Johann Gaspar Spurzheim L. Miles.

Phrenology and the moral influence of phrenology: arranged ... from the ... online

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" A VERY 'prettily executed production,
and designed to illustrate Phrenology.
Forty cards are contained in a box, resem-
bling a small neat yolume, and an embossed
head, figured in the usual way, serves as
an Index to their explanations of the system.
We have run them over, and been much
amtised, as we think even Phrenologists
must be, with their quaint simplicities and
other droll matters."— i^Ycrary Gazette.

" Pope justly observes, that — ' Man's
greatest knowledge is himself to know ;' —
aiil it gives us much pleasure to find the
Sci^ce (£ Phrenology exhibited in this
pleasing and elegant form, which cannot
fail to prove a most useful auxiliary to the



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lectures of Drs. Coombe, Crook, and Pro-
fessor Dewhurst on this interesting system
of moral philosophy. Tlie cards contain-
ing the ' Classification of the Faculties/*^
the ' Survey of Contour,' and the ' Defini-
tions ' of the Science, are original and
interesting: it forms, indeed, a splendid
Phrenological Bijou, and reflects great
credit on the taste of the author and pub-
lishers."— JffrflM(/br(^ Observer.

" Novelty in the Arts — An unique and
beautiful little work on Phrenology ; it
forms an interesting condensation of this
Science, and is got up with considerable
talent."— JOuJ^n Satirist,

" We have placed thesetwo elegant little
productions together, because they are na-
turally connected ; because the latter ap-
pears to be an emanation from the former,
because, if we mistake not, th^ are both
from the same tastefrd hand, and that hand



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3

a lady's. The first series of forty cards
contains the most lucid, the most compact,
and the most portable system of Phre-
nology that has appeared ; this study— this
.science, mast no longer be laughed at^ it is
no longer laughed at— but by the ignorant.
^^Court Journal,



*%* The London edition of Uiis work was poblislied
on a aet of cards.



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OP



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J Ql^J^ l^'o)) io(g)(^>T^,



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Q



AND THE MOl^AL INBXUENCE OF PHBENOLOGY :



For general study, and the purposes of education,
from the first published works of



THE LATEST DlSCOYSBrSS OF THE VRESEITT
PEBIOD.



ws[ Mmso E^ [email protected]



' Man^ greratest knowledge is himself to know."
Pope.



PHILAD££PHIA t

CAREY, LEA, AND BLANCHARD.
188&.



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T\llri:2a.a.



HASWSLL*Ain> BABBINOTON, PBIMTBRS.



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IPmiSIF^OlSo



" It is not pecessary to be either a Metaphysician or
an Anatomist in order to understand Phrenology."
Phren. JknimcU.



To the female sex, in particular, this
science opens a wide field for the exercise
of those quick and perceptive faculties
with which they are peculiarly gifted;
and to minds capable of improvement, the
acquisition of knowledge can never be
indiflferent. As .a proof of the influence
of early precept and maternal instruction,
it is observed that almost all the talent
and genius of men have been derived

B



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10

from their mothers^ while • " we seldom
see the illustrious son of an illustrious
father."

— " So &r do first impreMions guide our course
through life."

Yet as fevr can attain a knowledge of
the elements of Phrenology without the
assistance of a bust (inconvenient from its
size), and books abounding with phrases
intelligible only to the classic reader, a
brief but comprehensive view of this
science is presented to the social circle
in a pack of cards, selected from the best
authors, simplified, and adapted to the
plainest capacity, and accompanied with
an embossed head, giving a coup d*ctU of
the relative situations and proportions of



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11

each organ, altogether superseding the
necessity of a bust; and in strict accord-
ance with the principles of the original
founders, Gall and Spurzheim.



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(9iLiA.issiriFnoA.'2'ii(0)S5r

OP

CTfie j^cttltfes.

mSTIlfCTIVB PROPraVSITISS AND SBNTIMBMTS.



