
Mohave Valley, grow every semi-tropical fruit. Strawberries can be
raised every month in the year, while watermelons have been kept as
late as Christmas. The lands in the Wallapia Valley will raise crops
of small grain without irrigation, and if irrigated, will produce any
crop known to this latitude. Figs here produce phenomenal crops. The
climate of Mohave is, indeed, delightful. In the mountains it is cool and
delightful during the summer months, while the valleys are not oppres-
sively hot. The town of Kingman was founded in 1883. It lies between
the Wallapai and Cerbat Mountains, 3,400 feet above sea level. It has
an abundance of good water, excellent drainage, and the best climate
to be found in the state. It has two churches, Catholic and Method-
ist, and two banks. It also has a large power plant. Two weekly
newspapers, The Miner and Our Mineral Wealth, are published
here. Chloride is the next town in size, and Oatman and Gold Road
are prosperous camps, populated by men of ability and perseverance.
There is much undeveloped wealth in Mohave's valleys, rich in na-
ture's fertile soil only awaiting moisture to make them yield a golden
harvest, and thousands of acres of land that can be readily reclaimed.
1 hrough an immense gorge in the northern part of the county flows
the mighty Colorado from which could be obtained enough water to
irrigate all the arid land of the state, and there are yet but few irri-
gation canals in the county. Thousands of mines are open to location
in the mountains, and the valleys are rich and unsettled, but with
proper advertising and energy Mohave would soon rank with the best
of counties in population and wealth. The county contains excellent
banking facilities, and stores in each of the larger towns, and public
schools that will compare favorably with any in the state.


\V H O S \V H O

Off to the Mines

Horseless Carriage of the Desert



Final County

By Thus. F. Weed in, Editor Blade- Tribune, Florence, Arizona.

FINAL COUNTY, although one of the smallest divisions of Arizona,
is looked upon as one of the coming counties, as nature was here par-
ticularly lavish of her favors. Pinal has a wondrous landscape of
mountain and mesa, valley and canyon, with exquisite coloring. On
the higher mountains are forests of pine, oak, ash and walnut.
Through the county run the Gila, the San Pedro, and the Aravaipa,
while on hoth sides of these streams are level stretches of land of
wonderful productive capability and endurance. Then, too, large
areas within the county are impregnated with all the precious metals
and minerals of commercial value. Last, but not least, Pinal is
possessed of a climate semi-tropical in mildness, and unsurpassed in
its health-giving properties, with an atmosphere dry and pure in the
extreme. The total area of Pinal County is about 5,300 square
miles and its population over 10,000.

The mineral district of this county covers at least two-thirds of its
surface area, the greater portion of which has not yet been touched by
the prospector's pick. Yet, the mines of the county have yielded in
gold, silver, lead and copper, a total of $60,000,000. The metals
and minerals exist here in both veins and deposits, and where ex-
plored have proven of great magnitude and value. As the unexplored
surface exhibits the same physical condition and the same evidences
of mineralization, as do those which have been explored, it is rational
to assume that they, too, will prove both extensive and valuable.

Next in importance to the fact that our veins and deposits are ex-
ceptional in magnitude, and productive capabilities, is the character of
the ore they contain. In this feature they are also exceptional. The
major portion of them contain what is commonly called "combination
ores," that is, ores carrying from two to four metals of commercial
value, each in paying percentage. The usual metallic constituent ores
in Pinal are gold, silver, copper and lead certainly an ideal combina-
tion to insure profits. Furthermore, most of these ores carry a suffi-
cient percentage of iron and lime to make them self-fluxing in the
smelting furnace, therefore they can be treated by the fire concentra-
tion process at the minimum cost of smelting.

But the mineral wealth of Pinal County is not limited to the above-
named four metals. Prospecting and mining have been chiefly con-
fined to these metals simply because few prospectors are sufficiently
familiar with the ores of the rarer metals to recognize them in the
field, referring in this connection, to platinum, uranium, nickel, co-
balt, bismuth, tungsten, vanadium, molybdenum, etc., all of which
exist here, but as yet in undetermined quantities. We also have bitu-
minous coal measures, in an undeveloped state, in the Deer Creek







district, but sufficiently prospected to demonstrate that they can be
made profitably productive. The two great mining properties of the
county are the Magma copper-gold-silver property, at Superior, and
the Ray Consolidated copper mines, at Ray.

