Johann Joachim Eschenburg.

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additions, Lpz. 1827. Of the editions of single tragedies, a few only can be noticed.— AJAX. B SlolU-rg (with Scalijer's metri.

cal version). Wittenb. 1668. 8.—/. G. H:rius. Witlenb. 1746. 8.—* Ch. jlug. Lobeck,2i ed. Lips. It35. 8.-ELECTRA. (Gr.
Lat. &Ital.) Rom. 1754. 4.— G. Ant. Ch. Scheffier. Helrust. 1794. 8.— § T. D. IVuohey, (with Antigone) with Eng. Notes. Cf.
63. 5.— CEDIhUS TTRANNUS. J.H.C.Barhy. Berl. 1S07. 8.— P. fflrm/ey. Osf. 1811. 8. impr. Lips. 1S2 !.—§/. Sfuort,
with Engl. ro:es. Ando. IcSS. 12.— ANTIGONE. J.H.C.Barhy. Berl. 1806. 8.— J f . C. M^er. Lips. 1830. 2 vols. 8.— CEDI-
PUS COLONEL'S. * C. Riitig. Jcuse, 1S20. 8. and 2 vols, of Commejit. crit. Jen. 1822. 8.— J. Brnsse, with English notes,
Lond. 1829. 12. (in same manner, other piecrs.)— P. Elmsley. Oxf. 1823. 8.— TRACHINIjE. J. G. Ch. H pfner. Lips. 1791. 8.
—L. J. BMcrheck. Hiidesh. ISOI. 8.— PHILOCTETES. Buttmann. Berl. \822. 8.—* J. P. Matlhxi. Alt. 1823. 8.— G. .Bur-
gess, with Engl, notes. Lond. 1833. S.

5. Translations.- English.— r/!. Francklin (bl. ver.). Lond. 1759. 4. impr. ed. ITS?.- A Potter. Lond. 1788. 4.—T. Dale.
Lond. 1824. 8.— For D. A. Talbnys (prose). Oxf. 1824, 2 vols. &.—T. IV. C. Edwards, Gr. & EnjI. pnse (Antigone, CEJipusRer,

Philoctetes). Lond. 1824-27. 8. French.— Dupuy. Par. 1762. i.—Gidl. de Rochtfort. Par. 1788. 2 vols. 8. German.—

Count Slolberg. Hamb. 1823. 2 rols. 8.—* C. IV. F. Solger. Bar'.. 18 8. 8. new ed. 1324.

6. Illustrative.—* F. Ellmdt, Lexicon Sophocleum. Regiom. (Konigsb.) 1835. 2 vols. 8.-7. G. F Fr'hlich, Kritische Ver.
Euche Uber Sophocles Tragodien. M >n. 1824. 8.—B. W. Btatson. Index Graecitatis Sophoclea;. Cant. iS30. 8.—B. Healh. Notaead
Tragicor. Graecor. Veter. .Eschyli, Sophoclis, Euripidis, quae supersunt, Drainala, deperditorumque reliquias. Ox. 1762. 4.— f
Knox, Comment, on the CEdipus Tyrannus, in his Esiays Moral and Literary. Lond. 1779. 8.

§ 63. Euripides was born at Salamis, of Athenian parents, B. C. 480. He
was instructed in rhetoric by ProcJicus, and by Anaxa^oras in philosophy.
Socrates was his familiar friend. He died B. C. 406, at the court of Archelans,
kinor of Macedon. His talent for philosophy and eloquence appears in his tra-
gedies, which are strikingly marked by sententious passages and pathetic
scenes; in this respect he sometimes violates tragic dignity. An easy and
regular method is found in all his pieces. His characters are designed with
exactness, and are less ideal than those of Sophocles. With much fidelity and
truth in expression, he unites great richness and fullness. Most of his plays,
of which he composed at least seventy-five, are lost; seventeen or eighteen how-
ever remain, besides some fragments, and the Cyclops, which was a performance
of Euripides belonging to the satyrical drama (cf. § 44).

1. Euripides remained at Athens until within a few years of his death. He went to
Macedonia on the invitation of the king, Archelaus. Several causes are suggested as
mfluencing him thus to retire ; domestic trials, the abuse and ridicule received from
Aristophanes, and public prosecution on a charge of impiety. His deatli is said to have
beer, occasioned by an attack of some ferocious hounds, in which he was so mangled
that he expired not long afterwards. He was seventy-five years old.

