Johann Joachim Eschenburg.

Manual of classical literature : from the German of J.J. Eschenburg, with additions online

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racter remains, termed the St'piyJ, consisting of 21 verses so arranged as to form a
resemblance to the pipe of the god Pan. In the ^Alexandrine age there was a depraved
fondness for such odd and fanciful devices, in which the poet's hnes represented the form
of eggs, axes, wings, or altars.

E. Bepner, De Theoc. Idyll, generibus. Berl. 1836. 4. pp. 19.— £. Reinhold, De genuin. Theo. carminibus. Jen. 1819. 8.^—
For the character of Theocritus, see Elton's Specimens of Classic Poets. — Charakt. der vom. Dichter, i. p. 89. — C. IV, AMwardt,
tar Erklarung der Idyll. Theokrits, Rostock, 1792. S.—Eichstadt, Adumb. quaest. de carm, Theocr. indole ac virtuiibus. Lips.
1794. ^.—Harditm, De Theocr. in the Mem. de VAcad. des Inscr. iv. 520.

3. The epithalfimhim of Helen has been thought to resemble the Sono- of Solomon, and some have
supposed that Theocritus imitated the latter. SchoII opposes thi.*! idea, althouffh there are pas-
sages in the Idyls containing imagery which might have been drawn from the Scriptures. The

Septuasint version was made in the time of Theocmus. Cnmp. Idvl. xxiv. 84, with Tsuiah,

Ixv. 25 and xi. 6; Id. xviii. 26-28 with Sol. Song, i. 9 and vi. 10; Id. xx. 26 with Sol. Song, iv. 11;
Id. xxiii. 23-26 with Sol. Song, viii. 6, 7.

See SchCU, vol. iii. p. 146.— S. Matter, Essai sur I'Ecole d'Alexandrie. Par. 1820. 2 vols. 8. Ch. Fr. Staudlin, Theokrits
Idyll, und das hohe Lied verglichen, in Pauhti, Memorabilien, vol. ii. p. 162.

4. Editions.— B.—r/i. Kiasling, Gr. & Lat. Lips. 1819. 8. " Perhaps the very best up to the time of its publication." Dildin
— Jacobs. Halae, (commenced) 1824. 8. Promising to be most ample.— £. F. ll'Ustemaim. Golhae, 1830. 8. pp. 435, "ilh notes
on each page ; prepared with the assistance of Fr. Jacobs, and forming a volume of his BiUioth. cited § 7. 1. " Best for Amer, stu-
dent."-,/. B. Gnil. Par. 1795. 3 vols. 4. with French version, and plates. New ed. 1828. 2 vols. 8. and volume of phfes, 4 —
Of previous editions, the best are, Th. Wartm, Oxf. 1770. 2 vols. 4, and L. C. FalckenUr, Gr. & Lat. Lugd. Bat. 1779. 8. repr.

(ed. Heindorf,) Berl. 1810. 2 vols. 8. V.—Princtps (18 Idyls, with Works and Days of Hesiod). Milan, MftS. fol. tme and

place known onlv by conjecture. Dibdin.— Second, by jildus (with Hesiod). Ven. )495. fo\.— Junta. Flor. 1515. 1540. 8.



CaUierguifCam Schol. Rom. 1'16. 8. Thought to be the second Greek! ook printed at Rome.— M>rcl. Par. 1561. i.—H.S'.phama,
Par. 1566. In Poet. Pnnc. cited § 47 t. and 1579. 12. Gr. & Lat With Bion and Moschus.— C Hdnsius, Gr. & Lat. Heid.
1604. 4. Repr. Oxf. 1676. 8. Lond. 1729. 8. 1758. 8.—MaTtinus. Gr. & Lat. Lond. 1760. S.—Re<ske, Gr. & Lat. Lips. 1765.
2 vols. 4.—F. A- Stroth. Goths, 1780. 8. Particularly ralued for its illustrations of terms and phrases pertaining to botany and
natural history. Dibdin. 4th ed. by Stroth and /ocofcj (for schools). GoIhE, 1821. ^.—TSodcmi (ed. B. Zamagna). Farmae,

1791. 2 vols. 8. Wi'h Latin version. " Edition du luxe." Saibll. R.—DahL Lips. 1804. 8.— G. G. Sc/ia/tr. Lips. 1810.

