Johann Joachim Eschenburg.

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sias and Isasus present rich specimens of the second. The best performances of Iso-
crates belong to the third. But no orator was confined to either branch ; according to
preference, he might thunder in the assembly of the people, argue in the court of jus-
tice, or declaim before the occasional and promiscuous concourse.

On the legal oratory of Greece, see Quart. Rev. vol. xxix. ; the panegyrical, same, vol. xxvii.

§ 99^. We now proceed, according to our prescribed plan (cf. § 8), to notice
individually the principal orators, of whom there are existing remains.

But it will be proper to give first some references to sources of information respecting them, and to the printed collections of their

1. The chief original sources of information are two ; the fragments of a treatise of Dionynus Ealicamafseuf, in which Lysias,
Isocrates, Isaeus, and Demosthenes were critically examined ; and the Lives of the ten orators, ascribed to Plutarch.— Of modern
woriis, ne ruention the following. * Ant. fVestermaim, Geschichte der Griechischen Beredsamkeit. Lpz. IS34. 8. — RuhTiken,
Historia critica oratorum Grasc. in his edit, of Rutilius Lupus. Leyd. 1768. S.—Hardion, Sur I'orig. et les progres de la rhet.
Chez les Grecs, in the Mem. de VAcad. des Inscr. vol. ix. 200 ; xiii. 97 ; xv. 145 ; xvi. 378 ; xix. 203 ;. xxi. li.c.—Manso, Uber die
Bildung der Rhetorik unter den Griechen, in his Vern)i>rhteu Abh. u. Aufs. Brest. 1S2I. S.—SchoU, Hist. LiU. Gr. ii. 197.

2. The following collections may be named.— A'dus Manulhis. Ven. 1513. 3 vols. fol. very rare.— fl Slephanus, Gr. & Lat.
Par. 1575. fol. Isocrates and Demosthenes not included.— 7. /. Reiske, Oratorum Graec. quae supersunt monumenta ingenii, etc.
Lips. 1770-75. 12 vols. 8. comprising what is most valuable in the labors of the preceding editors ; the contents are detailed by
ScAoZZ, ii. 260.— /_Bei*er, Oratores Attici. Lips. 1S22. 7 vols. 8. without cxptana.'ory nntes. Repr. Berl. 1824. 5 vols. 8. Cf.
Dibdin, I. 483.- fK S. Dobsoii, Oratores Attici et quos sic vocani Sophislai. Lond. 1828. 16 vols. 8. Gr. & Lat. very valuable,
although not perfect in critical skill.— r. Mitchell, Oratores Atlici (ex recens. Bekkeri.) Oxf. 1822-28. 10 vnls. 8. the vols. 8, 9,

and 10, being "Indices Grsecitatis." A useful help in study of the Attic orators, is the Lexicori of Harpocration (cf. § 139).

/. H. Bremi, Oratioiies Selectae Isocratis, Lysias, Deniosthenis et .Sschinis, in several vols, of the Bwlioth. Grsrca, cited § 7. 1.

§ 100. Jniiphon, of Rhamnus in Attica, was born about B. C. 480. In the
year 411 or 410 B. C. he was condemned and put to death as a traitor. He
was celebrated at Athens as an orator and a teacher of eloquence.

1 u. The ancients ascribed to him a treatise on rhetoric, Tix^r] prjTopiKh, said to have
been the first written on the subject. He also prepared orations or speeches to be used
by others, for which he received payment. Of the fifteen which are still extant, three
belong to criminal cases actually occurring and brought to trial; the other twelve seem
rather to be imaginary speeches adapted to supposed cases.

2. Antiphon was a pupil of the sophist Gorgias, and is said to have been the first to
apply the art of rhetoric to judiciary proceedings. Thucydides was instructed in his
school. During the Peloponnesian war, Antiphon repeatedly had the command of
Athenian troops. He was a member of the council of the 400, the establishment of
which was, in a great degree, owing to his influence. He is said to have been the first
who. for money, composed orations to be read or spoken by others; this became after-
wards a frequent practice and a source of great emolument. — Cf. Cicero, Brutus, 12. —
Thucydides, viii. 6S.

