Johann Joachim Eschenburg.

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tions, only three remain ; one of these is entitled Kara Ar^iiocdcfovi.

They are given in the collections cited § 99. 2. Separately. C. E. A. Schmidt. Lips. 1826. 8. Cf. Ruhnken, as ciiea

99. l.—SchOll, ii. 'J21. - C. Wurm, Comm. in Dinarchi orationes. Norimb. 1S28. 8.



III. — Sophists and Rhetoricians.

^ 108. The term Sophist, as has been mentioned {% 92), was originally applied in
Athens to those who taught the art of speaking. One of the earliest that attained
eminence in this profession, was Gorgias of Leontium in Sicily, about 430 B. C. Pro-
dicus of Ceos, and Hippias of Ehs, flourished in the same period ; the former was
the author of the beautiful allegory on the choice of Hercules contained in Xenophon's
Memorabilia. "All these," observes Mitford, "are said to have acquired very con-
siderable riches by their profession. Their success therefore invited numbers to follow
their example ; and Greece, but especially Athens, shortly abounded with those who,
under the name of sophists, professors of wisdom, undertook to teach every science.
The scarcity and dearness of books gave high value to that learning, which a man with
a well stored mind and a ready and clear elocution could communicate. None without
eloquence could undertake to be instructors ; so that the sophists in giving lessons of
eloquence were themselves the example. They frequented all places of public resort,
the agora, the gymnasia, and the porticoes, where they recommended themselves to
notice by an ostentatious display of their abilities in disputation with one another, or
with any who would converse with them. In the competition thus arising, men of
specious rather than solid abihties would often gain the most extensive estimation.
Many of them would take either side of any question, and it was generally their glory
to make the worse appear the better cause."

§ 109. It is easy from this account to see how the name of sophist should soon be-
come a term of reproach, as it did, more particularly after the time of Socrates. The
term rhetorician was also apphed to the same class of teachers. But a distinction has
been made between the two words, which seems to have a just foundation. The term
rhetoricimi is applied to those who simply gave precepts in the arts of composition and
oratory ; the term sophiat to those who actually practiced the art of speaking. In this
sense the name of sophists is given to all the speakers we read of after the decline of
oratory, as already explained (§ 96). After the supremacy of Rome over Greece, and
especially under the emperors, there was a great number of these. Their talents
were confined to a hmited sphere, to the exercises in the schools, or discourses, lec-
tures, and declamations before promiscuous assemblies, which formed a part of the
public amusements. Some of them traveled from city to city, like modern lecturers,
and received a liberal pay for their services. The various performances in which they
engaged, were distinguished by different names, apphed for the purpose ; e. g. neXsrn,
a declamation carefully written, in which the writer bears an assumed character;
rCoraTij, a little discourse or address, in which the writer recommends himself to an-
other ; o-\'£'5iao-//a, an extemporaneous speech ; StaXe^^ig, a sort of dissertation, &c.

§ 110. Between Augustus and Constantine there were several distinguished authors,
who may be properly classed among the sophists, as Dio Chrysostomus, Lucian, and
Athenseus. Lesbonax and Herodes Atticus belong to the same class. The emperor
Adrian often exercised his talents in performances similar to those of the sophists of
the age. Polemo, ^lius Aristides, and Flavius Philostratus, may also be mentioned;
the latter is spoken of as an eloquent speaker.

In the time of Constantine, and afterwards, there were also numerous authors,
whom we must refer to this class. Among them Themistius, Himerius, and Liba-
nius, are the most distinguished. The emperor Julian may be properly ranked here.
Subsequent to these are found many names, but none of much celebrity, except such
as are known by writings of another class, as Basilius, Procopius, Theophylactus, and
Theodorus Proclromus (cf § 80). — Scholl, bk. vi. ch. 77.