For the biography of Euripides, see (besides the works referred to in § 47) his Life by Barnes, in Pref. to his edition below cited
(5), and by Motchopulut, Thomas Magister, and Aldus Gellius, found in Miagrave't edition; and the anonymous Life in lUmsUyU
edition of the Bacchx.

2. Euripides is said by some to have composed 120 dramas. A catalogue of those
lost is given hy Fabricius^. Those which remain bear the following titles: 'EKaffii,

'Ophrrii^ ^oivKraai, MfjSeia, 'iTnroXvro; crs'pavrjrpopos, Hyppolytus Coromfer, "AXKriaris, 'Avlpo-
jjiixn, "i.<triki, The Female Suppliants, 'I'piyiveia n e^ AvXiSi, 'I<ptyh'£ta r? ev T^avput;, Tpua^Sf,
The Trojan Women, Ba/cxai, The Female Bacchanals, 'YipaKKdhai, 'Fj\tvr\, "luiv, 'lApaKXris
txatvoiitfog, Hercules furens, '}i\o:Tpa and 'P/jcro,-, Bhesus. This last, however, is consi-
dered as spurious, by some of the best critics^. The principal fragments, are of two

pieces entitled *I>a£9(.ji' and Aavarj. The ]Medea is generally considered as one of the

best pieces of Euripides. It is said that Cicero was reading this, w-hen arrested by the
ministers of the proscription.

1 In his Biblioth. Grax. See vol. ii. p. 234, ss. ^ On the number of pieces written by Euripides, what genuine, what lost. Sic.

cf. Fulxrmann, Klein. Handb. p. \b\.—Schmi, Hist. Litl. Gr. ii. p. 52.— Valckenar, Diatribe in Eurip. deperditor. dram, reliquias.
Lips. 1824. 8. — Fr. Osann, Epist. ad Matlhiaeom, de nonnuUis fabularum Euripidis deperd. titulis. in IVolfs literar. Analekten
(vol. 2d, p. 527). Beri. 1S20. — In the same work (Analekten, vol. 2d, p. 392), aber den Prologus der DanajE (one of the fragments
above named).— .4. Bockh, Graecse tragcediae principum, .Slschyli, Sophoc. Eurip. nuni ea quae supersunt et genuina omnia sint, et
forma primitiva servata, etc. Heidelb. 1808. 8.—Hardion, sur la tragedie de Rhesus, in Mem. de VAcad. dea Inscr. et B. Lett,
tarn. X.— Class. Journ. iio. ■kWu. — On different plays, Lond. Quart. JJeu. iii. 167. vii. 441. ix. 348. xv. 117.

3. Ancient authors refer to a production of Euripides, styled 'ETriKyjkiov, a funeral song,
in honor of Nicias and others, who perished in the fatal expedition of the Athenians
against Syracuse. There exist also^fe letters ascribed to Euripides.

The letters may be found in the editions of Barnes, Beck, and others.- See SchSll, ii. p. 64. The genuineness of these letters is
discussed in R. Bentley's Dissert upon the epistles of Phalaris, &c. Lond. 1816. first published in TVotton^s Reflect, on Anc. and
Mod. Learning. (Cf. P. IV. 5 29) ; given in Bmtley^s Works, ed. by A. Dyce. Lond. 183S. 3 vols. 8.— Comp. remarks of Beck, iu
the Glasgow edition of Euripides, vol. vii. p. 720.

4. In comparing Euripides and the other two masters in Grecian tragedy, it may be
said, that he ranks first in tragic representation and effect ; Sophocles first in dramaiic
symmetry and ornament ; and ^schylus first in poetic vigor and grandeur. ^Eschylus
was ihe most sublime ; Sophocles the most beautiful ; Euripides the most pathetic.
The first ciisplays the lofty intellect; the second exercises the cultivated taste ; the third