3. His orations are given in Reiske, cited § 99, vol. vii. p. 603.— Seiie?-, vol. i. See P. v. Spaan (really Ruhnkc^), Diss, de

Anfiphonte. Lugd. Bat. 1765. 4. also in Reiske, vii. 795. and in Ruhrxktn's Opusc. orat. phil. et crit. Lug. Bat. 1807. 8. French

translation of some parts, in Auger's CEuvres completes d'Isocrate, avec, &c. Par. 1781. 3 vols. 8.

§ 101. Andncides, an Athenian of illustrious birth, later than Antiphon, about
B. C. 468. He was distinguished as a statesman and orator, but too restless
in his political character. He suffered many vexations, and finally died in ex-
ile, B. C. about 396. We h-dve four speeches from him, which commend them-
selves by their simplicity and force of expression, and which are of much value
in illustrating the history of the times.

1. One of the discourses of Andocides is against Alcibiades, Koto. 'AXkiPiuSov ; another
respecting the peace with Sparta, lUpl FJfmvrjg ; the other two were in self-defence ; U^pl
KaOoSov, treating of his second return to Athens, after having fled from the prison into
which he was thrown by the 400, and Hspi nvarnpicjv, relating to the mysteries of
Eleusis, which he had been accused of violating.

2. His discourses are in Reiile, vol. iv.—BeXker, vol. i.—Dolson, vol. i.— Cf. /. 0. Stuiter, Lectiones Andocidese. Lug. Bat. 1804. 8.

— Hauptmann de Andocide, in Reiske, vol. viii. p. 535. See Qua^t. Rev. vol. xxix. p. 326. — Mitford's Greece, ch. xxii. § 2.

(vol. 4. p. 96. ed. Host. IS23.)— Separately, K. Schiller, Lpz. 1834. 8.— German Transl. A. G. Beckej, Quedl. 1832. 8.

§ 102. Lysias, a native of Athens, son of Cephalus from Syracuse, lived be-
tween 458 and 379 B. C. He was a teacher of rhetoric. Many years in the
early part of his life he spent at Thurium in Magna Graecia. Above 200 dis-
courses are said to have been written by him, all in advanced life; only 34 of
them are extant. These justify the reputation he enjoyed on account of the
beauty of his style and his power in convincing and persuading. Cicero (Brut.
9) gives him the praise of having almost attained the ideal of a perfect orator;
yet he is inferior to Demosthenes in simplicity and energy.

1 The father of Lysias removed to Athens, on the invitation of Pericles, and belonsed to the
class of inhabitants leriued pijoiKoi, metics, or fureign residents. At the age of 15, Lysias went


out with the colony established by the Athenians at Thurium. Here he remained 30 years stu-
dying and practicing oratory. He then returned to Athens, and in partnership with his brother
Poleiiiarchns vested some of his property in a manufactory of shields, in which above a hundred
slaves were employed. The wealth of the brotliers became so great, that they were included
among the 300 richest men of the city, on w^hom was cast the burden of paying all the expenses
of the state. Their wealth at last exposed them to the lawless avarice of the thirty tyrants.
Poleinarchus was condemned to drink hemlock. Lysias escaped by flight. On the overthrow
of the thirty, he returned to Athens and spent the rest of his days in theemployment of a rheto-
rician. He lived to the age of 81.

Fur (he life of Lysias, see Taylor'i edit. cileJ below.— >/«/ord, vol. vi. p. 46 J. Franz, Dissertatio de Lysia. Norimb. 1628. 4.

— L. Hlscher, De Vita et Scriptis Lysiae. Berl. 1837. 8. pp. 228. described as "a work of industry and tolerable judgment."

