Johann Joachim Eschenburg.

Manual of classical literature : from the German of J.J. Eschenburg, with additions online

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bably from some disciple belonging to a later period.

1. Certain epistles, and a number of symbolical precepts {'spa. d-o^tynara) are also
ascribed to him. The name of Pythagoras most properly belongs to the department
of philosophy. Cf. ^ 170.

2. Editions.— B.—£. G. Glandorf. Lips. 1776. 8.—/. G. Lindner,GT. & Lat Rudolsf. 1810. 8. f.—Princeps, by jildus, in

C. Lascaris Eroleroata (the same cited § 57. 2). — P. Nudham (with the comm. of Hiarocles on the verses). Cant. 1709. $.- J. .4.

Schier. Lips. 1750. 8. The verses are found in the collections of Gnomic Poets already cited ; and in OreUi's Opuscula Grascor.

vet. senten!iosa et moralia. Lips. 18!9 8.

3. Transla'ions.— French.— Faije de Olivet (Gr. & Fr.). Par. 1813, 8. German.— G. Ch. Link (in hexameter). Alt. I7S0. 4.

§ 59. Anacreon lived about B. C. 536, a native of Teos in Ionia. He fled
■with his parents from Persian oppression, to Abdera in Thrace. Subsequently,
he resided at Samos, under the protection of Polycrates the king, and afterwards
at Athens, under Hipparchus. He died in his native place, or at Abdera, in the
85th year of his age. He was a lyric poet, and wrote in that light kind of ode,
of which love, social pleasures, and wine, form the subjects, and which from
him has received the name Anac.reoniic. The collection of odes ascribed to him
contains many belonging to other authors, some of whom were of a later age.
The pieces are of unequal merit. Many of them are unworthy of the praise
which the ancients bestowed on Anacreon, and which, beyond question, justly
belongs to the rest on account of their vivacity, grace, and lyric beauty.

1. The time and manner of Anacreon's death are variously stated. Common tradi-
tion reported that he died by suffocation, from swallowing a grape-stone, while in the
act of drinking wine. This tradition is supposed by some to have originated from the
bacchanalian character of his poetry.

Herodotus (iii. 121) and Plato (in Hipparchus) are the authorities for some of the facts stated
above. — A learned life of Anacreon is given by Barnes, in his edition of this poet.

2. He is reputed to have written elegies and iambic poems in the Ionic dialect, be-
sides scoha and epigrams. The odes which have been ascribed to him are 65 in num-
ber. The genuineness of most of them was denied in the middle of the 16th century,
by Francis EoborteUus, one of the acutest critics of that age. Their credit having
revived, it was again attacked at the commencement of the last century, by De Pauw.
The same views were enforced by Fischer at the close of the last century, since which
time the opinion above stated by Eschenburg has generally prevailed. The opinion is
confirmed by the fact that, with two exceptions, none of the existing odes are known
to be cited by any ancient author.

3. Editions.— B.—/0. Frid. Fischer, Lips. 1753. 8. repr. 1776, and 1793, with additions.- a Ph. Gr. Brunch, Sfrasb. 1780. 12.
ccurate. — /. Fr. Dcgen. Lips. 2d ed. I8i!l. 8. with a German translation, and other lyrical pieces. — F. Melham. Glogav. 1825. 8.

learned; with \kM criticism ; commended by translator of SchoU. F. — P-i-inceps, by H. Stephanus. Lutet. Paris, 1554. 4. Graec

—Mmel Sf R. Stephanus. Paris, 1556. S.—Fabri {Tanaquil Faber), Gr. et Lat. Salraur. 1660, 1690.— Borne*, Gr.«t Lat. Cantab.
1705, 1721. S.—Mattaire, Gr. et Lat. Lond. 1725, 1740. 4. rare.- Pauio, Gr. et Lat. Tr. Rhen. 1732. i.—Spalletli, Gt. Bom.
1781-83. &1. very splendid. "Printed from ancient MS. of the tenth century; the type, comprehending Ihe first sixtun pasei.M.

p. V. POETS. PINDAR. 471

fac^imiU of the Vatican MS."— ^odont, Parma, 17S4. 8. handsome. Also, Gr. & Hal. 1793. 4.-7. B. Gail, Gr. Lat. & Fr. Par.