#

p. V. POETS. EURIPIDES. EMPEDOCLES. 475

indulges the feeling heart. Each, as it were, shows you a fine piece of sculpture. In
^schylus, it is a naked hero, with all the strength, boldness, and dignity of olden time.
In Sophocles and Euiipides, it may be perhaps the same hero; but with the former,
he has put on the flowing robes, the elegant address, and the soft urbanity of a polished
age ; with the latter, he is yielding to some melancholy emotion, ever heedless of his
posture or gait, and casting his unvalued drapery negligently about him. They have
been compared by an illustration from another art : " The sublime and daring ^schy-
kis resembles some strong and impregnable castle situated on a rock, whose martial
grandeur awes the beholder ; its battlements defended by heroes, and its gates proudly
hung with trophies. Sophocles appears with splendid dignity, like some imperial palace
of richest architecture, the symmetry of whose parts and the chaste magnificence of the
whole, delight the eye, and command the approbation of the judgment. The pathetic
and moral Euripides hath the solemnity of a Gothic temple, whose storied windows
admit a dim religious hght, enough to show its high embowed roof, and the monuments
of the dead, which rise in every part, impressing our minds with pity and terror at the
uncertain and short duration of human greatness, and with an awful sense of our own
mortality." {Potter.)

On the cliaracter of Euripides and his nTilings, corap. SMegel, Dram. Lit. lect. v.— Char, vornehmst. Dicht. (ci'ed § 61. 2)
vol. V. p. 33d.— Bartlielemy, Anacharsis, cti. hx.—Clodiii3, Versiic'ie aus der Literatur und Mnral. Th. i. p. 72— /V. Jacobs, AlI-
madvers. in Enripidem. Golh. 1"90. 8.— Same, CurK Secunciae in Eurip. Lips. 1796. S.— Levcsqite, Sur les trois Pneles traeiques
de la Grece. Mem. de VInstilut, C 1 asse de Lit. et Btaux Arls, vol. i. p. iib.—F. A. Schnnlher, De Euripide philosopho. Gron.

IS2S. S. Euripides is defended from the common charge of misogj-ny in the work styled Hinlerlaaseite Papiere eints philos.

Land/yredigers, heraus^egeben von K. H. Heydenreich. Lpz. 1798. 8.

5. Y.'i\\\om.—V,.— Variorum, Gr. & Lat. (publisher, Priestley). Glasg. IS21. 9 vols. 8. very highly commended by Dihdin ; the
text of each pUy drawn from the most eminent editor of that play. — Beck, Gr. & Lat. Lips. I77S-SS 3 vols. i.—^Maithta:, Gr. &

La'. Lips. 1813-29. 9 vols. 8. vol. i.-iii. Text; iv. v. Scholia; vi.-viii. Notes; ix. Fragments T.—Princcps, by Aldus. Ven.

1503. 2 vols. S. (or 12. Dibdin.) — There wns an edition of four plays, perhaps earlier, bu^ without date, printed at Florei^ce. Her-

vagiut. Basil, 1537, 1544, 1551. (three editions) 2 vols. ^.—Oprrrinus, Gr. & Lat. Basil, 156:. [o\.—Canlcrus. Antw. 1571. 12.—
Commclin, Gr. & Lat. Heidelb. 1597. 2 vols. 8.— P. Stephanus. Gr. & Lat. Genev. 1602. ■l.—tBames, Gr & Lat. Cantab. IR94,
fol. it eclipsed all preceding editions.— Mus^rarc, Gr. & Lat Oxon. I77S. 4 vols. 4. differently estimated by cri'ics.—Fotdis, Gr.

& Lat Glasg. 1797. 10 vols. 12. K.— £. Zimmermann, Gr. & Lat. Francof. ad M. (Frankfort) lSrS-15. 4 vols. S.—F. H Bothe.

Lips. 1S25. 2 vols. i.—R. Pcrrsan (Hecuba, Orestes, Phoenisss, & Medea). Lend. 1822. 8.— Same, with note^ by Hermann. Lips.

1824. 8.— 5 A J. E. rflugh, in Rost^s Bibliotheca. To deiail editions of single plays would take too much space. Among the

mostcelebra'ededitorsare, G.//rt»ia)iri, Bacchae. Lpz. 1823. Alcestis. Lpz. 1824. Hecuba. Lips. 1831 &e.—f.H7miey,
Bacehae. Lips. 1822. Medea. Oxf. 1818.— i. C. Fa/cAeriar, Phcen issae. (rec. ed.) Lips. 1824.— .f. //. itf-nA, H i ppo ; y-

t u s. Canib. 1829. (cf. Load. Quart. Rev. vol. xv.) Alcestis. Camb. 1818. The following should be noticed : J. R. Major,

(Hecuba. Orestes, Phtei.isfa;, & Medea). Lond. 1833. 8. with Engl, notes.— ^ T. D. Wuolsey, Alcest i s (with the Pr^nelheus ol
./Eschyliis, and the Antigone & Eiectra of Sophocles), in his Selection of Greek Tragedies. Bost. 1837. 2 vols. 12. with Engl, notes;
de igned for Schools and Colleges.— .4. PVitzscliel, Medea. Lips. 1841. 8. pp. 150.— }C. G. Finihaber, Iph igen i a, in A u 1 i s.