^111. By rhetoricians, in distinction from sophists, are meant, as has been stated
C5> 109), those who gave precepts on eloquence rather than atteinpted to practice it.
Rhetoric, or instruction in the art of eloquence, originated in Greece later than elo-
quence itself, as Cicero has justly remarked: eloquenfia non ex artifcio, sed arlificium
ex eloquentia natum. Empedocles is commonly considered as the first Greek rheto-
rician who taught the rules of oratory orally. His scholars Corax and Tisias, about
400 B.C., are said first to have committed such rules to writing. Gorgias the Sicilian,
and those termed sophists generally in the flourishing age of Greek letters, taught the
art of oratory. Isocrates, a pupil of Gorgias, and generally classed among the orators,
was a distinguished teacher of rhetoric, and had the honor of forming in his school the
greatest orators oi Greece. Antiphon, also ranked among the orators, was a teacher
of rhetoric, and wrote a treatise which is quoted by the ancients.

Gamier, Sur I'art oratoire de Corax, Mert\. de I'lnslitut Royal, C 1 a s s e d'Hist. tt Lit. Anc. vol. ii. p. 44.

^ \\2. In glancing at the list of Greek authors on the subject of rhetoric, we find
A-ristotle, the philosopher and the teacher of Alexander, one of the earliest. Deme-
trius Phalereus occurs next (cf § 97). After him we find none important to notice until
the time of Augustus, when we meet the names of Gorgias, who taught a school of
rhetoric at Athens (but must not be confounded with the Sicilian above mentioned).


and Apollodorus find Theodorus, who had rival schools, the former at Pergamus, the
latter at Rhodes. Whatever they wrote is lost. The principal author was Dionysiu.s
of Halicarnassus, known also as an historian.

After Augustus the eminent writers were Hermogenes and Longinus. Many other
names occur, as Aphthonius, Theon, Numenius, Menander, Minucianus, and Aspines,
who all wrote on some of the topics of rhetoric ; only inconsiderable fragments, how-
ever, now remain. Of the vast mass of compositions by the ancients on the art of
speaking and writing, but a small portion has come down to us.

§ 113. Before noticing more particularly individuals of the class now before
us, we will give some general references.

1. On the Sopb\s\s.— Enfield, Hist. Philos. bk. ii. c. i.— Gillies, Hist. Greece, ch. 13— i. Craollii, Theatrum vet. Rhet. declam.
i. c. Sophislaruni, de eorum disciplina ac discendi docendique ralione. Par. 1620. 8. and in Gronovius, Thes. vol. i — G. A'. Kriegk,

Diss, de Sophistarum eloquenlia. Jen. 1702. 4.— The Protagoras of P\!L\o.—Hardi(m, as cited § 99 J. G. Walch. Diss, de Prsenjils

vet. Sophistar. Rhetor, et Oi-atorum. Jen. 1719. 4.— Ged, HisL Crit Sophistarum, in the Acta Sue. Traject. \623.— Roller Die
Griech. Snphislen. Sluttg. 1832.

2. Collections of the rennaius of the rhetoricians.— .5W«J, Rheiores Grseci, 150S. 2 vols, fol Leo Allatitis, Excerpta Grsec. Sophis-
tarum et Rhetorum declainationes. Rom. 1641. 8. — H. Siephanits, Polemonis, Himerii, et alior. declamationes. Par. 1567. fnl.

Th. Gale. Rhetores Selecti, Gr. & Lat Oxf. 1676. 8. repr. (ed. /. F. Fisher) Lpz. 1773. %.—Ch Walz, Rhetore? Graeci. Slutt. 1831-

36. 9 vols. 8. The most important precepts of rhetoric, drann from Greek and Roman authors, in F. A. Wiedibitrg, Praecepta

rhetorics. Brunsw. 1786. 8.— Cf. /. Ch. Th. Emesti, Lexicon technologis Graecorum rhetorics. Lips. 1795 8.— See also Sul-
zer's Allg. Theorie, vol. iv. p. 45.

§ 114/. Gorgtas, of Leontium in Sicily, a philosopher, statesman, orator and
rhetorician, flourished at Athens about B. C. 430, as a teacher of eloquence.
Cicero celebrates his oratorical talents, but charges hirn with too great attention
to the rounding of his periods. We have tivo declamations {ixsiitat.) ascribed
to him ; a eulogy on Helen, and an apology for Palamedes.

Gorgias was greatly admired, and honored with a golden statue at Delphi. He is
said to have died B. C. 400, aged 108. Eschenburg, in the original of the above,
represents him as known at Athens in the Persian war; the translation is conformed
to the more common statements.