fol. Splendid; on basis of Valckenar's - L. F. Heindorf. Berl. 1810. 2 ?ols. 8. Including Bion and Moschus, with notes of
Valckenar, Brunck, and Troup.— 7. G£ct Amsterd. 1820. 8.— 2"//. irtfgs, Poelae BucoU Graeci. Cambr. 1S2I. 2 vols. 8 Theocr.
Bion, & Mosch. with Lat. Version.
5. Translations.— German.— Anftensfei'n, .drethusi, oder die bukol. Dichter des Alterthums. Berl. 1806. 8. Containing a Life

of Theoc— /. H. l^uss. Tabing. 1808. 8. French.— CAatojion. Par. 1777. 8.— Gin. Par. 1788. 2 vols. 8. Italian.—.^. M.

Salvmi. Ven. 1718. 12. With annot. by Damarais. Aret. 1754. 8. English.— £. £. Greene. Lond. 1767. 8.—R. PolwMe,

(with Bion and. Moschus). Lond. 1792. 2 vols. 8.— F. Faiufcej. Lond. 1767. 8.

§ 69. Bion of Smyrna, and Moschus of Syracuse, were contemporary with
Theocritus, as is generally supposed. The Idyls of Moschus belong rather to
descriptive than to pastoral poetry, properly speaking; they have more refine-
ment, with less of natural simplicity, than the pieces of Theocritus. The
Seizure of Eur opa is the most beautiful. The Idyls of Bion contain elegant
passages; but they savor too much of art, and are wanting in the freedom
and naivete of Theocritus. His principal piece is the funeral song in honor of

1. Some have placed the dates of these poets considerably later than the time of
Theocritus. Their era is perhaps a matter of real doubt.

Manso, Abh. von Bion'sLeben, in his edition ci'ed belo\v, 3.

2. There remain of Moschus four Idyls, and a few smaller pieces ; of Bion, besides
the piece above named, only some short Idyls, and a fragment of a longer one. These
pieces have usually been published in connection with those of Theocritus ; and an-
ciently they were in fact confounded with them.

Schm, iii. p. 175.— C. F. Grdfe, Epistolse crit. in Bucolicos Graecos. Petropoli, 1815. 4.

3. Editions.— B.—/acois, Gr. & Lat. Golhje, 1795. 8.— /. C. f. Manjo. Lpz. new ed. 1807. 8. Gr. & Germ, with notes. The
Isted. 17^. inferior.— With Theocritus. Lond. 1826. 2 vols. 8. Gr. & Lat. with Greek Scholia, and notes from Keissling, Heindorf,

bc—Valchendr, with Theocritus, cited § 68. 4. T.—Princeps, in Aldus, with Theocr. Ven. 1495. fol.— The first ed. of B. and

M. separate from Theocr. was by Mekerchis. Brug. Fl. 1565. i.—FuIcaniita, Gr. & Lat. with Cailimachus. Antw. 1584. 12.—
Beskin, Gr. & Lat. Oxf. 1748.— Sc/iier. Lips. \~52.— Wakefield. Lond. 1795. Without accents.

4. Translations.- German.- iVfanjo, as just cited. French.— 7. B. Gail. Par. 1794. 12. English. — Greene and PolwheU,

cited § 68. 5.

§ 70. Cailimachus, of Cyrene in Lybia, flourished B. C. about 260. He was
a historian and grammarian, at Alexandria, patronized by Ptolemy Philadelphus,
and by him placed in the Museum (cf. P. IV. § 74). Of his many writings we
have only six hymns, some smaller poems, and a considerable number of frag-
ments. His hymns exhibit more of study and artificial effort than of true
poetical spirit. Quintilian, however, ranks him as the first elegiac poet of the
Greeks; and he certainly was imitated by the Roman Propertius.