1799. 4. with dissertatioBs, musical adaptations, and engravings. 1801. 4 vols. 12. R.— Ed. Foater, Load. 1S02. 12. not profess-
ing to be critical; but correct, with elegmt engravings.— f. H. BUht, Lpz. 1S05. 12. more elegant than valuable.—/. H. ran
Rcenen, Amst. IS 8. 8. as 1st vol. of a collection.— ScAd/tr, Lpz. 1809. 8. it is the indilferent ed. of .Born (1789) improved.— § E. A.
MBbtus. Hal. 1809. 8. This as given in the Bibliolheca of Jacobs is the but for common use.— C. Casdlius, (with Sappho). Flor.

1819. fol.— C. G. Gitmseiius. Upsal, 1824. 6.—T. Bergh. Lips. 1835. 8. The epigrams ascribed to Anacreon are found in iba

JliUhology of Jacobs (cf. § 35).

4. Translations.- Euglish.-r. Stanley. Lond. 1683. 8. 1815. \2.—J. jlddison. Lond. 1735. i2.—FawU>. Lond. 1760. 12.— D. B.
Urqultart. Lond. 1787. 8—T. Moore, 1800. 4. 1818. 2 vols. 12, with the Greek text. Cf. Ed. Rev. vol. i'l.—Edwardt, Gr. & Angl.
Lond. IS30. 12. French.— Z)acicr. Auist. 1699. S.—Gail, above cited.— Sainf Fic(or. Par. 1810. German— OreiiecA, L-lb.

1800. S.—KanUer. Berl. ISOl. b.—F. C. Brosse. Berl 1806. S.—A. Dreiei. Landsh 1816. 8. Italian.— C/i. Rodolfi. Venet. 1765. 8.

5. Illubtrative — P. C. Htnrid, de indole carminis Anacreontic!. Alton. 1762. 4. — Degen, Qber d Philos. des Auacreon. Erlang.
1776. 8.—/ G. Sclineider, Anmertungen Uber den Anacreon. Leipz. 1770. S.—Maiuo, Character of Anacreon, in the Charaklert
rfer vornelmMen Dichter, cited § 47.— Z). H. Urquhart, Dissert, on the Odes of Anacreon. Lond. 1790. 8.— Ford. NUan, On the
Greek Rose, as illustrating the iii.ager)- of the odes ascribed to Anacreon, &c., in Traiuactiont of Royal .Soc. of Literature, vol. 2d.
I.ond. 1834.—/'. W. Richter, Anacreon nach seinem Leben geschrieben. Quedl. Ii'34. S.—Melhom, iu JaJiri'a Jahrbacher, for 1827.
3d vol. p. 227, ss. "giving a survey of recent Anacreontic literature."

§ 60. Pindar, of Thebes in Boeotia, about B. C. 490, was a lyric poet of the
greatest celebrity. He wrote in the higher kinti of lyric verse, employed to
celebrate the triumphs of heroes and victors. He sung- chiefly the praises of
victors in the great public games of the Greeks. There now remain 14 Olym-
pic, 12 Pythian, 11 Nemean, and 8 Isthmian Odes. Many other Hymns and
Paeans, Dithyrambics, Threni {Q^rvoi), and the like, are lost. Quintilian justly
ranks Pindar first among the nine most distinguished lyric poets of the Greeks
(cf. § 26). He is marked by his lofty sublimity, his bold energy of thought,
his vivid and poetical imagination, and the flowing fullness of his diction.
Horace gives a lyric description of his character (lib. iv. ode 2).

1. Pindar was early taught the arts of music and poetry. Lasus and Simonides
were his instructors. The Greeks related a story of him, that once, while he was a
youth, as he threw himself upon the grass fatigued and sleepy, a swarm of bees depo-
sited their honey on his lips, which prefigured the sweetness of his future poetry. In
several instances he lost the prize in poetical contests with Corinna, who is, however,
supposed to owe something to the charms of her person as influencing the feelings of
the judges. He is said at last to have appealed from them to herself. From all other
compethors he invariably bore away the prize. He enjoyed great honors while living.
1'he conquerors at the public games counted it a great part of their glory to be cele-
brated in the verse of Pindar, for which they courtecl his person, and bestowed on him
the most liberal rewards. A statue was erected to liim in Thebes, and was standing in
the time of Pausanias, six centuries afterwards. The house which he had occupied
was spared by the Spartans, and at a later period by Alexander, when Thebes was
laid in ruins. — The age which he attained is variously stated ; some say 55, others 06,
and others 86 years.

