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which it was found could be compounded into a first-class cement,
after proper treatment, so a cement mill was erected on the ground,
and manufacturing begun. This resulted in a saving of approximately
$600,000, largely because the cost of hauling so great a quantity of
cement from the railroad sixty miles away would have been enormous.

To build this great wall, to put a thirty-ton rock in its proper place
with that nicety which goes with good engineering, required consider-
able power. So the first work, after the preliminary surveys were
made, was to plan and build a power canal to generate electricity
which could be utilized to lift rocks, run drills, grind cement, manipu-
late derricks and cable-ways, and do all other odd work.

The engineers went up the Salt River, nineteen miles above the
point where the big dam was to be built, and there built a small diver-
sion weir across the stream. This water was turned into a power
canal, which ended at a point right above the site of the big Roosevelt
Dam. The water was then turned through an inclined penstock tun-
nel, lined with concrete and steel. This tunnel was cut through the
solid rock walls of the canyon. In passing through this tunnel, which
has a fall of two hundred and twenty-six feet, the water operates three
vertical turbines making five hundred revolutions per minute. Here
is generated the power that built the dam, and that is now lighting the
City of Phoenix, seventy-five miles away, also the power used for
street railways and commercial purposes at Phoenix, Mesa, Tempe
and other Salt R : ver Valley towns.




The journey of the water from the Roosevelt Dam to its final distri-
bution on the land is a story of utility. The stream passes from one
power canal to another. Some of these power canals and tunnels are
yet to be developed, but all are included in the project, which is now
fast receiving the finishing touches. Seven miles from Roosevelt Dam
the water will save 7,000 feet of travel, and at the same time develop
3,500 horse power. It returns to the old river bed, and is uninter-
rupted for about twenty miles, when it is directed through another
tunnel 3,500 feet long, where it develops 2,500 horse power before
re-entering the river below. Almost at once it is again taken up and
carried along the rock hill edges for several miles and then dropped a
sheer 100 feet through another set of wheels, w T hich will develop 5,000
horse power, and then follows the river bed until it reaches Granite
Reef Dam, where it is diverted by a great weir, 1,100 feet long and
38 feet high, to the main irrigating canals on the north and south
banks of the river.

In the main canals more power will be developed. On the south
side of the river, two miles from the head of the canal, one-half of the
water is turned into the Consolidated canal, with a drop of thirty feet,
developing about 2,000 horse power in the fall. On the north side of
the main canal, the Arizona, flows without interruption fifteen to
twenty miles, to a point at which about one-half the supply will be
diverted through a new cross-cut canal. The canal carries the water
about four miles along the base of the rocky points to a place where
there will be a drop of 126 feet, the water in the fall developing 3,000
to 5,000 horse power, according to the season. The other half of the
water of the Arizona canal, when it reaches the Arizona falls, a mile
or two aw T ay from the diverting point, will develop about 700 horse
power. On the south side of the river there is a possibility of develop-
ing another 700 horse power. The power generated will be sold at
reasonable rates to the ranchers in the valley.

It will be readily seen that with the great power possibilities of the
project, there is in store for the farmer under this system of reclama-
tion a large revenue, which will surely in time not only cover all
charges for maintenance of the system, but in addition will pay him a
handsome return each year for the money he has invested in his land]
The entire scheme is inseparably associated with the ownership of the
lands, and all the 240,000 acres of land included in the Salt River
Project have a share in the concern, each acre a share and each share
an acre. The government has expended about $9,000,000 on the
project to date, and of this amount about $3,500,000 has been ex-
pended on the building of the Roosevelt Dam.

Nature has been very kind in planning a field for this project. The
land to be watered is almost perfectly level, making irrigation easy.
The course of the water from the storage dam to the level land is
through canyons and rocky gorges, allowing no waste. The great


\V H O S W H O

basin that is created by the dam is in among rounded, gently sloping
hills, and is of immense area.