1. The Hymns of Cailimachus are in elegiac verse. Five are in the Ionic, one in
the Doric dialect. That addressed to Ceres is judged the best. Besides these, he
composed Elegies, which were regarded as the chief ground of his reputation; but of
which only fragments remain. Another class of his pieces consisted of Epigrams, of
which nearly 80 remain. Strabo refers to his Iambics and Choliamhics, and some frag-
ments of these still exist. Among his poetical works are named also three little poems;
viz. A'iriai, on the causes of fable, custom, &c. ; 'E/caX??, on the hospitality shown by an
old female to Theseus, on his way against the bull of Marathon ; and '!/?£?, a poem
directed against one of his pupils charged with ingratitude. Many prose works were
written by this grammarian and professed teacher ; '^-^onv-finara. Memoirs or Commen-
taries ; Kri(7£(j vriiTciv Kai trdXcuii', Settlements of islands and cities ; Qa'fuiaia, on the won-
ders of the world ; Mo'>aETov, an account of the Museum at Alexandria ; liival -avroSaTruv
ffvyypa^ijj.arw a sort o{ universal Tableau of Letters, in 120 books, containing an account
of authors in every department, methodically arranged, the first example probably of a
history of hterature. Some of thosV performances, which were styled AiJac-^aXi'at (cf.
^ 47), are also ascribed to him. All these works are lost.

Cf. S'-Mll, iii. p. 109.— Por/e Dntheil, in Mem. Acad. Inter, vol. xxix. 185.

2. Editions.— B.-£ni^s(.-, Gr. & Lat. Lug. Eat. 1761. 2 vols. 8.— C J. Blrmfitld, Lond. 1815. S.—Fr. M. Voider, Lpz. 1817. 8,
(ontaming the Hymns and Epigrams ; a good school edition. Voider promised a grand edition of all the remains of Cailimachus.

— C GOttline, Go'h. 1835. 8 in RosVs Bibliotheca.— Fo!ctojar» Fragments of the Elegies, by iuzoc. Leyd. 1799. 8. F.—

Pnnccpa. of J. LaKar, Flor. 1495. 4. in capitals; called by Dibdm, the edition of Alopa, being the 4th of the 5 extremely rare
works printed in capitals by L. Fr. de Alopa.—Frohen, Basil. 1532. i.—Robortdlus, Gr. & Lat. Ven. 1555. i.—H. Slephamu,
Gr. & Genev. 1577. 4.—Faber (Anne le Fever, afterwards Madame Dacier). Lutet. Paris, 1674. 8. Gr. & Lat. Her first
effort in editing.— J Grauiuj, Gr. & Lat. Ultraj. (Utrecht) 1697. 2 vols. 8.-7". Bentley, Gr. & Lat Lond. 1741. 8. Cf. Mus. Crit.
lu p. 150. Clafs. Journ. ix. p. 35— Foidis, Glasg. 1753. (oh— Bandini, Gr. Lat. & Ital Flor. 1763. 8.—Bi>doni, Parm. 17^. fol.
iQ capitals ■^ith an Italian version.


3. Translations.— Germin,—C. Schwenk. Bonn, 1821. 8.—.iMwardt, (metr.) Berl. 1794. 8. French.— G. la Porte du Theil,

Par. 1775. 8.— P. R/todel, with Lat. vers. Par. 1808. 8. English.- H^ Dodd. Lond. 1755. 4.—B. W. Tytler, Gr. & Eng.

Lond. 1793. 4.

4. Illustrative.— C. G. GSttling. Animadv. crit. in Callini. Epigranimala. Jen. 1811. 8 — J. G. Ziarlein, Disp. de ingenio
Callim. Hall. 1770. i.—Nachtrdge zu Suiter's Thtorie, otherwise styled CharcMtrt der vomehrruttn DiclUer (cited § 61. 2.),
vol. ii. p. 86.

5. Fhiletas of Cos, in the time of Alexander the Great, is sometimes mentioned in
connection and comparison with Callimachus (cf. $ 29) as an elegiac poet.

The fragmenis of his Elegies were published separately by C. Ph. Kayser, Goit. 1793. 8.— i\'. Bach, Hal. 1829. 8.

§ 71. Aratus of Soli, afterwards called Pompeiolis, in Cilicia, flourished B. C.
about 278. At the request of Antigonus, king of Macedon, he wrote an astro-
nomical poem under the title of ^aLvo^^va xal Aionrj^slai. It was not strictly
an original, as the request of the king his patron was, that he should clothe in
verse two treatises, the '"EroTt'tpov and the ^aii/o^fi'a, of Eudoxus. This poem
is memorable on account of Cicero's metrical translation of it. Of this transla-
tion, however, only slight fragments remain. It was translated into Latin verse
also by Cagsar Germanicus, and by Festus Avienus. That of Avienus and a
part of the other are still extant.