Domestic Affections,
Amativeness . .
Philoprogenitiyeness
Inhabitiveness
Attachment . ...


. 1

2

. 3

4


Preservative Faculties.
Combativeness
Destrnctiveness .
Gustativeness . .


. 5

6

. 6


Prudential Sentiments.




llj


6

. 9

12



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Regulating Powers.




Self-esteem


. 10


Love of Approbation


11


Conscientiousness


. 17


Firmness ....


18


Imaginative Faculties.




Hope . . . ^


. 15


Ideality ....


16


Marvellousness


. M


Moral Sentiments.




Benevolence


13


Veneration


. 14


Imitation . .


33






Observing Faculties.




Individuality .


. 19


Form ....


30


Size ....


. 31


Weight . . : .


22



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15



Color ....


. 23


Order


25


Number


. 27


Sdentifie Faculties.




ConstmctiYeness . .


7


Locality


. 24


Time .


26


Tune . . • .


. 28


Reflecting Faculties.




Eventuality


E


Comparison .


. 30


Casuality . • . .


31


Wit .


. 32


Subservient Faculty.




Language


29



*«* The reader if requested to observe the " Clas-
sification of the Faculties,*' and the " Survey of Con-
lour/' the former being arranged with the utmost
perspicuttji and the latter, an original design for this
work, intended to iacilitate the practical application
of Phrenology.



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A Smsi'^is^ (2)3? 0<S)3STlF(S)WISs



Intended to convey to the mind (by a
superficial or casual view of any head,) an
idea of. what propensities, sentiments, or
faculties most distinguish the individual.
Any faculty may be possessed in perfection
without showing itself in a prominence or
bump ; it is only where one organ predomi-
nates above those nearest to it, that it
becomes singli/ perceptible. Where a
number of contiguous organs are large,
there will be a general fulness of that part
of the head,

CrvottpCnfl ot tte j^acultfes.
The Observing Faculties occupy the
lower part of the forehead.



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The Scientific Faculties occupy the
middle of the forehead.

The Reflecting Faculties occupy the
upper part of the foreheads

The Moral Sentiments occupy the head
above the forehead.

The Imaginative faculties occupy the
side of the head above the temples.

The Regulating Powers occupy ^Ac crown
of the head.

The Prudential Sentiments occupy the
side of the head above the ears.

The Preservative Faculties occupy sur-
rounding and at the back of the ears.

The Domestic Affections occupy at the
back of the head.

Language occupies the eyes.

" As every function of the body has a
particular nerve, or set of nerves, as its
instrument, so every operation of the mind.



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essentially different from the others, has
a separate part of the brain for its organ,
which is indispensable to it.''— From the
Anatomie of "Syst^menerveux en general,
et du cerveaux en particular." — Gall.



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IQ)IS]?nS7El'n(Q>Hi5o



The Primitive Powers are faculties or
propensities bom with us (and developed
at different periods of life, according to
the demands of nature), invincible^ and
never to be eradicated, although they are
in subjection to the laws of reason ; may
be counteracted by opposite powers of su-
perior energy, governed by the dictates of
prudence, and directed by education; for
it is held to be the obvious design of the
Au^or of Nature,, that the merely animal
propensities should be in subjection to
the intellectual faculties, and these again
regulated and governed by the moral sen-
timents. The great object of education
ought, therefore, to be the perfection of



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the human mind as far as perfectability is
attainable; not by attempting the sabver-
sion of any of the primitive powers, but
by proportioning their exercise and en-
couragement to the peculiarities of com-
binations, the circumstances of individuals,
and the principles of religion.

The Abuse of a faculty is, when it is
allowed to usurp an undue ascendancy
over the mind; when the mental powers
are misapplied, and those of instinct or
feeling are not restrained within the bounds
of moderation. This is generally the re-
sult of some negligence or defect in the
mode of education, no part of which should
be cultivated at the expense of the rest.
"To praise a child for beauty or dress,
who possesses the Love of Jipj^robation in
an uncommon degree, may intail on it
much misery ; and it is in vain t6 complain
of one that is passionate, while we en-



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courage him to vent his rage on a chair
or a stone."