Lpz. 1841. 8. pp. 308, with Comm. & Excursuses. The Cyclops separately ; Hopfncr, Lips. 1798. 8.— Cum notis varxo-

rum. Glasg. 18i9. S. Gr. & Lat

6. Translations.— German.— F. H. Bothe. (metr.) Berl. 1800. 5 vols. 8. (new edit. 1837.) French.— P. Prevost. Far. 1783.

3 vols. 8. and in Brumcy's Theatre des Grecs. English.— ij. Potter. Lond. I7&3. 2 vols. 4. and later.- .\f. Ifbodhull. Lond.

1782. 4 vols. 8. 1S02. 3 vols. S.—T. W. C. Edwards, Gr. and Eng. prose. (Mede.i, Hecuba, Phcenis'ae, Alces'is). Lord. 1821-24. 8.
—By a member of the University, (prose). Oxf. 1820-22. 2 vols. 8. including Hecuba, Orestes, PhcEnissae, Medea, Hippolytus, &.
Alcestis.

7. Illustrative.- .4. Matthis, Lexicon Euripideum (continued by C. B. Matthix). Lips. 1841. 8.— C. D. Beck, Index Graecitatis
Euripideae, improved ed. Camb. 1829. 8.— C. Fr. Amman, Diss, de Eurip. Hecuba. Erl. 1788. i.—FV.N. Mrrw, Prog, de Phosnissis
Eur. Ups. 177!. i.—B. BlUmner, Ueber die Medea von Euripides. Lpz. 1790. S.—Botttirwek, de philosophia Euripidea, kc.
in the Commentt. class, hist, et philos Soc. Reg. Scientiar. tom. iv. and in Miscell. Grsec. Dram. Cambridge. — C. A. B6ltiger'$
prolusiones ii. de Medea Eurip. cum priscae artis operibus comparata. Weim. 1S02. 4. — i. W. SclUegel, Conipar. entre la Fhedre
de Racine et celle d'Euripide. Par. 1807. S.—L. Racine & Batteaux, in Mem. de I'Acad. des Inscr. &c. tom. viii. x. iMi.—Henr.
Aug. Zeiliich, Disp. qua nios Graecorum infantes exponendi ex variis scriptor. antiq. maxime Euripidis lone illustratur. Wittenb.
1753. i.—R. P. JoddreU, Uiuslrations on the Alcestis, Ion, and Bacchs. Lond. 1789-90. 3 vols. 8.

§ 64. Empedocles, of Agrigentum in Sicily, who flourished about B. C. 440,
may be mentioned here as a didactic poet. He was one of the most eminent
men in his native land, and distinguished as a philosopher and naturalist.
That from ostentatious pride he threw him.self into the crater of ./Etna, is a
fable; he probably died while journeying in Peloponnesus.

] u. A poem in three books, on the nature of things (Iljpi (pvaec&g tmv oVrwy) is ascribed
to him by ancient authors. It was imitated by Lucretius (cf. ^ 357), and a tragment
of it still remains. Another poem, called the Sphere {YipaTpa) was ascribed to him, but
it is undoubtedly from some later author.

2. Other productions were ascribed to him, particularly a number of verses under the
name of KaOapnot, and a poem called 'larpiKog Xdyoj. Some have considered him as the
author of the so-called golden verses of Pythagoras. In philosophy he was a disciple
of the Itahc or Pythagorean school. His Life is given by Biogews Lacrtius.

For his philosophical views, see Enfield's Hist Phil. bk. ii. ch. xii. § 2. (vol. i. p. 430. Dublin, 1792).— J/ Ritter, in Wolfs Ana-
lekten, vol. ii. p. 41 1.— Coimn's French Trans, of Tennemann^s Hist Phil. vol. i. § 108.— i?. H. C. Lonunatisch, Die Weisheit det
Empedocles, &c. Berl. 1830. 8.