The interior of Arizona is covered with high mountain ranges.
These mountains are mostly covered with timber. The snow that
falls in the winter months in these high places is a source of a great
water supply that feeds the two streams held in check by the Roosevelt
Dam. These two streams, the Tonto Creek and the Salt River, flow-
ing the year round, are the mother streams of all the water carriers in
this great drainage basin. In this basin are giant trees and many won-
derful nature works, natural bridges and beautiful cliffs and mountain
peaks. The altitude varies from 1,950 feet to 11,500 feet above sea

The reservoir lies like a great bird with outstretched wings, cover-
ing the splendid basin created by nature, the wing to the north extend-
ing over the spreading w r aters of the Tonto Creek, the one to the south
covering the stored waters of the Salt River, while the head of the
bird is pointed to the wall which forms the reservoir, and is built in
the neck of the narrow canyon to the w r est.

(By W. H. Clark, Commissioner of Immigration, Navajo County.)

Forests, are located in Apache and Navajo Counties, in the north-
eastern part of the State.

For nearly twenty years continual efforts were made to have the
Petrified Forests National Park created, and on one or two occasions
the Territorial Legislature sent memorials to Congress, the only re-
sult of which was an order withdrawing the lands from entry. Later
several special agents were sent out to examine the deposits and re-
port, but nothing resulted from these investigations. Finally Mr.
S. J. Holsinger was sent out by the Department, and in company
with the writer, spent several days in the forests, during which the
different deposits or forests were named in order to distinguish them
for literary and other purposes, the first being given the name of
Eagle Rock, the second Crystal Forest, the third Jim Camp Forest,
and the last Rainbow Forest. Although these agents reported favor-
ably concerning the Park, and the bill to create it passed the house on
two occasions, it could never be got out of the Senate Committee on
Public Lands. The writer communicated with Senator Hans-
borough, then Chairman of the Committee, and was notified that the
Committee would meet on certain dates, but not seeing the way clear
to meet the expenses incident to a trip to Washington, he realized



that his efforts in this regard would be unavailing. Later on, taking
the matter up with Congressman Lacey of Iowa and Senator Lodge
of Massachusetts, he learned that the bill was being held up in
the Committee by an attorney named Parker and a Senator named
Bern-, from Arkansas. After some serious thinking on the subject, he
resumed his efforts, when it transpired that the word "forest" appear-
ing in the bill, certain interests w T ere determined to obtain timber
lands for those they were to relinquish to the government within
the limits selected for the Park. This meant about 30,000 acres of
timber land for the Company, owning, as it did, each alternate section
within the prescribed area.

It was not long after this, some time in June, 1906, that an inno-
cent looking bill was passed by both Senate and House for the Pres-
ervation of American Antiquities, and on December 8, 1906, Presi-
dent Roosevelt issued a proclamation creating the Petrified Forest
National Monument, under the above act, about 60,000 acres in
area. On July 31, 1911, President Taft issued a second proclama-
tion reducing the size of the Monument to about forty square miles,
in which, however, he made the same error that had been made by
President Roosevelt, both having used the following wording: ' do
hereby set aside and reserve as the Petrified Forest National Monu-
ment, subject to any valid existing rights, the deposits of mineralized
forest remains, together with enough lands to insure the protection
thereof, situated in Gila and Apache Counties, Arizona." The
lands are then described by section, township and range. The error
lies in the fact that none of the land is located in Gila County, and
the proclamations should read Apache and Navajo Counties. The
government has made no provision for guarding or protecting the
forest and there are no roads except those made by the general public.