For the incidents of Pindar's life we are chiefly indebted to Pausanias; some circumstances are drawn from .Slian, Plutarch, and
others. Of the accounts by moderns ; see Lives of the Potts, cited § 47.— Preface in Tourlet's Translation, below cited.—/. G.
ScJmeidar, Versuch aber Pindars Leben und Schriften. Strasb. 1774. 8.

2. The division of the odes into fottr classes is ascribed to Aristophanes of Byzan-
tium. He selected, out of the general mass of Pindar's efTusions, such as had reference,
more or less directly, to victories gained at the great games of the Greeks; yet some
are found in the selection which do not refer specially to any particular victory. Scholl
remarks, that some of these odes seem to have been prepared to be rehearsed at the
general triumph of the conquerors on the evening after the contest in the games, and
others for the more private festival afterwards given to the individual victor, by his
relatives and friends. — One of the Odes (Oli/mp. 7) is said by a scholiast to have been
preserved in a temple at Athens, in letters of gold. — The more the odes of Pindar are
studied, the more the reader will be impressed with the genius of the author. The
abruptness of his transitions has often been a ground of censure, but with great injustice.
In many cases, where a new topic is introduced wdth apparent violence, or, as might at
first seem, only by a perfectly wild imagination, there is found, on a closer view, a
very philosophical and logical connection. — There is much of an epic character in the
use of history and mythology, which he so happily employs. The Doric dialect
abounds in his language ; yet he does not confine himself to it, but adopts iEolic and
other forms where strength, variety, or the peculiarity of his meter demands.

C. W. Theop. Camejiz. Pindari ingenium, etc. Misens, 1804. 4 — G. Herr.xann. de Dialecto Pindari Observatiooes. Lips. 1809. 4.
—See also Lond. Quart. Rev. vol. v. and xv'iVi.—ScJioll, Hist. Lit. Gr. vol. i. p. 277.— Cf. /. TV. KaWuin, Versuch eines Beweises,
dass wir in Pindars Siegeshymnen Urkomodien (ibrig haben, welche auf Gastmahlen gesungen n urden, &c. Lpz. 1808. a— Preface
to IVtst, cited below {,3).—Fraguier and others, cited below (6).

3. Various forms of poetical composition, besides odes, were written by Pindar; as, in the
words of Iseander, " Pannes, Dhhyrambi, Scnlia, Epitnphia, Encomia, Threni, Prosodia, Parthenia,
Enthroniiini, Bacchica, Daphnephorica, Hyporchemata, Dramata tragica, Epigramviata epica, etc."


Very jittle, however, of all this remains. We have nothing entire except the odes. — Jilich. JVc-
ander, Aristologia Pindarica Grsco-Laiina. Basil, 155S.

4. Editions.— B.—^uj. Bockh, Gr & Lat. Lpz. 1811-22. 2 vols. 4. Admirable.— C. G. Heyne, Gr. & Lat Lips. 1817. 3 vols. 8.
— * L Dissen. Gothse, IS30. 2 vola. 8. Afer Bockh's recension. The 1st vol. has the text, an introduction, and MUllci's plans
of Delphi and Olyinpia. pp. 2S2. The 2d vol. consists of Latin notes, pp. 634. It is included in Ro^Vs Bibliotheca; and is the

best for the student. f —Princept,ihe Aldint. Yen. 1513. 8. with the hymns of Caliimacbus.— CaHi'ergi. Rom. Iil5. 4. cum

Schohii. First Greek book printed at Rome —R. Stephanut. Par. 1560. 2 vols. i'.—Erasm. Schiuid, Gr. & Lat. cum Schol. Wit-

tenb. I6!6. i.—tlVat ^ IVelsled, Gr. & Lat. Oxon. 1697. {o\.—Fmdis, Gr. & Lat. Glasg. 1744-54-70. 3 vols. 12. R

D. Beck. Lips. 1810. 2 vols S. Not completed.— fr. Thie-rsch, with a German translation in Pindsric verse. Lpz 1820. 2 vols. 8.—
Tauchnilz. Stereot. Lpz. 1819 12.— Suutnisr/ord, Gr. & Lat. Lood. 1814. 8. with an abridgment of Damm's Lex. Pmdaricum.
—Ch. IV. Mhlwardt. Lips. 1820. 8. He contests w itli Bockh the priority of inventing a new metrical system for Pindar's verse.—
Jl. Mezzanotle, Gr. & Ital. (nietr. & prose). Pisa, 1820. 4 vols. S.—Negris, Gr. with English notes. Lond. 1835. 12.