By Moral Influence is meant, the
tendency of each faculty (when weU directed
and governed) to increasp the knowledge
and moral happiness of man, and to place
within his reach all that wisdom and
virtue can hestow.

Excessive Manifestation.— It is as-
serted in the ^^ Philosophical Letters upon
Physiognomy," that several, perhaps all,
the features are liable to be so far influ-
enced by the animal, intellectual, and
moral powers, as to assume what is usually
understood by the term " expremon /" but
an excessive manifestation can only be per-
ceived when one talent or feeling charac-
terises an individual, for where a number
of others exist in different degrees, the
expression is varied according to the pre-
valence of each.



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(^matfbeness,)

Occupies the space between the ears, at
the back of the head ; when full it gives
a thickness to that part, at the junction of
the neck.

Primitive Power — Love, or regard for
the opposite sex.

Abuse — Mis-plaged or hopeless love;
immoral conduct ; intemperance ; levity.

Moral Influence — Reciprocal affec-
tion ; domestic habits ; tenderness of feel-
ing ; the perpetuation of animal existence.



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Excessive ]^iANIFESTATION — Lively
countenance ; sparkling eyes ; lips gently
dissevered ; temper ardent or sanguineous ;
when combined with Acquisitiveness^ it
produces jealousy; with Machment, fide-
lity ; with Combativeness and Destructive-
nessy that self-devotion which will perish
in defence of what it loves the most.



The cerebral organs are double, and in-
habit both sides of the head, from the root
of the nose to the middle of the neck, at
the nape ; they act in unison, and produce
a single impression, as from the double
organs of sight and hearing: the loss of
one eye does not destroy vision 5 the deaf-
ness of an ear does not wholly deprive us
of hearing ; in the same manner Tiedman
reports the case of a madman whose diseai<e



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was confined to one side of his head, the
patient. having the power to perceive his
own malady, with the unimpaired facul-
ties of the other side. It is no uncommon
thing to find persons rational, and even
acute, on all subjects, save one,— -thus
proving the possibility of a partial injury
of the brain,' on the hypothesis of a plu-
rality of organs.



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]£ H S7 ID) IS lE^Hd n IS B IS/
OPf^noproflenftfbeness,)

[2]

Situated immediately above the organ
of Amativemss { when full, it gives a
drooping appearance to the back of the
head.

Primitive Power — Parental affection;
care and nurture of offspring ; pleasure in
beholding and caressing childregi.

* The names given in the German language were
the first announced by Gall at Vienna, 17%; those
in English only, belong to Spurzheim's ^* System of
Phrenology," (the result of their joint discoveries to
that period.) The mitiaied organs are the last esta-
blished.



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]



30

Abuse — Over-indulgence; unjust parti-
alities ; blindness to the faults of children
or young persons ; inordinate solicitude
and anxiety on their account.

Moral Influence— -The duties of pa-
rent and child ; compassion and sympathy
for the weak and helpless.

Excessive Manifestation — A prepos-
sessing countenance, which attracts the
instinctive regard of children ; mild or
pleasing tones of voice ; engaging deport-
ment.

Throughout all nature, this organ pre-
dominates in the female sex, and is re-
markable in animals attached to their
young; doves and pigeons have it large;
the cuckoo is totally destitute of it : with



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Cautiousness and Secretiveness it prompts
some to conceal their progeny, and with
Comhativeness to defend them.



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[3]

Situated at the back of the head, above
PhiloprogenitiYeness, and below self-es-
teem. This organ is the sense of physical
height in birds * and animals, and is large



* " Pride of place " is a term of felconry, and means
the highest pitch of flight.