Cf. Mitford, ch. xviii. § l.—£arthelemy, Auacharsis, eh. vii.— H. E. Foss, De Gorgia Leont. Hal. 1S28. 8. The declama-
tions are given in Rtiske, cited § 99. vol. viii.— Btiter, vol. v. — DobsorCs Oratores Attici, vol. iv. p. 666.

§ 115. Aristotle, born at Stagira in Macedonia, B. C. 385, went to Athens
while young, and became one of the most distinguished pupils of Plato. He
was subsequently the instructor of Alexander the Great, after which returnino-
again to Athens he founded the Peripatetic sect in philosophy. He died in
Chalcis, B. C. 322.

1 u. His name belongs especially to the history of philosophy (cf ^ 191), but is intro-
duced here on account of his treatise on rhetoric. This consists of three books, and is
a work of much merit. His treatise on poetry, also, may be properly mentioned here;
it is a fragment of a large work.

L. Spengel, Artiuni Scriptores ab initiis usque ad editos Aristotelis de Rhetorica libros. Stuftg. 1828. 8. Vm Raumer, Ueber

die Poelik des Aristoteles. Lpz. 1831. 4.— J. B. Eeiser, Comparatio placitorum Plat, et Aristot. de ratione Artis Poeticx. Leodii,

2. Editions.— The iJA«<oric, m Aldus, cited above, § 113. 2.— 72/ic<onV: & Po«(7T/, in the editions of Aristotle's tDhole norks (cf.

§ 191).— Also /. Beiter. Berl. 1832. 8. good. R h e t o r i c a ; GouZWoJi, Gr. & Lat. Lond. 1619. 4.— .Ba»!£, Gr. & Lat. Camb.

1728. 8. repr. Oxf. 1809. S.-T. Gaisford, Gr. & Lat. Oxf. 1820. 2 vols. 8.— De ArtePoetica; Harles, Gr. & Lat Lips."
1780. S—Tyruhut, Gr. & Lat. Oxf. 1794 & 1827. S.—Grafenhan. Lpz. 1821. 8.

3 Translitions.— French.— .3iie BatUtix, Poetics, in Les Quatres Poetiques, d'Aristote, d'Vida, de Despreaui, avec

remarques. Par. 1771. 8.— £. GroJ, Rh etor i c, Gr. & Fr. Par. 1822. 8. English.— Poet i cs; H /. ft/c. Lond. 1788. 8.

Th. Twhiiug. Lond. 1769. 4. IS12. 2 vols. 8.— Rhetoric; Crimmin. Lood. 1816. 8.—/. Gillies,wkh lutrod. and Append.
Lond. lS-23. 8. German.— P o e t i c s, C. IVeise, Me,-s. 1S24. 8.— R h e t o r i c, «-. L. Roth, Stuttg. 1833. 12.

§ 116. Demetrius Pknlereus, of Phalerum, one of the harbors of Athens,
flourished B. C. about 300. He was a pupil of Theophrastus, and by his elo-
quence rose to distinction. Driven by Antigonus from the authority at Athens,
which he received from Cassander (cf. § 97) and had enjoyed for several years,
he retired to Alexandria, where he was patronized by Ptolemy Soter. But be-
ing banished by the next king, Ptolemy Philadelphus, to a distant province, he
put an end to his life by the bite of an asp, B. C. 284.

1. Demetrius is said to have suggested to Ptolemy Soter t: e idea of founding the Library and Museum of Alexandria. The dis-

•leasure of Philadelphus was incurred by his having favored the claims of an elder brother to the throne. Bonamy, sur la vie

Demetrius de Phalere, in Mem. de VAcad. des Inscr. torn viii p. 157.

2 u. Many works were cornposed by him, which are lost. There is extant a treatise
on eloaiiion, Ikpl tpunveia;, which has been ascribed to him; but its real author was per-
haps a later Demetrius, who lived at Alexandria in the reign of the emperoi Marcus
Antoninus. It contains many ingenious and acute remarks on the beauties of compo-
sition, particularly on the structure of periods.


3. Among the lost works, are a treatise on the lonians, one o7i the laws of Athens,
and another on Socrates. A httle piece on the Apothegms of the seven Sages, is pre-
served in Stob(Eus, as having been written by Demetrius. Schdll, iii. 241.