2. His orations were written for the use of others, and he is said to have spoken but
one himself, that against Eratosthenes. The Aoyo? cmTa<pio<;, or funeral oration over
the Athenians who were slain under the command of Iphicrates, is considered his

3. Editions.— B.-V. Taylor, Gr. i LaL Lend. 1739. A.—Aiiger, Gr. & Ijt. Par. 1783. 2 vols. 8. The Princeps. by

^Idus, cited § 99. Given in Reitke, 5lh and 6th vols — Beklter, 1st vo\.—Dobso7i, 3d. Separately, Alter. Vien. 1785. 8.—/.

Franz. Monach. IS3I. 8.- C. Fortsch, Lpz. 1829. 8. with another vol. entitled Observationes Criticae.

4. Transialions. — English. — J. Gillits. Lond. 1778. 4. French. — Auger. Par. 1783. 8. German. — Some of the orations,

in m.la7id's Alt. Mus. Th. 1.— Cf. Earles, Brev. Not. p. 139.

§ 103. Isocrafes was born at Athens about B. C. 436, and died B. C. 338.
He was a scholar of Goraias and Prodicus. From his diffidence and the weak-
ness of his voice he rarely or never spake in public. But he acquired great
honor by giving instruction in eloquence, and contributed thereby to the perfec-
tion of the art. More than other rhetoricians, he encouraged attention to the
harmony of language. In this lies the greatest excellence of his own dis-
courses, which are distinguished rather for accuracy and polish than native
ardor and warmth. Yet his school marked an epoch in Grecian eloquence.
He wrote partly as a master for his scholars, and partly for the use of others.
There are extant 21 orations ascribed to him.

1. In youth he was a companion of Plato, and like him was a great admirer of So-
crates. He is said to have died, by voluntary starvation, in grief for the fatal battle
of Chaeronea.

There is an anonymous life of Isocrates, found in the 2d vol. of J. C. Orelli, Opuscula graec. vet. sententiosa ac moralia. Lips.
IS19. 2 vols. 8.— G. B. Sckirach, 2 Diss, de vita et genere scribendi Isocratis. Hal. 1765. 4.—F. G. Freytag, Orator, et rhetor,
graec. quibus statuae honoris causa positae fuerunt, decas. Lips. 1752.

2. The most finished of his pieces is that styled Tlavr^yvptKog, i. e. a discourse before
all the assembled people; it was pronounced at the Olympic games; addressed to all
the Greeks, yet exalting the Athenians as entitled to the first rank among the states.
This oration, with /re of the others, may be placed in the class of deliberative, cr^ixSov-
'XsvTiKoi. Four may be termed e?icomiasiic, iyKiojjiiaartKol ; among these is the Tlai'adrivai-
Kog, a eulogy on the Athenians, one of the best pieces of Isocrates, but imperfectly
preserved. Eight belong to judicial cases, 'Xoyoi 6iKdvtK0i ; one of these, Ilepl -hk di/ricoo-fwj,
De permutatione, or on the exchanging of property, relates to his own personal affairs.
— The remaining three are paranetic, TrapaivertKol. One of these, Opdj ArinofiKov, is by
some critics ascribed to another Isocrates. That styled Ni/fo-cXrij, and sometimes
Kv-pto; Xi5yof, written for the use of Nicocles king of Salamis in Cyprus, is said to have
procured from the prince in return a present of 20 talents. Besides these orations,
there is a discourse against the Sophists, Kara -nov aoipuTrCiv. An art of rhetoric, Tf\;i';7,
is also quoted by Quintilian. Ten epistles, likewise (cf. § 156. 2), are preserved as
having been written by Isocrates.

Schmu ii- 208.— Mr/ord, vii. ^\2.—.ibbe Vatry, Les Ouvrages d'Isocrafe, Mem. Acad. Inacr. xiii. \G2.—J. G. Strang, Krit Be-
merk. zu den Reden des Isokrales. Coin. 1831. 8. — P. J. A. Schmitz, Animadv. in Isoc. Panathenaicum. Marb. 1835. 4.