« An eagle towering in his pride of place.'*

See Byron's first note to Childe Barold.

A man who possesses InhabitivenesB very lull, and
has Locality and Acquisitiveness also, may be tempted
to tniTel in pursuit of wealth or feme, but the " love of
home " will never be extinct in his bosom, and may
probably lead him back, even at the close of life, to end
his days where he first saw the light. In this manner
does phrenology account for various contradictions in



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in those which inhahit lofty situations, as
the chamois, &c.

Primitive Power— -To mankind it gives
a regard for definite places, (local attach-
ment,) and a condensation of thoughts and
style particularly necessary to historians
and hiographers; — from this latter pro-
perty it is also called Concentrattveness,

Abuse — Unconquerahle predilection for
places to which we are habituated ; disin-
clination for innovations or modern im-
provements; aversion to travel or change
of residence ; it is most remarkable in the
inhabitants of lofly regions ; and the Swiss



the human characteri hy observing the combination of
opposite propensities, some of which jield for a time to
the accidents that stimulate others, and again (when
unrestrained) resume their influence over the mind.



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mountaineers display the excess of it in
mcUadie da pays.

Moral Influence— -Love of home and
country ; steadfastness of character and
purpose ; distincness of object and unity
of relation.

Excessive Manifestation — Intentness
of aspect ; slow moving eyes ; meditative
habits.



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(Slttacjrnient,)

[4]

Situated at each side of inhabitiveness ;
it is also called adhesiveness.

Primitive Power— A voluntary and
disinterested regard for certain persons,
(Gall separates it from benevolence ;) more
considerable in woman than in man ; many
domestic animals are endowed with it, —
dogs particularly; the spaniel has it very
large ; it is least visible in the grey-
bound.

Abuse— Attachment to worthless ob-
jects ; indiscriminate friendships ; exces-



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sive grief for the loss of beloved persons
or favourite animals, creating inanimate
objects into assumed life and fellow-
ship.

Moral Influence — The formation of
society; interchange of thought, feeling,
and sentiment; the organ of friendship^
and the cement of all relative ties.

Excessive Manifestation — Open and
ingenuous countenance; cordial and con-
fiding manners; friendliness in greetings
and salutation; sociable disposition.



Spurzheim says — "Women are more
fitted to become practical phrenologists
than men, — that is, to discover readily the
different forms and sizes of the head in



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geneial, and of its parts in particular, for
this reason, — because they, from the ear-
liest agp, exercise the faculty of configura-
tion and size more than men, in their daily
observations and occupations."



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(^DomiiatCbenessO

[5]

Situated about an inch and a half behind
the ears, (in grown persons ;) it is almost
exclusively a masculine propensity, and
very large in the head of the bull-dog, lion,
wolf, and wild boar; deficient in the hare,
sheep, and hound.

Primitiye Power — Intrepidity and un-
dauntedness in assault or resistance.

Abuse — Quarrelsomeness, resentment,
hasty temper, litigation ; when too ener-
getic, it prompts men to provoke contention
or fighting \ females display it by the
exercise of a more pliant weapon.

F



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Moral Influence — The inspiration of
courage, requisite to heroism and magna-
nimity.

Excessive Manifestation — Firm pos-
ture and resolute air ; voice raised a little
above the natural pitch, or, if subdued,
somewhat hoarse. Dr. Gall makes a
curious observation, that " a coward, when
affrighted, scratches behind his ear, as if
desirous to excite the impulse of courage."
A similar manifestation may be noticed in
the cat, — she loves to have the back part
of her head rubbed, in the region of
destructiveness.



It is an error to suppose that the pos-
session of particular and instinctive pro-
pensities acquits us of all responsibility in



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the indulgence of culpable actions ; on the
contrary, it is the perversion of our faculties
which causes the greatest misery we
endure, and for which*, (having the free
exercise of reason,) we are accountable to
the Author of our being, and to our fellow-
creatures.