5. Translations.— English.— G. JVest. Lond. 1753. 2 vols. H.—H. J. Pye, Six (;des {omitted by West). Lond. 1775. S.—E. B.
Greene. Lrnd. 1778. 4.—T. Banister. Lond. 1791. ?.—J. L. Girdldone. Norw. 1810. 4.— ./«. Moore, with notes. Lond. 1S22. 8.

-H. F. Gary Lend. 1833. 12. French.— 7. Maurin. Par. 1617. 6.— L. C. Gin. Par. 1801. %.—* R. Touriet, Gr. & Fr, Par.

1818. 2 vols. 8. German.— /•. Gedike, (pr.) Olympic and Pythian OJes. Berl. 1777-79. 2 vols. S—G.Fdhse (melr.). Penig.

1806. 2 vols. 8.—F. H. Bolhe, (metr.) Olympic Odes. Berl. [fOS.—Tfiierscn, as above cited; highly esteemed. Italian —jj?i(.

Jerocadts. Nap. 1799. 8. Latin verse, J. Costa. Fatav. 1808 8.

6. Illustrative.- .2;m. Porii, Lexicon Pindaricum. Han. 1606 —Damm, Lexicon Pindaricum. Berl. 1765.—/. M. Dvncan,
Dam m i i Nov. Lex. cui substratse sunt elucidationes Homeric^ et Pindarics. Lond. 1827. 4. — Rost published an improved edi.
tion of Duncan's. 1S35. 4. Reprinted 1838. — Hermann, on the Pindaric Meters, in Heyne's edition, 3d vol — Aug. Bockh, Ueber
die Versmaase des Find. Heidelb. 1809. 8.—/. C. Fr. Cotschel, Mythologiae Pindaricas Specimen. Erlang. 1790. i.—Blondd,
Comparaison de Pindare el d'Horace. Par. 1673. 12.— Fraguier & Massuu, Sur Pindare, &c. Mem. de VAcad. des Imcr. ii. 33 ; iv.
502 ; V. 95 ; vi. 283, 354.— Also Sallier, in the same work, Mem. SfC. iv. 485 ; x. 352 ; and De Chabanon, in the same, xxxii. 451 ;
XXXV. 386; xxxvii. 91.— i. F. Tafd, Dilucidationes Pindarics. Berl. 1827. 2 vols. 8. Good in explaining words.— Fauui«ter»,
Essai sur Pindare. Par. 1772. \2.—W. Ccngreve, Discourse on the Pindaric Ode, in 3d vol. of his Works. Lond. 1753. 3 vols. 8.
—/)aipes, Miscellanea Cntica. Lpz 1800. 8. (Sect, ii.)

§ 61. .^schylus, a native of Eleusis, in Attica, flourished about 490 B. C.
He engaged in military service, and acquired glory in the battles of Marathon,
Salamis, and Platsea. He afterwards retired to Sicily where he died. His
merit was very great as a poet in the department of tragedy. Indeed he was,
properly speaking, the author of tragedy, as he gave it greater unity of action,
introduced the dialogue (although the chorus still retained an important place),
employed a more dignified style, and imparted a more noble and elevated cha-
racter to the external representation. Yet we notice a want of completeness
and finish in his plays. His efforts to present terrific or shocking scenes, with
bold and uncommon modes of thought and expression, sometimes lead him into
what is exaggerated, obscure, or unnatural. Nor can we find in him the beau-
ties belonging to a full and regular method.