1. The poem of Aratus was much esteemed by the ancients. Cf. Ov. Amor. i. 15.
V. 16. Quint. X. 1. 55. Although he is charged with knowing but little on the subject
of astronomy, many of the mathematicians wrote commentaries on his work ; foiLr of
these are yet in existence. Dtlambre (Hist. Astr. Anc. i. p. 74) remarks that Aratus
has preserved nearly all that the Greeks knew of the science, at least so far as it could
oe told in verse. Scholl, iii. 137.

2. There are three anonymous lives of Aratus, besides the notice of Suidas. On the
'ater didactic poets of the Greeks, Aratus, Nicander, and Oppian; we may refer to the
t^achfrilge zu Sulzer (cf. § 70. 4), vol. vi. p. 350.

3. Editions.- B — J. G. Buhle, Gr. & Lat. Lpz. 1793-1801. 2 vols. S. containing tlie versions of Germanicus and Avienus ; also
eonCms de Sphiera.—F. Ch. Malthis. Frankf. 1817. 8. with Eratosthenes, Dionysius, and Avienus. F.—Priticeps, by .Sldus,

D the .Sflrpriomi I'eteres. Ven. 1499. 2 vols. fol. Cf. Schdll, i- p. 50. la^T.—MicylH, Gr. & Lat. Basil, 1535. {oX.—yaldtriis.
Ja«. 1536. 4.— rohViOTU. Par. 1540. 8.— G. Mortll. Par. 1559. 2 vols. i.—Grotius, Gr & Lat. Leyd. 1600. 4. among the more
prominent of early ediions ; the editor at the time, but sixteen years of age. — /. Fdl. Oxf. 1672. 8. with the Karao-Ttcttr/io^ of
Eratosthenes. Repr. Oxf 1801. 8. (Cf. § 215 )-£a7idim, Gr & Lat. Flor. 1765. 8. with Ital. metr. vers, by Sa2mnt. Not

highly esteemed. VL.—Th. Foster. Lond. 1813. 8. value not kaown.—Mle Halnta, with French trans. Par. 1S23. 4. with Iha

version of Germanicus, and Scholia of Theon ; also the Calaslerisms of Eratosthenes, and the Sphere of Leontius.— /. H. Voss, Gr.
&Germ. Heidelb. 1S24. S.—Ph. Bttttmann. Berl. 1826. 8.—I. Bekker. Berl 1828. 8.

4. Translations.- French.— ffalma, just cited. German. — Foj», just cited.— G. S. Falle, in the Berliner Monatschrift, 1806.

Feb. & Aug. 1S07. Feb. & Mar. On a curious MS. of Cicero's translation, see P. IV. § 142. 2.

§ 72. CJeanthes of Assus in Troas, having been for many years a disciple of
Zeno, at length succeeded him as teacher in the Stoic school at Athens, B. C
264. Of his numerous writings nothing remains but an admirable Hymn to

1. Cleanthes received the name ^psdi/rXr/s from the circumstance that, in order to
enable himself, being poor, to attend the schools of philosophy by day, he spent part
of the night in drawing water, as a laborer in the gardens of the city. He is said to
have died at the age of 80 or 90, by voluntary starvation. The Hymn, which still
keeps alive his memory, is in hexameter verse, and contains some exalted views of a
Supreme Divinity; Philip Doddridge says, it "is perhaps the finest piece of pure and
unadulterated natural religion to be ibund in the whole htaihen world."

Enfield's Hist. Philns cileJ 5 61 2. vol. i. p. aiG.— Scholl, Gr. Litf. iii. 335.— Diog. Laert. Lives of Philosopliers.— /. F. B.
Schwahe, Specimen theologiae comparativae, exhibens K\idv8ovs t'lMvov tlj A('a cum disciplina Christiana comparatum, etc. Jeu.
1SI9. 4.