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(BestructCbeness,)

[6]

Situated immediately above, and back-
wards from the ears, adjoining combative-



Pribhtive Power — To subvert or de-
stroy : when influenced by conscientiotianess,
it renders a judge sternly inflexible ; bene^
volence softens its prevailing tendency;
combine!! with intellectual powers it gives
poignancy to criticism, and is the weapon
of satire.

Abuse — Sanguinary disposition ; cruelty,
revenge, and murder ; but if possessed



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46

only in a moderate degree, it imparts a
proper energy to character, particularly
if counteracted by organs of opposite
power.

Moral Influence — Preservation of life
and liberty by the destruction of obstacles
or opponents ; justifiable slaughter, as for
fbod : killing noxious animals ; national
and self^fence.

E xcEssivE Manifestation — C ontracted
and threatening eye-brows ; piercing eyes ;
voice hoarse, grating, shrill, or pene-
trating.



"All the faculties are considered capa-
ble of producing actions which are good,
and it is not admitted that any one of them



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is essentially, and in itself evil; but if
given way to beyond a certain degree, all
of them (with the 861e exception of con-
scientiousness,) may lead to results which
are improper, injurious, or culpable." —
EcUnensis, vol. iv.



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(g(Q)S^si>]ET7o^nr^nas^ss«



[7]

SiTUAT£D above the outer part of Number;
when very full the temples are as wide as
the cheeks; it is prominent in all great
sculptors, architects, and mechanics : birds
and animals which build with care are
endowed with it.

Primitive Power — The desire to con-
struct or fabricate ; adaptation of ideas or
materials to some end or purpose; with
the love of literature it chiefly aids dra-
matic compositions, and is an absolute
essential to the mechanical arts,
e



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Abuse — Impradent expenditure of time
or money on useless inventions, buildings,
alterations, or improvements.

Moral Influence — ^Those beautiful me-
morials of past ages, as temples, aqueducts,
and bridges, owe their elevation to the
impulse of Constructiveness, assisted by
the other powers requisite for their com-
pletion.

Excessive Manifestation — Hurried-
ness of manner : apt and facile management
of the hands ; looks expressive of ingenuity,
readiness, and promptitude.



The insight into human nature which
phrenology bestows upon its disciples,
supplies them with an engine of immense



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power in the education of youth, as it
enables them to avoid the mischiefs so
often resulting from mis-directed talents;
although genius will often burst forth and
shine in its native lustre, in despite of
every effort made to check or extinguish it.
A celebrated French mechanic told Mr.
Combe that he was sent to school at four^
years of age, and suffered continual chas-
tisement for his inattention to books, while
he secretly employed himself in carving,
with a knife, all sorts of small pieces of
machinery ; amongst these was a violin,
which, with much toilj he succeeded in
completing;* — he afterwards became a
musician and one of the first instrument
makers in Paris.



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(g(cq[ufsCtCbeiies8»)

Situated at each side of the head, before
secretivmess and helow idenUty : when too
energetic it is the organ of theft, and is
conspicuous in the Calmucs, who are
addicted to stealing; it is large in foxes,
cats, and magpies, and Grail found it in the
heads of poets.

Pbimitive PowEli — The sentiment of
property ; acquisition of wealth, know-
ledge, or possessions.



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Abuse— Unceasing notions of aggran-
disement ; love of gain, literary plagiarism,
avarice, pilfering, robbery.

Moral Influence — An instinct neces-
sary to induce man and animals to provide
against want ; when directed by edacation
and early example, it gives prudence and
foresight to character; but if allowed an
unrestrained activity, it may degenerate
into fraud and dishonesty.

Excessive Manifestation— A longing,
dissatisfied air; expansion of the eyes;
head n little advancing : readiness to re-


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Online LibraryJohann Gaspar Spurzheim L. MilesPhrenology and the moral influence of phrenology: arranged ... from the ... → online text (page 1 of 3)