3. Edition?.— B.—Fr W. Stiirz, Empedocles Agrigentinus, &c. Lips. 1805 2 vols. 8. Containing his poetiral fragments, arid
also a view of his life, character, writings, &C.—A. Peyron, Empedoclis et Parmenidis Fragmenla. Lips. 1810. 8. The poem



476 HISTORY OF GREEK LITERATURE.

of the Sphe-e was published by F Morel (Par. B84. 4), as the work of Dem. Tridinius, probably author of the copy ♦hat f»U ioto
the hands of Morel. Shortly after (1587. 4) a Latin translation by Q. Sept. Florent. Christianus.—Tbe original and the translation
by B. Htderich. Dresd. 171 1. 4.— Both found also in Fabridus, (Harles ed.) vol. i. p. 816.

§ 65. Aristophanes lived at Athens about B. C. 430. His native place is not
certainly kn(»wn. He is the only comic poet of the Greeks, from whom any
complete plays now remain. Aristophanes possessed a very fertile g^enius, a
lively wit, true comic power, ^d Attic elegance. We are obliged, however,
to charge him with bitter personal satire, and ridicule of worthy men, especially
of Socrates and Euripides. This, it is true, was in accordance with the charac-
ter of Grecian comedy at that time, as was also his abundant contempt for the
common religious belief. His plays furnish a valuable means of learning the
state of manners and morals among the Greeks in his age.

1. He was probably a native of .T^sina. He is supposed to have died about 380 B C, at the

age of 80. mdi. Friaclilin, Life of Aristoph. prefi-xed to Kuster's edition, cited below.— Fuhr

viann, Klein. Handbuch, p. 1G3.

2 u. Of move than fifty comedies written by him, only eleven are extant. They are
styled, 'Axa^vsTi. the Acharnians; 'IrTrs??, Knights; lSi:<pt\ai, Clouds; '^(prjKcg, Wasps;
Eipfivri, Peace; "OpviOeg, Birds; Amiarftarri, Lysistrala; kiEapLmpopia^omai, Females keeping
the festival GE<Jno<p6pia (in honor of Ceres) ; Bdrpaxoi, Frogs ; 'EKKXricyid^oviai, Females in
Assembly; UXovTog, Pluf us, god oi riches.

3. In the 'AxapvcTg, the author attacks Euripides, and in the eeaiiocpopia'^ovijat and Ba-
TpaxoL also brings him particularly into view. It is in the N£(pt'Xai that Socrates is ridi-
culed ; many have supposed that the poet merely intended to ridicule, under the name
of Socrates, the sophists in general, and that this play had little or no influence in
reference to the trial and condemnation of that philosopher.

Schlegd, Dram. Lit. lect. vi. vol. 1. p. 203.— Schtll, Hist. Lit. Gr. vol. ii. p. 9i.— .Mitchell, in the Introduction to his Translation.
(Of. Bdinb. Rev. vol. xxxiv. North Amer. Rev. vol. xiv. London Quarterly, vol. xi.ii\.)— Harles, de Consilio Aristoph. in scri-
bend, comojd. Avbes inscripta. Erlang. 1787.— Remarks on Aristophanes, and that pirt of his life which relates to Socrates.
Lond. 1786. 8.— Fnr a view of the character of Aristophanes and his vrritings, we add CharaU. vornehmst. Dicht. (cited § 61. 2.)
vol. vii. p. 113. — Lond. Quart. Rev. vol. is. p. 141. — Boivin, in the Mem. de Vjicad. des hucr. iv. 549. — Leleau, in theiomeifli.
Xix. 29. and Dutheil, xxxix. 203.— ieutsgue, in Mem. de Vlnstilut, C 1 as s e de Lit. et Beaux Arts, vol. i. p. 344.

4. Editions. B.— * Imm. Bekker, Gr. & La-t. Lond. 1829. 5 vols. 8. V?ith Scholia, various readings, and notes of different

critics.— 5ru?icft, Gr. & Lat. Strasb. 1783. 4 vols. S. Repr. Oxf. 18 1 1. 4 vols. 8. wilh the Lexicon Arislophaneum of J. Sanxay, as
5th vol—lnvtrniz. Beck, & Dindorf. Lips. 1795-1834. 13 vols. 8. Vol. i. ii. Text ; iii.-ix. Notes; x.- xii. Scholia; xiii. Latin

version, wilh MitchdVs Proleg. T.—Princeps, by Aldus, {Marc. Musurus ed.) Van. 1498. f"l. cum Schol. (9 cnn.edies.)— /un»a.