2. Editions.— B.—G. Ch. M'mike, Cleanthes der Stoiker. Greifsw. 1814. 8.—H. H. CluditD. GOtt. 1786. 8. Gr. & Germ, with

notes —F. W, Stvrz. Lips. 1785. 4. The Hymn was first published by FiUv. Orsirms, Carmina novem illust. feminarum, etc

Antw. 1568. 8.— Again in H. Slephanus, Poesis Philns. cited § 47f.— In R. Cudworth, Intellect. Syst. of the Univ. Lond. 1678. fol.
p. 432, with a Latin metrical version by Duport.—lu Brunch's Analekta (ct. § 35) and Gnom. Poet (cf. ^ 31) and in other coliec-

3. An Enarlish metrical version is given in fVest's Pindar, cited § 60.

§ 73. JpoIIomus Rhodius, B. C. about 125, was a native of Naucratis, or per-
haps of Alexandria, in Egypt. The name Rhodius was occasioned by his
residence at Rhodes, where he for a time taught rhetoric. He was a pupil of
Callimachus, and became the librarian at Alexandria.

1. A bitter enmity existed between Apollonius and Callimachus until the death of
the latter. Apollonius is said to have retired from Alexandria to Rhodes, from inorti
fication at having been hissed by the partisans of Callimachus at the public reading of


his Argonautics. It was at a subsequent period that lie was appointed keeper of the
Alexandrian library, being successor to Eratosthenes.

There are four ancient biographies of ApoUonius in Greek. — See A. IVtichert, Ueber das Leben und Gedicht des Apollouius von
Ehodus. Meissen, 1821. 8. Lpz. 1828. 8.

2 u. His chief work was an epic poem, ' ApyovavriKa, on the Expedition of the Argo-
nauts. He imitated Homer, with talents much inferior. His poem, however, evinces
great application, and has some beautiful passages, particularly the episode on the
passion of Medea. Yet in poetical genius and style he is rather surpassed by his
imitator among the Romans, Valerius Flaccus.

3. The poem of ApoUonius consists of lour books or cantos. The critics do not agree
in their estimate of its worth, nor as to the comparative merits of the Greek original
and the Roman imitation by Valerius. SchciU pronounces the latter superior to its
model, in agreement with the remark of Esehenburg above. But in the edition of
Eschenburg's work published after his death, the opposite is asserted.

Schm, vol. iii. p. 1 \7.—Groddeck, in the Bibliolheh der alien Literatur und Kunst, St. 2, p. e\ .—Charaltere voniehnut. Dicht.
vol. vi. p. 1S9.— 0. Th. Block, Diss, de carm. epic. ApoU. Rhodii. Havn. 1792. 8.— Qumti7. x. 1. 54 — D. JBalfoordt, De ApoUon,
Rhodii lauJe poelica. Traj. 1825. S.—A. JVtichert, Ueber das Leben &c. as above cited.

4 Editions.— B.— rrcHauer. Lips. 1828. 2 vols. S.—Sch'dfer. Lips. 1810-13. 2 vols. 8. with Brunck's notes; and scholia.—

3eck, Or. & Lat. Lips. 1797. 2 vols. 8. Princeps, of Fr. de Alopa (cur. J. Lascaris). Flor. 1496. 4. in capitals.-^Mus. Ven.

1521. 8.—Brulachius. Francof. 1546. S.—Rottnarm, Gr. & Lat. Eas. 1572. S.—H. Slephaniis. Genev. 1574. 4.— Elzevir (ed.
mizlin). Gr. & Lat. Lug. B;»t. 1641. 8.—/. Shaw. Oxf. 1777. 2 vols. i.—Flangi7ii, Gr. & Ital. Kom. 1794. 2 vols. 4. with
plates; elegant.— HoViM, school ed. Erunsiv. 1806. 8.

5. Translations. — German.-/. J. Bodmer. Zttrich, 1779. 8. French. — J. J. A. Caussin. Par. 1797. 8. highly praised.^—

English.— Jr. Fawket. Lend. 1780. 2 vols. 8.

§ 74. Nicander, born at Colophon in Ionia, lived about B. C. 146. He was
a physician, grammarian, and poet.

1 u. There remain from him two poems in hexameter, termed OripiaKa and WXc^Kpap.
fiava ; the former treating of venomous animals, and remedies for wounds from them ;
the latter, of antidotes to poisons in general. His TciopyiKa, Georgics, and AinAiKa,
Things pertaining to ^tolia, are lost. The two former possess no great merit either
as poems or as treatises of natural science, (cf § 32). The schoha oi Eutecnius upon
them are of much value, particularly as illustrating the history of medicine.