1. The birth of ^schylus is dated B. C. 525, and his death 456. He is said to have
made his first public attempt, as a tragic author, at the age of 25, B. C. 499. Six years
after the battle of Marathon, he gained his first tragic victory, and eight years after
the battle of Plataea, he gained again the prize for a tetralogy (cf. P. IV. ^ 66). — Dif-
ferent accounts are given as to the reason of his removing to Syracuse in Sicily. Some
ascribe it to his disgust at being charged and tried Ijclore the Athenians for profanation
of the mysteries in some of his plays, ahhough he was acquitted. Others assign as
the reason, his defeat in a poetical contest with Simonides, and in another with Sopho-
cles. Schlegel suggests {Dram. Lit. lect. iv.) that he retired from apprehensions of the
hostility of the populace towards him, because he had highly recommended the Areo-
pagus as holding a check upon democratic violence.

See F. C. Petersen, DcSschyli vita, etc. Havniae, 1816. 8.— Life of iEsch. in Stanley^s edition, cited below (4).

2u. Of 75 or 90 tragedies, which he is said to have v/ritten, only seven remain.
These are entitled YlpofiriOevg cW/zojrr;?, Prometheus vinclus; Hefxrai, Persce; 'ETrra iin
OfiPag, Seplem contra Tliehas; ' Ayan^ixviov , Agamemiion; Xorjcpdpot, Choephori; Kviievidsg,
Eumenides, Furies; 'iKtnki, SuppUces.

3. The plots of ^schylus are very simple. His characters are sketched boldly.
A lofty and grave spirit reigns in his poetry. Terror is the predominant emotion. His
Prometheus hound is called his master-piece.

A. W. SclUegeVs Lect. on Dramatic Lit. lect. \v.—Edinb. Rev. vol. xxvi.— 7?i£a<re oftlie Greeks, cited § 40.— Charaktere der tior-
nehmtten Dichtar, &c. von einer Gesellschaft von Gelehrten. Lpz. 1792. 8 vols. 8. vol. ii. p. 391.— iond. Quart. Rev. iii. 389 j v.
203; XXV.

4. Editions.— B.—C. G. SchUtz, Gr. & Lat. 4th ed. Halle, 1809-12. 5 vols. 8. Repr. Lond. 1823. 4 vols. 8. with Lat. vers. The
editions of Schatz have been highly lauded by some critic!! ; but an English reviewer has spoken in a different tone. See Mus. Crili

cum, vol. i. p. 109. Cf. Dibdin's Introd. cited § 7. 10. vh\. i. p. 241 S. Buller, Gr. & Lat. Camb. 1809. 4 vols. 4 ; 8 vols. 8. Cf.

Edinb. Rev. vol. x'lX.—A. Wellauer. Lips. 1826-31. 3 vols. 8. the 3d vol. a Lexicmi Mschyleum, called good by Hermann. Repr.
Camb. 1S27. 2 vols. 8. without the Lexicon.— C. /. BlomfieU's editions of the separate tragedies are ranked very high, and sard to
give the purest text. The glossaries appended to each are highly prized. The reprint of Blomfield, Lpz. 1S23 s. contains additions.

T.—Princeps, by Aldus. Ven. 1518. S.-F. Rcbor.ellus. Ven. 1552. i—Tumelms. Par. 1552. i.—Victorius (printed by H.

Stephanus) Par. 1557. 4.—Th. Stanley, Gr. & Lat. Lond. 1663. fol. It was very celebrated; the foundation of Bulkr's.

*auw, Gr. & Lat Hag. Com. 1745. 2 vols. 4. " to be shunned." (Dibdin.}—Foulis, Gr. & Lat. 1746. 4. & 12 —Purson. Glasg.


1795. fol. with designs by Flaxman. See on this, Pursuits of Literature., pt. ii. p. 42. Dildin, i. p. 2-12. R —T. H Bothe, Gr.

& Ut Lpz. IS05. 8. not tiighly esteemed (Diidin). new ed. 1831. 2 vols. 8. " too bold in criticism."—/. Scholef.cld. Canib. 180S.
8.— § SchUfcr. Lpz. 1812. 8.—^ PJlugk. G tin (begun) IS35, in Host's Bibliotheca.— C. Schwenh, separate tragedies. Lpz. 1818, ss.

8.— Cf. A' Am. Rev. xxiii. p. 505. S. MtiikwUz, Lips. 1838. 8. "tolerably good."— ^ T. D. WooUey, Prometheus Vinctus, with

Engl. Notes. Cf. 5 63. 5.