Flor. 1515. 8; 1525. 4. (ed fianomu.)— Cra(a?irfnts (ed. S. Grynseus). Basil, H32. 4. (F<rsJ containing 11 comedies.)- ^an-
netli. Ven. 1538. S.—Froben. Basil, 1547. fol.— A^tc. Fnschlin, Gr. & Lat. Francof. ad M. 1597. 8.— .aSmti. Portm, Gr. & Lat.
Aural. Allobr. 1607. fol.— iud. Kuster, Gr. & Lat. Amst. 1710. fol. Very highly esteemed.- .Bergier, rather P. Burman (vritb

notes of S. Bergler and C. Duker)), Gr. & Lat. Lug. Bat. 1760. 2 vols. 4. R.— C. G. Schutz. Lpz. 1821. 8. Commenced;

never finished.— ScAS/fr. Lpz. I8ia 2 vols. 8.—F. H. Bothe. Lpz. 1830, 1831. 4 vols. %.—T. Mitchell, Acharnenses, Aves, & Vespje,
with English notes. Lond. IS35. 8. — Editions of separate plays cannot here be cited ; by Melanclhon, Hemsterhuis, Harles, Kuinol,
Hermann, HOpfner, Elmsley, Beck, Wolf, &c.; we name only § C. C. Fdton, Clouds. Camb. 1841. 12.

5. Tianslalions. — German. — J, H. I-'oss, with notes. Braunschw. 1821. 3 vols. 8. Commended by Fuhrmann. French. — L.

Poinsinet de S'vry. Par. 1784. 4 vol?. 8.— .4. C. Brotier, in the Theatre des Grecs. Italian.— 5. ^ P. Rositini. Ven. 1544. 8.

English. — Th. Mitchdl. Camb. 1817. 3 vols. 8. with valuable notes and preliminary dissertations. — Cumberland (and others),

Of the Clouds, Plutus, Fro?s, and Birds. Lond. 1812.

6. Illustrative.— i2ei>i|:, Conjectaneorum in Aristoph. Lib. ii. Lips. 1816. 8.— P. F. Kanngiesser, cited § 41.— X G. Willa-
mow, de Eihopceia comica Aristoph. Berl. 1766. 8.—/. Floder, Diss, explicans Antiquites Aristophaneas. Ups. I76S. 4.— The
fragment of Plutarch containing a comparison of Aristophanes and Menander.— .4u?. Seidler, de Aristoph. fragmentis. Halle,
Sax. 1818. i.— Class. Jour. No. xxviii.— C. A. Bott'ger, Aristophanes inipunitus Deorum irrisor. Lips. 1790. S.—P. Dobree, Aria-
tophanica Porsoni. Cant. 1820. 8.— C. Passow, Apparatus crit. ad Aristoph. Lips. 1828. 12.— X Caravdia, Index Aristopbani-
cus, &c. Oxf. 1824. 8.—H. J. Rotsclier, Aristophanes und sein Zeitalter. Berl. 1827. S.—C. F. H>.Tinann, De persona Nicia
apud Aristoph. Marb. 1835. 4.

§ 66. Menander, born at Athens about B. C. 342, one of the later comic poets
of the Greeks. He wrote numerous comedies (§ 43), of which we possess only
slight fragments. The loss of Menander is the more regretted on account of the
praise bestowed on him by Quintilian (x. 1). Some idea of his manner may
be obtained, however, from the imitations of him in Terence. Philemon is usu-
ally named in connection with Menander, as a contemporary and rival.

1. Menander died at the age of about 50 ; Philemon, a native according to some of
Sicily, but according to others of Cihcia, hved to the great age of 97 or 99. The former
was rather a voluptuary ; the latter was particularly temperate.

De Roctiefurt, on Menander, Mem. Acad. Inscr. vol. xlvi. p. \S3.—Schlegel'i Dram. Lit. lect. nn.—Dunlop, as cited P. IV.
§ 109. 2.

■i. Editions.— B.—jJ. C. Meineche. Berl. 1823. 8. Fragments of Menander and Philemon ; wilh Bentley's emendations.

They are ff.und in the collections cited § 43. That of Le Clerc occasioned a bitter literary war. {SchSll, iii. p. 82. Harles, Int. i.
?>, 489. Rrev. Not. p. 226.)—/. G. Schneider. Vratisl. 1812. 8. with .Esop's Fables.