3. Editions.— B.—rF. Lange, Halle, 1S04. S.—Coray. Par. 1807. 2 vols. S. entirely in Greek, with a preface in modern Greek,

en the lansuase and education of the Greeks. F. — Princeps, of Dtmtr. Chalamdylas. Mediol. 1493. fol. — In Aldus, Rhet.

Graec. cited § 99.— flieron. IVolf, Gr. & Lat. Bas. 1570. io\.—P. Stephanus, Gr. & Lat. Genev. 1604. 8.— tr. Batth, Gr. & Lat.
Lond. 1749. 2 vols. ?.— Auger, Gr. & Lat. Par. 1781. 3 vols. 8. not very highly estimated by the critics.— Given also in £ekker,

2d vol. and Z)ofcJO)i, 3d vol. Separate portions. Panesyricus; Morus. Lips. 1787. 8. impr. by Spohn. Lips. 1817. s.

and by Baiter, Lips. 1831. 8.— G. Dindorf. Lips. 1826. 8.— De Permutatione (incomplete until the discoveries of a modem
scholar, Mustoxydes. Cf. ScAo«, ii. 263) ;/. C. Ore«i. Zar. 1814. 8.— De Pa ce. /•. /. ieZoup. Mo?unt. 1826. 8.— Areopa
giticus & Evagoras; G. £. Berueler. Lips. 1832-34. 8.— Select orations; ^ /. H. Bremi, in ijoil'i Bibliolheca.

4. Translations.— English.— /. Gillies, with the transl. of Lysias, cited § 102. i.—S. Toulmin. The oration to Demonicus, m

Sermons to Youth. Lond. 1770. %.— Young. The Orations and Epistles. Lond. 1752. 8. French.— .3i/f£r. Par. 1781. 3 vok. 8.

German.— rr: Lange. Berl. 1798. commenced.—^. H. Christian, in the Coll. of A'eio Translations, ed. by Osiander, Schioaii,

and TafL (prose). Stuttg. 1837.

§ 104. Isasus, a native of Chalcis in Euboea, but resident at Athens, was a
scholar of Lysias and Isocrates, and the teacher of Demosthenes. Born about
400 B. C. he probably died in the former part of the reign of Philip. He took
Lysias for his model, but excelled him particularly in dignity and elevation.


1. Of 50 orations by Isaeus extant in the time of Photius, only eleven now remain.
They all relate to the subject of inheritances {Xoyoi K\ripiKol), and contain much informa-
tion respecting the laws of heirship at Athens, the customs relative to the adoption of
children, to testaments and bequests, and almost every thing connected with the trans-
ferring of property. They present, also, a melancholy picture of the fraud and cruelty
frequently indulged by guardians, executors, and contending heirs. The style is full
of nerve. Demosthenes is said to have chosen him as a master in preferenpe to Iso-
crates, on account of this trait. — Cf Quart. Rev. vol. xxvi.

2. Editions.— G. F. Schomann, Isai Orationes XI. Gryphisw. 1831. 8. Ten of the orations are in Reishe, vol. vii.; one of

them, ho«'ever, the inktritanct of Cltcnymus, was first published in full bj- .4. Mai, Mil. 1815 ; the eleventh, the inlieritarux of.
Menccles, was published by Tyrwhitt, Lend. 1785. 8.— They are given in Bekker, 3d vol.— in Dobson, 4th vol.

3. Translations.— French.— .4u?o- (with Andocides and Lycurgus). Par. 17S3. 8. English.- Sir H'm. Jonet. Oxf. 1779. and

in his Woriis, 4lh vol. with valuable notes. CemiSiD.—Schomann. Stuttg. 1830. 12.

§ 105. Lyctirgus, descended from an ancient Athenian family, died at an ad-
vanced ag-e, B. C. about 330. He was a pupil of Isocrates and Plato, and a
friend of Demosthenes. He was warmly devoted to the interests of the com-
monwealth, and was rewarded with the honors of the state. Of his orations, 15
remained in the time of Plutarch; but only one has been preserved to us, that
against Leocrates for his deserting Athens in her distress, after the battle of
Chseronea. His oratory was marked by strong moral feeling and patriotism,
without much effort to be eloquent.