2. Nicander wrote also, as has been before noticed ($ 32), a work styled metamorphoses, which
fe wholly ]ost.—Scholl, iii. lil.— Charaktere vornehmst. Dicht. vi. p. 373.

3. EJilions.— B.— ALEXIPHARMACA- /. G. Schneider, Gr. & I^t. Hal. 1792. 8. with paraphrase of Eulecnius.— THE-

RIACA. /. G. Schneider, Gr. & Lat. Lips. 1816. 8. with paraph, of Eutecnius. F.—Priivxps, Aldui. Ven. 1199. fol. with

Dioscorides.—J. Soter. Cologne, 1530. 4. — Gorrsus {Mcrtl print.), Gr. & Lat. Par. 1557. 3 vols. 4. uniting the two pnems as
tdited separately by him in 1549 and 1556. — Bandini, Gr. Lat. & Hal. Flor. 1764. 8. with the scholia or paraphrase of Eutecnius.

§ 75. Oppian, of Cor3'eus in Cilicia, a later Greek poet, lived as is supposed
under the emperors Marcus Aurelius and Commodus, in the latter part of the
2d century after Christ.

1 71. Under his name we have two didactic poems ; '.Wiev-iKa, on fshin;:. in five
books; and KwrjY£rtKa, on hnntiris, m four books. The former excels the latter both,
in thought and style. This circumstance has furnished some ground for ascribing them
to different authors of the same name. The latter has been ascribed to an Oppian of
Apamea in Syria, who lived under Caracalla, in the beginning of the 3d century.

2. The hypothesis of two poets by the name of Oppian, father and son, or uncle and nephew,
was advanced by Schneider, in 1776, in his edition of the poems. In 1786 it was attacked by Belin
de ballu. in an edition of the poem on the chase. .Schneider, in a new edition, 1613, still main-
tained his hypothesis. — Scholl, vol. iv. p. lO.— Charakt. vorn. Dicht. vol. vi. p. 379.

3. The poem 'I^evtikcl, on fowling, generally ascribed to Oppian, is lost; but there is
extant a commentary upon it, by Eutecnius.

This commentary was published by E. Winding, Gr. & Lat. Copenh. 1702. 8.

4. Editions.— B.—X G. Schneider, Gr. & Lat. Lips. 1813. ed. Schafer. T.—Princep), by B. Juntcu Flor. 1515. 8. only the

Balieutica.— Aldus, Gr. & Lat. Ven. 1517. S.—TumtUis. Par. 1555. i.—Rittershusii. Lug. Bat. 1597. 8. Gr. & Lat. with a
proem on the life and writings of Oppian.— 5. de Ballu, Gr. & Lat. Argent. 1786. 8. Cynegetica only.

5. Translations.— Of the Cy n c g- e « i c a.— German.— C. G. LieberkUhn. Lpz. 1755. 8. French.— SeZm de Ballu, Gr. k Lat.

Argent. 1787. 8. Italian.— .4. M. Salvini. Flor. 1728. 8. English.— M. Sommervillc. Lend. 1788. 8. Of the Halittf

lico.— English— By Dnapper Sf Jones. Oxf. 1722. 1751. 8. See .imeilhon, sur le psche des Anciens, as cited P. III. § 58.

§ 76. Nonnus, of Panopolis in Egypt, flourished probably in the beginning
of the 5th century; originally a pagan, afterwards converted to Christianity.
Little or nothing is known of his history.

1 u. Two works by him are extant ; one, the AiowaiaKa, on the deeds of Bacchus, in
forty-eight books, of various contents, without much order or connection, in a style not
generally easy or natural ; the other, a poetical, or as he terms it, epical paraphrase of
the Gospel of John, prohx and bombastic.

2. The Dionysiaca of Nonnus has been ranked among epic poems, but perhaps not


with strict proprrety (cf. ^ 20). It is a storehouse of mythological traditions. Pome
learned men, as Falckenburg and Julius C. Scaliger, have highly praised, while others,
as Nicholas Heinsius and Joseph Scaliger, have as strongly condemned it.

Sclioll, vi. 79.— J. A. Weichat, de Nnnno Fanopolitano. Viteb. 1810. \.—N\c Schoio, Commeot de indole carminis Nonni, etc.
Havn. }S01.—Oiiv^aroff, Nonnus der Dichter. Petmp. 1817. 4.