§ 67. Lycophron^ a poet and grammarian, born at Chalcis in Eubcea, flourish-



#

p. V. POETS. LYCOPHRON. THEOCRITUS. 477

ed in the time of Ptolemy Philadelphus, B. C. about 284. His performance
styled 'AXs^dvSfia, Alexandra or Cassandra, was improperly ranked in the class
of tragedies; it is a monologue or monodrama, in which Cassandra predicts to
Priam the fate of Troy. This topic is interwoven with many others, pertaining
to the history and mythology of different nations, so as to render the poem ob-
scure and heavy.

1. Lycophron was a writer of tragedies, and was ranked among the Pleiades (cf ^ 40).
A work also on the subject oi covudy, Ylspi Kcoixon^iag, was written by him. The loss of
the latter is more regretted than the loss of his dramatic pieces. The grammarians of
Alexandria collected a mass of materials illustrating his Cassandra, from which John
Tzetzes compiled a large commentary. iSchbll, iii. p. 96. )

2. Ediiious— B.— CA. G. MiUler. Lips. 18!2. 3 vols. 8. with the Scholia of Tzetzes. (Cf. Dibdin, ii. p. 211. Schmi, iii. 106.)
~L. Bachmann. Lpz. 1830. 8. ¥—Pri>iceps, by Mdus. Ven. 1513. 8. With Pindar and Callinnchu'i.— i^Li-ari/ho or P.

Lacisius. Basil, 1546. fol. (Cf. Dibdin, ii. p. 208.)— f^ Canter. Basil, 1566. 4. With brief notes and two Latin trauslaiions, one
ID prose by Canter, the other in verse by Jos. Scatiger—XJ. Potttr, Gr. & Lat. Oxf. 1702. Much celebrated.— t H. G. Ruchard,
Gr. & Lat. Lips. 1789. 2 vols. 8. Ji. Sebastian, Gr. & Lat. Rom. 1803. 4. Commended by Dibdin.

3. An English version of Lycophron by Royston, Class. Jour. xiii. xiv.

§ 68. Theocritus^ a native of Syracuse, flourished in the time of Ptolemy
Philadelphus, and in the reign of the second Hiero, B. C. about -275. We
have under his name thirty Idyls, '^ihvT.'kia, some of which are probably not
genuine, and also twenty-two smaller pieces, chiefly epigrams. He was the
most distinguished of ancient authors in the department of pastoral poetry.
Virgil followed him as a master and model, but was his inferior in simplicity
and fidelity to nature.

1. We cannot assert what induced Theocritus to remove from Syracuse to Alexan-
dria, where he certainly spent part of his life. Some have siated that certain satires
composed by him against Hiero exposed him to the vengeance of that monarch.
Where and when he died is not known, although it has been supposed that he returned
to Sicily and suffered a violent death from the vengeance of Hiero.

Of. Life of Theocritus in Polwhele, as cited below (5).— Also For. Quart. Rev. Oct. 1842. p. 161.

2. The nature of the Greek Idyl has already been e.xhibited (§ 30). The Idyls of
Theocrhus are not confined to pastoral subjects. Of the thirty ascribed to him, only
fifteen can properly be considered as bucolic or pastoral; viz. the first 9 and the 11th,
considered by all as genuine bucolics, and the 10th, 20th, 21st, 23d, and 27th, which
may be put in the same class. Five are mythological, viz. the 13th, 22d, 24th, 25th,
and 26th. Three have been termed epistolary/, 12th, 28th, and 29th, bearing a shght
resemblance to the epistles of Ovid, but having less of the elegiac character. They
are called lyric by Scholl. Two may be denominated co?nic, the 14th and 15th. The
latter, I.i'paKovcnat, the Syraciisan Gossips, has no more of the pastoral in its tone than
a scene from Aristophanes (cf. § 46). Two others may be styled panegyrical, the 16th
and 17th. And there are two in the collection, 19th and 36th, wuich may properly
enough perhaps be called Anacreontic, being mere imitations of the lighter odes of
Anacreon. The remaining one, 18th, is a genuine epithalamium, according to its title,
'EXifrii andaXanio;. — The reputation of Theocrhus is built on his Idyls. The epigrams
would scarcely have preserved his name from obhvion. — One piece of a peculiar cha-



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