1. He fearlessly resisted all the claims of Philip and Alexander, and was one of the
orators demanded by Alexander after the capture of Thebes. His children, to whom
he left no property, were educated by the state. It is supposed that one of the inscrip-
tions, which Fourmount caused to be copied at Athens, is an account of the adminis-
tration of Lycurgus, in which he received and expended, according to the inscription,
13,900 talents.

Of. p. IV. § 90. 7 (c).—Sch6n, ii. 219 —.auger, Sur Lycurgue, Mem. Acad. Inscr. vol. xlvi. 364.— D. A. F. Nitsen, De Lycurgi
Oraloris Vita et Rebus gestis Dissertatio. Kil. 1833. 8.

2. The oration is in Reishe, 4th vol.— £cAAer, 3d vol.— Doisora, 4th vol.— Separately, Hauptmann. Lpz. 1753. 8. K.—A. G.

Becker. Ma^d. 1821. 8 —3 C. F. Hcinrich. Bonn, 1821. 8.— J G. Pinzger, Gr. & Germ. Lpz. 1824. 8. with valuable notes.— i".
G. Kiasling, Lycurgi Reliquias. Hal. 1834. %.—E. Mdtzner. Berl. 1836. 8.

§ 106. Demosthenes was born B. C. 385, in the Attic borough Paeania, and
died B. C. 322, in the island of Calauria, by poison self-administered, in order
to escape the vengeance of Antipater. Iseeus was his master in rhetoric, but he
received instruction also from Isocrates and Callistratus.

1 u. His celebrity was much greater than that of any other Grecian orator, on ac-
count of the fire, vehemence, and strength of his eloquence, which he especially exert-
ed in rousing the Athenians to war with the Macedonians, and in defeating his rivals
bribed by the latter. We have 61 oratio7is of Demosthenes, and 65 introductions,
which are probably not all genuine. The characteristics of this orator were strength,
subhmity, and a piercing energy and force, aided by an emphatic and vehement elocu-
tion. His peculiarities, however, sometimes degenerated into severity.

2. At the age of seven he lost his father. His guardians wasted his property, and at
the age of 17 he appeared before the courts against them, and urged his own cause suc-
cessfully. Thereby encouraged to speak before the assembly of the people, he failed
entirely. He retired and studied and toiled in secret for many years. At the age of
25, he came forward again and commenced his briUiant career. At the age of 63,
having been driven from Athens by the hostihty of the Macedonian xA.ntipater, and pur-
sued to his retreat in the island of Calauria, he terminated his own life by poison. It is
worthy of notice that Demosthenes and Aristotle were born and died in the same years.

The life of Demosthenes is given by Plutarch ; and also in the Lives of the ten Attic orators, ascribed to him. There are also two
ether Lives, anciently written, and a eulogy by Libaniw. (cf. § 128.)— For a good view of his history, see SchoU, ii. p. 224 ; and
Beeren, transl. by Bancroft, p. 276.— Cf. A. G. Becker, Demosthenes als Staatsmann und Redner. Hal. 1816. 2 vols. 8. Quedl.
1833.— f. A. Ziminermann, De Demosthene reip. Athen. administratore. Berl. 1828. S.—A. Boidlee, Vie de Demosthene, Ac.
Par. 1834. 8. very good. But Ranhe. in the Encyclopddie of EnscA & Gruber, Halle, 1818, ss. said to be better.