6. Translations.— English.— A Potter (blank verse). Norw. 1777. 4. 2d ed. imp. Lond. 1779. 2 vols. 8.— For D. A. Talboyi,

(rrose) Oxf. 1822. 8. French —F. J. G de la Porte du Tkeil (with original & notes). Par. 1798. 2 vols. 8. also in new edition of

Brumoy's Theat. Gr. (by Ramd-Rrichettt). Par. 1820, ss.— Marquis de Pompignan. Par. 1770. 8. German.—/. T. L. Danz.

Lips. 1805. 1808. 2 vols. 8. '-too much modernized."— GoH/. faAic. Lips. 1809. 8. "defective." CF«ftrT7ia)iH.>—C. Ph. Crniz,
(n.etr.) Choephori. ZJr. 1811. 8; Per«E, and the rest. Tab. 1S15. 1>20. "good." (Fuhmiann.)—* W. vnn Humboldt, Agamem-
noD. Liz. IS16. i.—*Droye:i. Berl. 1S32. 2 vols. 8. Italian —i*f. Malliui (with Sophocles & Euripides). Rom. l7!-8. 8.

6. Iliu^trative — J. Mairsitt-i, iEschylus, Sophocles, Euripides, sive de tragoediis eorum libri iii. Lug Bat. 1619 ; also in Gronovii
Thesaurus Gr. toii.e x.-V. A. Starch, de aischvlo et imprimis ejus tragc&lia, qu2 Prometheus vinctus inscripta est, libellus. Gott.
1763. 4~H ElUmner, aber die Idee des Schicksals in d. Tragoedien .Sschyl. Lpz. 1814 8.— Car. Fr. irundtrlich, Observat.
critics in iEscr.> li tragcedias, etc. Gott. 1809. 8.— G. Herrmann, De versibus spuriis a;i. jEschylum. Lips. 1.SI4. I.—Bumey'i
Tentamen de melrls (ab^Eschylo) in chor. cant, adhibiiis. Land. ISll. 8. Cf. Edinb. Rev. vol. xviii.— C. F., De car-
minibus .i^schyl. a partibus chori canlatis. Bruns. 1832. S.—Vauvilliers, on MSS. of .Eschylus in the Notices des Manuicrils, &c.
vol. i. as ciieJ P. IV. § 108. 2. — M. G. F'dhse, Lexicon Graccum in Tragicos. Lpz. 1830 4. Commenced; a collection of scholia St
glossse from the ancient grammarians and of modern aoies.— A pparatus Critictts ad ,S:schytum. Halle, IS30. 1st vol. the commen-
tary 0' Stanley. 2d vol. Abrcschii Auim dversioues. 3d vol. to contain notes from various authors B. W. Beatsori, lud-x Grasci-

tatis iEschyleae. Cmtab. 1S30. S.—R. H.Kiausen, Theologumena iEschyli. Berl. 1829. 8.— C. G. Haup/, Qusstiones .Eschyle^e.
Specimina i.— iv. Lips. 1828-30.—/. fZaxmaji, Compositions from the Tragedies of .ffischylus; 36 beautiful outlines. Loud. 183!.
fol.— AT. 0. MUllcr, (Eng. transl. from his Germ.) Di.ssertatious on the Eumenides, wiih the Greek text, &c. Camb. 1835. 8. Cf.
Lond. Quart. Rev. Sept. 1842. p. 315.

§ 62. Sophocles^ born at Colonus, near Athens, was the greatest author in
Greek tragedy, and not without honor as a warrior. He flourished about 450
B. C. He improved the tragic stage by introducing a third speaker, and by
limiting the office of the chorus, which, with him, appears rather as a contem-
plative spectator, than a real participator in the action represented. His trage-
dies have the merit of a regular and judicious plan, a striking truth in characters,
and a masterly and energetic expression and play of the passions. They are
full of feeling and full of nature.