Holbrook and Adamana are the only two stations on the Santa Fe
from which tourists can make the trip to the Forests. The latter is
advertised extensively by the Santa Fe Railroad and recommended
as the point from which to visit the Forest on account of the distance,
as it is within six or eight miles of Eagle Rock, and if there remain
three hours of daylight when trains reach Adamana, visitors may be
shown Eagle Rock Forest and the Natural Bridge, which, together
with the scattered sections of trees in the vicinity, afford some idea
of what the forest is like, but really only a hint of what may be
seen by visiting the Jim Camp and Rainbow Forests, the largest and
most interesting of all, in which the deposits and freak interests are
wonderful and almost beyond description. The Sphinx Head, Bal-
ance Log and Broken Bow must really be seen to be appreciated.
These two Forests w r ill soon be on the Transcontinental Highway,
which will cross from Flagstaff, through Canyon Diablo, via the
Painted Desert to Winslow, Clear Creek, Chevelon, Aztec Valley,



Holbrook, through Mirage Valley and the Petrified Forest to Apache
County. The highways through Navajo and Apache Counties are
fast being put in shape for transcontinental traffic, and a more
scenic route will never be found.

One point of considerable interest is the abundance of petrified
coniferous trees, which lie scattered about like a vast body of drift-
wood along the banks of rivers after flood time. It is claimed by
some that the trees grew in the locality where now found, and by
others that they were floated in in early days during volcanic and
flood periods, and that the various colors were caused by heat, water,
the minerals of the soil and the different classes and kinds of wood,
the softer woods being more thoroughly penetrated by the minerals
and water deeper than the hard. Professor Ward, of the Geological
Survey, states that there is no other petrified forest in which the wood
assumes such varied and interesting forms and colors, and it is these
that present the chief attraction to the general public. The state of
mineralization in which most of this wood exists almost places it
among the gems and precious stones. Not only are the chalcedony,
opals, and agates found among them, but many approach the condi-
tion of jasper and onyx. The degree of hardness attained by them is
such that one may take a piece of the wood and readily cut his name
in glass.

There are also a number of ancient Aztec Ruins within the Na-
tional Monument and in some instances, according to Dr. Walter
Hough, of Smithsonian Institute, the material used by the ancients
in those buildings was petrified wood. The villages were small, con-
sisting sometimes of but a few houses, but a peculiar interest attaches
to them from the fact that they were built of logs of beautiful wood.
The prehistoric dwellers of the land selected pieces of uniform size,
which was seemingly determined by the carrying strength of the man,
and it is probable that builders never chose more beautiful material
for the construction of their habitations.

In a recent publication Dr. Merrill says: 'The chemistry of the
process of petrification or silification is not quite clear. Silica is ordi-
narily looked upon as one of the most insoluble of substances. It is
nevertheless readily soluble in alkaline solutions i. e. : solutions con-
taining soda or potash. It is probable that the solutions permeating
these buried logs were thus alkaline, and as the logs gradually de-
cayed their organic matter was replaced, molecule by molecule, by
silica. The wood has, therefore, not "turned to stone," but has sim-
ply been replaced by mineral matter, mainly silica. The brilliant red
and other colors are due to the small amount of iron and manganese
deposited together with the silica, and superoxidized as the trunks
are exposed to the air. The most brilliant colors are, therefore,
found on the surface, and the smaller fragments are more likely to
be colored throughout than the larger.


Mining Department



Dr. James Douglas



Arizona's Greatest Industry

THE following extract from an editorial in "The Bisbee Daily
Review," issue of March 30th, by George H. Kelly, editor, is a concise
summing up of the condition of the mining industry of Arizona, and
since prosperity depends, in a great degree, on this industry, this is an
indication of general conditions throughout the state.

"In the mining industry of Arizona we find the greatest recent ex-
pansion and prosperity and this satisfactory condition is confined to no
one district or section of the state, but is in evidence all the way from
Jerome to Bisbee, and from Kingman to Clifton. The good price
maintained for copper during the past year has caused unusual activity
by those engaged in the production of the red metal and all the pro-
ducers have been engaged in providing new r plants and adding to old
ones, thus indicating a purpose of increasing their output and reducing
the cost of production. A few r years ago the average cost of copper
production in Arizona was about 12 cents per pound ; this average has
now been lowered to less than nine cents with the minimum main-
tained by several of the largest producers at about seven cents, so even
the low price of copper eighteen months ago was not alarming and the
present price of 15 cents is highly gratifying.