3. Seventeen of the orations belong to the class of deliberative; 12 of these relate to
the contests between Philip and the ''Greeks, 3 styled Olynthiacs, and 4 called Philip-
vies, the rest of the 12 bearing different titles; the whole 12 were spoken between B.
C. 351 and 340. Forty-two prejudicial speeches ; 30 of these relate to private or indi-
vidual interests, where the case was termed c'lKr) ; among them are the 5 pronounced
against his own faithless guardians, showing plainly the hand of Isaeus in their style :
the other 12 relate to public or state affairs, where the case was termed Karnyopta ;
among these was the oration Ilspi oT7/0,iwu, in which Demosthenes defends Ctesiphon
against the accusation of iEschines, and in making the defence justifies his own policy
in reference to Philip, notwithstanding the disastrous issue of the battle of Chaeronea;
it is considered as the best of his orations, and a masterpiece of eIoqueK.ce. Only two


of the extant oratipns of Demosthenes belong to the kind called demonstralive, both of
them probably spurious ; one is the eulogy {imraipM;) upon those who fell at Chaeronea.
— We have also six letters of Demosthenes, five of them written during his exile, to
the people of Athens. — Uipian, 'he distinguished Roman jurisconsult (cf. "^ 567) wrote
commentaries on Demosthenes, which are still extant.

Cf. SchSU, ii. 2S\. —Mitford, vol. vii. p. 107. ed. Bost. IS23.— Roche/art, Oratory of Demoslh. in the Mem. Acad. Inxr. voli.
xliii- I- and xlvi. 66.

4. Ediiious.— B.— G. H. ScMfer, Gr. & Lat. Lend. 1822-27. 9 vols. 8. vol. i. ii. Text, Reiske's; vol. iii. TVolf't Lat version ;
vol. iv.-viii. Apparalus criticus et exe?eticus, &c. ; this is higlily commended by the best judges, and forms the most valuable part
of the work ; may be procured separately ; vol. ix. Indices. " Hermaoii pronounces it Schlfer's best work.''— The best text is said
in be in G. Ditidcrf. Lips. 1S25. 3 vols. 12. (Ttulner'i Coll )—IV. S. Dobson, Demoslhenis et aischinis, quae extant omnia. Gr.

& Lat. Lond. 182s. 10 vols. 8. with the scholia of Uipian, and prefaces of various ediiors T.—Princepa, by jlldiis. Yen.

1504. (o\.—Htmag<ut. B(sil, 1542. with the Comn.enlaries of Uipian.— H. Wolf, Gr. & Lat. (containin? also iEschines). Basil,

1549 fol. ; and belter, Francof. 1604. (ol.— Taylor, Gr. & LaL Canib. I74S-57. 4 ; 2d and 3d vols, only ; Isi never appeared

— Auget, Gr. & Lat. Par. 1790. 1st vol. only ; usually purchased to complete Taylor's. There have been many editions of

particular orations ; of dt COROVA, some of the best are, Harles, Gr. & Lat. Alt. 1769. repr. Lpz. ISM. 9.— Stuck. Gr. & Lat.

Dubl. 1769. 2 vols. ?.— Wolf, Gr. & Lat. 1798. ?,.—BAltT. Hal. 1815. 8. repr. Lond. 1*24. 8. PHILIPPICS ; 5 C. A. Wldiser.

Lips. 1829. 8—:/. Vomd. Frankf. 1829. 2 vols. 8. Selectae; £. H. Barker, with English notes. Lond. iS30. S.— »/. H.

Bremi. Gothae, 1834. 2 vols. 8. in RosVa Bibl.

5. Translations. — German.— fie«*e. Lemgo. 1764-69. 5 vols. 8. — F. Jacobi. Lips. 2d ed. 1833. 8. including 13 orations and

Philip's Letter, with notes.— .4. G. Becker. Hal (2d ed. improved) IS26. 2 vols. 8. the Philippics. Frencii.— .3. Auger. Par,

1777. 1804. 6 vols. 8. English.— PA. Francis. Lond. 1775. 2 vols. 4.-771. Uland. 1802. 2 vols. 8.