In the center of Final's mineral area, beginning seven miles east of
Florence, extending thence south to and beyond Casa Grande, west to
and beyond Maricopa Junction, north to the base of the Superstition
Mountain range, and thence west to the Final and Maricopa county
line, is a solid body of surpassingly fertile agricultural land, needing
only water to make it as fruitful as is the delta of the Nile. At
some time in the unwritten past, and long before the present type of
civilized man was privileged to look upon this land of promise, a very
numerous people thrived and prospered here, as is attested by the yet
distinctly visible remnants of their very elaborate canal systems and
auxiliary storage reservoirs. Through the center of this great stretch
of fertile land trails the Gila River, with its 17,000 square miles of
watershed and phosphated water, entirely devoid of deleterious sub-
stances and enriching the soil at each irrigation by the deposit of silt
rich in phosphates, while through its southern portion runs the Santa
Cruz River. The underground waters of the Santa Cruz are suffi-
ciently near the surface, west of the McLellan wash and in the vicin-
ity of Casa Grande and Maricopa stations, to make irrigation by
means of pumping plants feasible and profitable. Probably 50,000
acres could be reclaimed in this manner, through the organization of
pumping plant districts, under a district irrigation law, or through
the installation of individual plants. A number of individual pump-
ing plants are now in course of installation, and some in operation, in
this locality. Several are also in successful operation near Florence.
The normal flow of the Gila River, at the point where it enters this
valley, twelve miles above Florence, is sufficient to irrigate perma-
nently about 25,000 acres of land, according to reports submitted by
James D. Schuyler and John H. Quinton after they had carefully
studied and analyzed the stream flow tables compiled by the Geological
Survey from data obtained by daily measurements made during years
of minimum flow. All this water has been appropriated by small pri-
vate ditches, the O. T. canal, recently completed, and the Final Mu-
tual Irrigation Company's canal, now in course of construction. The
latter canal will have a diversion dam of the Indian weir type, planned
by James D. Schuyler, who is consulting engineer for the builders.
This canal system will be built, owned and operated by the land
owners whose land it will irrigate. The O. T. canal is also a mutual
system, operated on the co-operative plan, and serves about 2,500
acres of land. In planning the diversion dam and head-works for
the Final Mutual Irrigation company's system, Engineer Schuyler
took into consideration the probable early construction of the San
Carlos dam, and designed said works upon a scale that will fully meet
the requirements of the larger project. Recent contour surveys of the








Picacho reservoir, now the property of the Final Mutual Irrigation
Company, demonstrate that it enlarged to a storage capacity of
about 65,000 acre-feet of water. It can be safely estimated that the
enlarged Picacho reservoir will irrigate about 15,000 acres of land.
There is no doubt that the San Carlos dam will be constructed in
the near future, as the government has become greatly interested in the
project on behalf of its Pima wards.

The Casa Grande Valley Water Users' Association has also pro-
jected and are surveying a flood water canal, from a point about
twelve miles east of Florence to Casa Grande station, on the Southern
Pacific Railroad. It will be seen, by all the foregoing data, that by
means of canal, storage and pumping systems, fully 200,000 acres of
fertile land can be reclaimed in this valley, if we fully utilize the
various sources of water supply.

In the San Pedro Valley is a large acreage of exceedingly fertile
land that can be reclaimed by river and artesian water, extending from
Dudleyville to the east line of the county. A well at a depth of 800
feet, near Mammoth, struck a strong "gusher" that is furnishing suffi-
cient water to irrigate several hundred acres, thus proving the valley
to be in the artesian belt. The Aravaipa Valley, which comes into
the San Pedro Valley about twelve miles above Winkelman, has an
abundant water supply in the Aravaipa Creek, which flows through
the center of it, and all the lands of this picturesque little valley are
planted to fruit, including navel oranges, lemons, apples, peaches,
pears, apricots, plums, grapes and all kinds of berries. Its fruits are
unsurpassed in size and flavor.

Owing to a rare combination of climatic and soil conditions, the
lands surrounding Florence, and extending to and surrounding Casa
Grande, w r ill produce to perfection oranges, lemons, grape fruit, olives,
figs, nectarines, peaches, apricots, plums, pears, pomegranates, grapes
and all kinds of berries.