'The copper mining companies in Arizona now have in course of
construction work which, when completed, will cost fifteen million
dollars and provide not only largely increased facilities but greater
economy in the operation of mines and reduction plants. At Jerome
the United Verde is building an entirely new smelting plant at a cost
of $3,500,000; in the Globe district the Inspiration Consolidated
Company is building a mammoth concentrator which with the money
expended in installation of mining facilities, development of water,
etc., will cost $7,000,000; at Clifton the Arizona Copper Company
is spending $2,500,000 for a new smelting plant which is due for
completion during the coming summer. At Douglas the new two mil-
lion dollar smelter being constructed by the Calumet & Arizona is
nearing completion, while the Copper Queen last year completed a
reverberatory furnace and McDougal roasting plant at an approxi-
mate cost of $750,000 and this year has started another unit of this

"The mining industry is today, as it has ever been since it was in-
augurated, the bone, sinew and marrow of the industrial prosperity of
Arizona. It is in the hands of competent men who are a guarantee of
its continued growth and prosperity.

"Arizona is in the heyday of its prosperity, and its people have
every reason to be happy and contented."










The Copper Queen

situated at Bisbee in The Warren District, are among the greatest
copper mines of the world, and the largest producer of the four great
mines controlled and operated by Phelps, Dodge & Co. Their other
holdings are: The Detroit Copper Mining Company of Arizona, at
Morenci ; The Old Dominion Copper Mining Company, at Globe,
and The Moctezuma Copper Company, at Nacozari, Mexico. The
Copper Queen has been producing for thirty years, during twenty
of which it was the only producer in the Warren Mining District.
This District is named after George Warren, who discovered and
disclosed the fact that great bodies of ore existed in the Mule Moun-
tains. The original workers of the property upon which the Warren
District is founded were named Martin, Ballard and Riley, who
built a small smelter where the old depot stood, and this, from the
day it was blown in, showed the rich deposits that were to be found
in those hills.

Dr. James Douglas, now President of Phelps, Dodge & Co., had
purchased a few mining claims on the mountain side above this point,
and there sunk a shaft. At a depth of a few hundred feet ore was
discovered, and having compromised a suit with the old Copper
Queen Company, the companies were reorganized and consolidated,
and the foundation laid for the greatest mining district in the south-
west. Like many other rich and successful mines, the Copper
Queen has known periods of depression, and it is stated upon author-
ity that at one time the present owners, having spent $80,000 without
permanent results, were deeply discouraged and in much doubt as to
the advisability of proceeding with the development. Luckily, how-
ever, for Bisbee and the whole district, another $15,000 was appro-
priated, which, invested in a sort of forlorn hope, enabled the faith-
ful band of workers to discover the real copper deposits. These
mines are now the main source of wealth of the entire county, and
upon them all the other industries depend, either directly or indi-

The Copper Queen now has over 100 miles of underground work-
ings in its extensive property. The deepest shaft in its mines is only
about 1,800 feet, and no development work has been done below
1,600 feet. The bottom of the limestone foundation, in which the
ores occur, has never been found in Copper Queen ground, and
there is no reason to feel that the ores grow leaner with depth. At
one point very rich oxides and carbonates are being mined at a depth
of 1,600 feet, the deepest workings, while at another heavy iron sul-
phides are found within four or five hundred feet of the surface.
















The Copper Queen mine was opened in 1880 on a solid outcrop of
oxidized copper, iron and manganese, opposite the Copper Queen
hotel in Bisbee. The original ore body, since removed, leaving a large
artificial cave, gave an average return of 23 per cent copper, but was
exhausted in three or four years, and the mine experienced many vic-
issitudes until additional and far larger ore bodies were developed.
Extensive bodies of high grade ore have been found within the last
ten years, and development proves them to be of great depth. In
fact, new bodies are being developed yearly, and the ultimate lateral
limits of payable ore are unknown.