6. Illustrative — C. G. Gersdorf, Synopsis repetiior. Dem. locorum. Alt. 1833. 8 — J. Hed, Prolegomena ad Dem. &c. Vratisl.
1831-33.- £. Scfiaumann, Prole;om. ad Demosth. &c. Primisl. 1S29. 8.— */". IViniewiski, Comni. in Dtmosih. or. de Corona.
Monast. 1?29. 8. — G. F. Eyseil, Demosthenes a suspicione acceptae ab Harpalo pecuniae liberatus. Marb. IJ'36. S — * A. IVcster-
mann, De fontibus historiae Demosth. Lips. 1S37. 8.— Same, Qusstiones Demosthenic^. Lips. 1834. S.—IV. B. Homer, Ab-
•tracts and Notes on the Classics, in his turilingt, with a Memoir by E. A. Park. Andov. 1842. 12. a volunie worthy of the atten-
tion of every student

§ 107. .^schines lived at Athens at the same time with Demosthenes, and
was a pupil of Isocrates and Plato. He became the most distinguished rival
of Demosthenes, although by no means equal to him in powerful eloquence.

lu. Demosthenes obtained a complete triumph over him by the oration concerning
the crown in the trial of Ctesiphon ; and .(Eschines retired to Rhodes, where he gave
instruction in rhetoric. He died in the island Samos. In the judgment of Quintilian,
he deserved the first rank among Grecian orators, next to Demosthenes. His great
merit may readily be seen in the three orations preserved to our time.

2. ^Eschines was 12 or 13 years older than Demosthenes, being born B. C. 395, and
lived a year or two later, dying at the age of 75. In early life he does not appear to
have enjoyed much success or reputation. His opposition to Philip first brought him
into notice ; yet he afterwards became a partizan for him in opposition to Demosthenes.
— The most important of his orations is that against Ctesiphon {Kara Krrjcupoii'Tog), to
whirh Demosthenes replied in his oration upon the crown. — Several epistles are ascribed
to ^Eschines (cf. § 156. 2).

Fati-r/, Recherches sur la vie et sur les oeuvrages d'Eschine, in Mem. de PAcad. dea hnscr. torn. xiv. — SchUll, ii. 215. — MatthiaCj
de JEschine oratore, in Reishc, vol. iv.— f. Passow, Life of aisch. (excellent) in Ensch 4- Gruber, as cited § 106. 2.

3. The reni.iinsof Machines are given in Reiske, vol. 3d and 4th.— in Bekker, vol. 3d.— Doison, vol. 12lh.— Also in H. Wolf,
cited \ 106. 4 Separately. Reiske's. Lpz. 1S08. 2 vols. 8.— tX H. Bremi. Zar. 1S24. 2 vols. 8.— The oration against Ctesi-
phon, often published with Demosthenes on the crown ; Stock, &c. cited § 106. 4.— Alex. Negris. BosL 1829. 8. with a preface in
modern Greek, and English notes.

4. Translations. — German. — RHske, with Demosthenes, cited § 106. 5. — F. V. Ranmer (jEsch. and Dem. in the case of Ctesi

phon). Berl. ISII. 8. French. — ..iug-a-, with Dem. cited § 106. 5. English.— .^(itireuj Portal. (.Ssch. and Dem. concern.

Ctes.) Oxf. 1755. 8.

5. Hyperides, a native of Attica, was a contemporary of Demosthenes and jEschines,
and next to these in rank as an orator. He was a pupil ol' Plato in philosophy, and of
Lycurgus and Isocrates in rhetoric. He was proscribed by Antipater. and put to death
B. C. 322. Of 52 orations by him, not one remains which is indubitably his ; although
two of those usually ranked among the orations of Demosthenes have, by some, been
ascribed to Hyperides; viz. the one entitled Iltpt tuv Trpds 'AXi^av^pov cwOfiKuyv, and the
first of the two against Aristogeitoii.

et SchoU, Hist. Litt. Gr. vol. ii. p. 220.

6. Dinarchns was a native of Corinth, but passed his youth at Athens. He studied
philosophy under Theophrastus, and became celebrated after the death of Demosthenes
and Hyperides. He acquired wealth by composing orations for others. Of 64 ora-

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