3. Editions— (a) Of the D i o Ji y s i a c a.—B.—Fr. Grdfe. Lpz. 1819-26. 2 vols. 8. containing the text. A 3d vol. is expected,
vith a version, and full commentary. A part of the lalh bk. was published by F. Grdje, with the title of Hymni et Niheia (Gr. &

Germ.). Petropol. 1SI3. 8. F.—Princeps, by G. falckaiburg, from a manuscript now at Vienna. Antw. 1569. 4. Repr. by

mchel (with a poo? transl. by Lubin). Hanov. 1605. 8; to this edition was afterwards joined (wilh a new title-pa^e, 1610) a
volume published by Cutucus including: a dissertation by D. Heinsius, and conjectures by J. Scalijer.— G. H. Mnnr published 6

books (8-13) with notes, and ar^ments of all the books of the poem. Heidelb. 1809. 8. cf. Class. Jouryi. vii. 315. (/.) Of the

JVfe«apArast«,orParaphraseof John— The/ii-jJ edit, by .?!duJ.Ven. 1501. i.—F Namiui. Leyd. 1589,1599. S.—F-Sylburg.
Heidelb. 1596. 8.— D. Heinsius, in his. iristarchiis Sacer, sive ad Nonni, etc. Lug. Bat. 1627. 8 F. Passoxo. Lpz. 1834. S.

§ 77. Coluthiis, of Lycopolis in Egypt, was a poet of a later period, probably
about the beginning of the 6th century. His poem, called 'ExIi't;? dprtayj;, or
Bape of Helen, has many defects, and but little real poetry. The whole is with-
out plan, dignity, or taste, with many traces of too close imitation.

1. He is said to have hved in the reign of the emperor Anastasius, who abdicated
A. D. 518. He wrote a poem in six cantos, entitled CaIedo7iiacs; this, with other
pieces by him, is lost. The Eape of Helen consists of 385 verses, in imitation of
Homer. This poem was found by Cardinal Bessarion, along with that of Quintus (cf.
$ 78) ; and Schbll remarks that it is ascribed to Coluthus without certain evidence.
" The word rape (in the title) must not be taken in the common acceptation; for Paris
was more courtly than to offer, and Helen more kind-hearted than to suffer, such a
violence. It must be taken rather for a transporting of her, with her consent, from her
own country to Troy."

Schdll, vi. p. 106.— fliirZe*, Super Colutbi cann. de raptu Helenae. Erlang. 1775. fol.— C. /. Gr'dfe, Conjecturse in Coluthum,
Tryphiodorum, S:c. Petrop. 1818. 4.

2. Editions.— B.—/. Dan. de Lennep. Leovard, 1747. 8 — * G. H. Sch'dfer. Lpz. I82.'j. 8. with notes of de Lennep, and addi-
tions.— /mm. Behker. Berl. I8!6. S.—A. ^tan. JuUen. Par. 1823. 8. This has the text of Bekker, with translations in Latin,
Italian, French, Spanish, English and German, and a fac-simile of two manuscripts of the poem (of the 15th and 16th centuries),

representing not only the letters, but the color of the ink and paper. T.—f^inceps, by Aldus, along wilh Quintus and Tryphio-

dorus, wilhnut date, but supposed 1504. (Scholl, vi. p. 103).— ff. Stcphanus, in the Poet, princ heroic, cited § 41 1, also in his Bomer
Par. 1604. 12.— Af. Neander, Opus Aureum. Bas. 1559. 4.— A. Tk. Villa. Milan, 1753. 12. Gr. & Ital.— Sao de San. MigTjel
Madrid, 1770. 4. Gr. Lat & Span— Sodont. Parma, 1795. 4. Gr. Lat. St Ital.

3. '^tJjisIations.—German.—/r. ..4. ir«Hncr, in his Callimachus. Alt. 17S4. 8. English.— PK .BeZoe. Lond. 1786. i.—Mem,

in Cooi !'» Hesiod, cited § 51. 6.

§ /8. Quinhts, or Coinius, lived probably in the first part of the 6th century.
He waj -galled Smyrnseus from his native place Smyrna, and received the sur-
name Cu-'^er from the circumstance that his poem was found in a convent in

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