The mines show numerous beautiful caves lined with calcite crys-
tals and stalactites, some of which are of considerable size and found
in close association with good ore bodies. Rich oxidized ores are
found on the lowest level, and masses of native metal ranging up to
several tons in weight have been found at considerable depth.

The mine is opened ahead for several years, but not so extensively
as formerly, the ore bodies being so soft that it is difficult to secure the
openings and it is frequently necessary to bulkhead the same in order
to keep them intact. Many of the stopes are bulkheaded throughout,
and the mine is timbered with square sets of 8x8 timber, an average
of twenty feet of timber, board measure, being required for each ton
of ore taken out. The ore is hand sorted under ground after break-
ing, and culls are used for filling in worked out stopes, this material
standing remarkably well. Notwithstanding the numerous disad-
vantages originally encountered, the Copper Queen is one of the
safest of mines for underground workmen, because of experienced,
capable and careful management. Although as a whole the mine is
not especially wet, the district being drained largely by the Superior
and Pittsburgh, yet it is supplied with electric pumps.

In 1908 the entire system of operation was radically changed.
Formerly each of the principal shafts was operated as a separate
mine, but the five old shafts are now used for men, waste, timber and
supplies, all ore extraction being done through the Sacramento shaft.
The underground haulage plant installed in that year consists of 17
miles of track on every second level, from the fourth to the sixteenth,
inclusive, ore from the intermediate levels being dropped through
chutes and all of it hauled to the Sacramento shaft for hoisting. In
order to complete this traction system it was necessary to open many
new drifts and crosscuts, which are located in solid ground, wherever
possible, as these electric tram lines are the arteries of the mine. The
hauling system includes electric locomotives and side dumping ore
cars. This innovation has resulted in marked economy in operating

The ore mined at Bisbee is shipped to Douglas, 28 miles distant,
for treatment. There is located the Copper Queen Smelter, the most
modern in the world, which is a central smelter for the mines of













Phelps, Dodge & Co. in Arizona and Mexico. These properties
produce a great variety of copper ores, including practically every
grade found in the American southwest and northern Mexico, and
it is possible by means of this central reduction plant to take advan-
tage of the varied nature of the ores in mixing furnace charges. The
plant does also considerable custom smelting of gold, silver and copper
ores. The buildings consist of smelter building, power house, boiler
house, machine shops and foundry. The works occupy a site of about
three hundred acres, and are served by a complete Y-track railroad
system of standard gauge, consisting of 15 miles of track and reaching
to every building and department of the plant. Construction of this
was begun in 1901 and the first stack was blown in in March, 1904,
since which time there has been almost constant enlargement, and the
works are second in size in the country, having a daily capacity of
about 4,000 tons. The Company has also a large precipitation plant
and is recovering considerable copper from its mine water.

Water is secured from artesian wells about 400 feet deep, in which
the water rises nearly to the surface. A large reservoir and cooling
tower have been built in connection with the water supply.

The power house, built of steel and brick, provides power for all
departments and transmits electric energy 72 miles to the El Tigre
mine in northern Mexico. The power plant has about twenty units
of various sizes and types, aggregating more than 6,000 horse power.
Buildings at the Douglas works include an office and warehouse
and a number of dwellings for employes.

The relations between the Copper Queen Company and its em-
ployes have been exceedingly cordial for years. Efforts have been
made at different times to unionize the Bisbee miners, but in a ref-
erendum vote taken in 1906, in which the polling was conducted on
the Australian system, and no bosses or other salaried men allowed
to vote, the result was five to one against forming a union.

The management of the Company is superior throughout, and
keeps thoroughly abreast of the times, and it is a fact universally
know r n that this Company enjoys the distinction of being a corpora-
tion with a full and whole soul for those in its employ. In every
possible way is this evidenced in the cities of Bisbee and Douglas.

With the liberality for which the Copper Queen Company has
been noted, they have erected buildings and established free libraries
at both Bisbee and Douglas. The Bisbee library is one of the best

Online LibraryJo ConnersWho's who in Arizona .. → online text (page 8 of 58)