Greenlee County

GREENLEE COUNTY, the fourteenth and youngest county in Ari-
zona, was organized from the eastern part of Graham County, the
organization having become effective January 1, 1911. Greenlee is
one of the richest and most populous counties of the State. Its last

assessment showed a valua-
tion of upwards of $12,000,-
000, with vast improvements
and developments under way,
especially by the mining com-
panies operating there. Three
of the greatest mining com-
panies of the State, The Ari-
zona Copper Company, The
Detroit Copper Mining
Company, and The Shannon
Copper Company, have their
holdings in Greenlee Coun-
ty. Although primarily a
mining county, a large num-
ber of cattle are raised in
Greenlee County, and this
industry is being gradually
developed. There is also a
large amount of land under
cultivation, and in the south-
ern part are many fine
ranches, on which alfalfa
hay, grain, fruit and vege-
tables are raised, and for the
latter the towns of Clifton
and Morenci furnish an ex-
cellent market. The Arizona Copper Company has stores in both
these places, and The Phelps Dodge Mercantile Company has a store
at Morenci that will compare favorably with those found in large
cities. Other good stores are to be found throughout the county, and
the banking facilities are splendid. There are also two live news-
papers, The Copper Era and The Duncan Arizonan.

For the transportation of ore from mines to smelter the Shannon
Copper Company has built, at a greater cost per mile than any other
road in the State, a railroad 13 miles long, and the Coronado Railroad,
owned by The Arizona Copper Company, connects the towns of Met-
calf and Clifton. The Arizona & New Mexico Railway also passes
through the county and connects with the Southern Pacific main line.


\V H O S \V H O

Birdseye View of Clifton



Clifton, the county seat, has a population of more than 5,000, and
is situated on the line of the Coronado and Arizona & New Mexico
Rys. Morenci, the next town of importance in the county, has also a
population of more than 5,000. Both these towns are dependent upon
the mining and smelting; of copper, and both have excellent lighting,
water and telephone systems, all modern conveniences, and splendidly
equipped high schools, with superior opportunities for education. Each
one also supports a Catholic and a Presbyterian church, two banks,
two good hotels, and two hospitals, the latter maintained by the min-
ing companies whose headquarters are in the county. These towns
are seven miles apart, and arrangements have been made by the cor-
poration which recently received the franchise for an electric road be-
tween Globe and Miami, to build an electric road connecting them
within the next year.

Metcalf, another thriving town of more than 2,000 inhabitants, is
situated six miles from Clifton on the Coronado Railway, in the
heart of the mining district, and upon this industry its inhabitants are
largely dependent. Duncan is the largest town in the farming dis-
trict and the shipping point for the farmers and cattlemen of a large
area. It has a thoroughly good school system, hotel, bank, several
stores and w r eekly paper. Plans are now under way for a highway
from Duncan, on the A. & N. M., to Solomonsville on the A. E. Ry.

Greenlee County needs better transportation facilities, and her
people are working earnestly for better highways. The affairs of the
county are handled by capable officials, its outlook is bright, and the
desirability of Greenlee as a place of residence is constantly being
recognized by persons in search of a permanent home.

100 w H O ' S WHO

The Grand Canyon


THE GRAND CANYON OF THE COLORADO lies mostly in Arizona,
though it touches also Utah, Nevada, and California. With its vari-
ous windings and side canyons it is nearly seven hundred miles long,
and in many places over one and one-quarter miles deep, while its
width at the top is from eight to tw r enty miles. Its walls, composed
principally of sandstone, though in places of marble, or limestone, or
volcanic rock, have the appearance, when viewed from the front, of
being perpendicular while they are not. They are generally terraced
in a manner peculiar to the Southwest, and cleft into innumerable
buttes which seem towers and castles, and when the sunshine of that
arid, but enchanted, land falls upon their wondrous domes and battle-
ments, the sight is a revelation that causes strong men to sit down and
weep in speechless awe.