1. Sophocles was about 30 j'ears younger than jEschylus, and about 16 older than
Euripides (§ 39). In early youth, it is said, he was beautiful in person, and made rapid
attainments. His father, Sophilus, was wealthy, and furnished him with the best
advantages for education. At the age of twenty-five he brought forward his first tra-
gedy, for a prize. It was in a memorable dramatic contest, in which .5]schybjs was
a candidate, and Cimon and his nine colleague-generals, after their victory over the
Persians near the Eurymedon, were the judges. Sophocles received the prize by their
decision, B.C. about 468. He won the first prize in such contests twenty times, while
.S^schylus gained this distinction but thirteen times, and Euripides but a still smaller
number. 'I'he unnatural ingrautude of his family, in attempting to deprive him of his
property on the charge of doiage, furnished him an opportunity to acquire new glory;
he read before the court his CEdipus at Colonus, which he had just composed. In ad-
miration of the piece, the judges not only rejected the suit of the family, but escorted
the poet from the place of trial to his own dweUing. He died about B. C. 405, noi
long before the defeat of the Athenians at iEgos-potamos. Discordant and marvelous
tales are related of his death.

See Gott Eph. Lessing, Leben des Sophokles (ed. Eschenburg). Berl. 1790. 8. — Charahtert der vornehmsteii Dichter (cited
§ 61), vol. iv. p. 86,— i^. Schultz, De Vita Soph, commentatio. Berl. 1836. 8.

2u. Of a great multitude of plays composed by him, we possess only seven: viz.
"Aiuj fia/jTiyo.pnpog , Jjax Flagellifer, Ajax hearm^ (he lash; 'HAi^n-pa, Electra; OiStwovs
Tvpa.'i'Oi, CEdipi/s King; 'A.vTiyovri, Antigone; UiSiTrovginlKoXorM, CEdipus at Cnlnmis;
Tpaxifiai, The Tracliinian women; ^tXoKrfirris, Philoctetes. The third of these, CErZ(^2is
King, is esteemed as the best.

3. Different statements are made respecting the number of tragedies composed by
Sophocles. Suidas makes it 123. It is commonly judged that the true number is
about '/O. IMany of the plays, which were ascribed to him, are thought to have be-
longed to his son lophon and grandson Sophocles. — He was called by the ancients the
Attic Bee, to designate the sweetness and grace which characterized his works.

See Bttenbeck, Diss, de ingenio Sophocles. Erlang. 1789. i.—SchlegeVs Dram. Lit. lect. iv.—Sch'll, Hist. Lit. Gr. vol. ii. p. SO.

4. Editions.— B.-iJ. F. Ph. Brunch, Gr. & Lai. Argen. 1786-9. 3 vols. 8. repr. often ; best, Oxf. 1820. 3 vols. 8. Lond. 1824. 4.
vols. 8.— *C. G.A. Erfuhrdt. Lips. IS02-11. 6 vols. 8. each volume one play ; CEdipus Coloneus was supplied in a 7th vo'. bv Heller
and DSderlein with a Lexicon, in 1825.— G. P. IV. Schneider. Weim. 1823-27. 8 vols. 8. with German notes ; and a Sophokltischea

WMerverzeichniss. 1830. 2 vols. 8. T.—Prijueps, by Aldus. Ven. 15C2. 8.— Junta {Francinus ed.), cum Schol. Flor. 1522,

■ 1547. i.—Tumebus (with the Schol. of TJem. Tridinius). Par. 1553. 4 —H. StephaiiHS. Par. 1368. 4.—Canlerus. Aniw.

1589.12. Repr. Lued. Bat. 1593. yoAnson, Gr. & Lat. cum. Schol. Oxon. 1705. 2 vols. 8. 3d vol. Lond. 1746. Reprinted,

Lond. 1758. and Eon. 1775. this last edit, by J. Tweedie is most correct. (Dibdin, ii. p. 4\2.)—Capparonier (finished by y'auvH'

liers). Gr. & Lat. Par. 1781. 2 vols. 4. R.—F. B. Bothe, Gr. h Lat. Lpz. 1806 2 vols. 8 repr. Gr. 1^7.— G. H. Sdrnftr. Lpi.

1610. 2 vols.—: G. Hermann. Lpz. 1624. 7 vols. 12. The first 2 vols, by Erfuhrdt. Repr. Lond. 1826. 2 vols. 8.— £. IVunder

60 2r2


GolhsB (not finished), 1835. in Rosl's Biblintheca— § f. Xeue. Lpz. 1831. 8.— Jf. Elmslry. Lond. 1826. 2 vols. 8. Repr. with

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