There is no such thing as describing the Grand Canyon, but Charles
Dudley Warner has, in the following, come nearer giving a hint in
words of what one may expect there, than has any one else who has
ever undertaken the task of description :

"In attempting to convey an idea of the Grand Canyon, the writer
can be assisted by no comparison.. The Vermilion Cliffs, the Pink
Cliffs, the White Cliffs surpass in fantastic form and brilliant color
anything that the imagination conceives possible in nature ; and there
are dreamy landscapes quite beyond the most exquisite fancies of
Claude and Turner. The region is full of wonders, of beauties, and
sublimities that Shelly's imaginings do not match in the 'Prometheus
Unbound'. Human experience has no prototype of this region, and
the imagination has never conceived of its forms and colors.
The whole magnificence broke upon us. No one could be prepared
for it. The scene is one to strike dumb with aw r e, or to unstring the
nerves. It w T as a shock so novel that the mind, dazed, quite failed to
comprehend it. All that w y e could comprehend was a vast confusion of
amphitheaters and strange architectural forms resplendent with color.
We had come into a new world. This great space is filled
with gigantic architectural constructions, w r ith amphitheaters, gorges,
precipices, walls of masonry, fortresses, temples mountain size, all
brilliant with horizontal lines of color streaks of solid hues a thous-
and feet in width yellows, mingled white and gray, orange, dull
red, brown, blue, carmine, green, all blending in the sunlight into
one transcendent effusion of splendor. . . . Some one said that
all that was needed to perfect this scene was a Niagara Falls. I
thought what a figure a fall 150 feet high and 3,000 feet long would
make in this arena. It would need a spy-glass to discover it. An
adequate Niagara here should be at least three miles in breadth and
fall 2,000 feet over one of these walls. And the Yosemite ah the



lovely Yosemite. Dumped down into this wilderness of gorges and
mountains, it would take a guide who knew of its existence a long
time to find it. Those who have long and carefully studied the Grand
Canyon of the Colorado do not hesitate for a moment to pronounce it
by far the most sublime of all earthly spectacles."

One can explore the canyon for miles around the rim, finding new
wonders at every step ; and even though seated in one spot a new
canyon appears every hour, as the scene is ever changing. It is possi-
ble to stay a month, travel every hour of daylight, and not thoroughly
realize the canyon. It is, in fact, a canyon in which all the world's
famous gorges could be lost forever.

However, difficulty of access can no longer be advanced as a reason
for Americans not seeing the Grand Canyon, as the Atchison, Topeka
& Santa Fe Railway System has made it possible to reach the Canyon
by rail, the round trip fare
from Williams being $7.50, j
and baggage may be checked
at Williams. The Califor-
nia Limited, a main-line
train, carries a through
sleeper to the Canyon, but
stop overs are allowed on
all tickets going east or
west, and the trip is feasible
any day in the year. Hav-
ing reached the Canyon,
one finds hotel accommoda-
tions that can not be excel-
led in large eastern cities,
the El Tovar and Bright
Angel, and for those who
care to remain longer, fa-
cilities for camping trips
completely equipped and in
charge of experienced
guides. There are also
conveyances for making any

of the numerous trips .-ibout

the Canyon, all of which

are to be had at a reasonable rate. It is also possible to reach the
Canyon by private conveyance from Flagstaff, but this route is not
available in winter, and the great bulk of the travel is by Santa Fe
Railway from Williams.







IK A R I 7. O N A

The Roosevelt Dam

ROOSEVELT DAM, a dam of the arch gravity type, is constructed of
masonry rubble and built into the bed rock of the river, extending to
a height of two hundred and eighty-seven feet. The masonry is fitted
into the canyon sides for a distance of thirty feet or more, and at the
base is one hundred and eighty-five feet thick, narrowing toward the
top until at the crest it is but twenty feet, and the whole being sur-
mounted by a roadway sixteen feet wide in the clear with a stone para-
pet four feet wide on each side. The roadway, connected with the
sides of the canyon by concrete and steel bridges w T hich span the spill-
ways, is lighted by electricity. The length of this roadway over the
spillways and across the top of the dam is nearly a quarter of a mile,
its one side dropping to the water at its various levels and the other
dropping to the river bed two hundred and twenty-five feet below.

In the construction of this dam it was necessary to exercise the most
extreme care. Every stone, some of which weigh thirty tons, was
washed under hydraulic pressure before being put into position. The
stone used is hard, of close texture and gray color. The cement, over
350,000 barrels of which was used in construction, was made on the
ground. Close by the damsite were found deposits of shale and rock,

Online LibraryJo ConnersWho's who in Arizona .. → online text (page 7 of 58)