4. Editions. — The treatise Hcpl Ipftiivtlag is given in Jildui, Gale, and Fisclter, cited § 113. — Separately; /. G. Schneider.
Altenb. 1779. 8. with a commentary.— P. GSller, Lips. 1837. 8.

§ 117. Bionysius Halicarnasseus, in the time of Augustus, celebrated as an
historian, was also a rhetorician. He wrote several treatises, which may be
properly classed in this department.

1 u. Two particularly merit notice here : a work Tlepl (xvvOheug di^o/iarwy, de composi-
tione verhorum. on the arrangement of words; and another styled Tix*"? pm^P'-'^'^j o,^t of
rhetoric, which has come to us in a very defective state.

2. Two other rhetorical pieces of Dionysius were Twi/ -KaXaiQiv "KapaKTvpeg, Characters
of the ancients, still extant, and Ucpl tmk 'AttikcZv piqropow vT:opivr,fiaTi(7poi , Memoirs of the
Attic Orators, in three parts, of which we have only the first and a fragment of the
second. There are also several letters, in which he criticises the style and writings of
different authors.

Scholl, iv. 316— CA. Leuschner, Pro Dionysio Halicam. ejusque in rhetoricam pron.eritis. Hirschb. J752. 4.

3. Editions. — Fur those of his Works, see § 247.-^ — The pieces on the arrangement of words, and on rhetoric, were first pub«
lished by Aldus, ascited § 113.— De Compositione verborum ; /. Upton Lond. 1702. 1748. 8; better, G. H. SchUfer. Lpz.
1809. 8.—Fr. Goller. Jen. 1815. 8 —in French translation, with renarks, Mbe Balteux. Par. 1788. 12.— Ars Rh elor i ca; ff,
A. Schott, Gr. k Lit. Lpz. 1804. 8.— C haract e rs of the Ancients ; yirst in ^. «ep/iamts, Dion. Hal. scripta qua;dam critica.
Par. 1554. S.—Holwell, Gr. & Lat. Lond. 1778. 8. with a difsertalion on the use of the middle verb.— On the jSHic Orators; £,
R. Mores. Ox(. 1781. 2 vols. 8.— The Letters, in Ch. G. KrUger, Dion. Hal. hisloriographica. Hal. 1823. 8.

§ 118. Dion, surnamed on account of his eloquence Chrysostomus (xpvood'to'
jwoj), lived in the first and beginning of the 2d century after Christ. His birth-
place was Prusa in Bithynia. After following the pursuits of a sophist, he
became at length a stoic philosopher. He fled from the cruelty of Domitian
into Thrace, but under Nerva and Trajan lived again at Rome, enjoying par-
ticularly the favor of the latter. Of his writings, we have 80 dissertations or
declamations on various topics, displaying much rhetorical ability. He is,
however, often deficient in simplicity, and his style wanting in brevity and

1. The titles of Dion's discourses are given in SchdJVs History of Greek Literature.
That styled ToJfavdf is pronounced his chef-d'oeuvre ; it condemns the custom practiced
by the Rhodians of using ancient statues with new incriptions in honor of their con-
temporaries. — Schdll, iv. 210 — 226.

2 Editions.— Best.— C. Morel f printer), Gr. & Lat. Par. 1504, 1623. fol. ; with a Commentary of I. Casaubon, and notes of Fred.
Motel ; the translation is that of Kirchmayer or Naogeorgus, also published Basil, 1555. fol. — J. J. Reiske. Lpz. 17S4. I"98. 2 vols. 4<

3. Translations.— A German translation of thirteen of the discourses is given in Reiske's Hellas. Mitau. 1778. 8.— English, some
of the discourses, G. IVakefield. Lond. 1800. 8.

§ 119. Herodes Atiicus., a native of Marathon in Attica, v\^as a distinguished
sophist in the age of the Antonines. He was appointed consul at Rome, A. D.
141. We have from him only a single discourse and some fragments.

1. The full name was Tiberius Claudius Atticus Herodes. After obtaining his edu-
cation and travehng abroad, he gave public lectures at Athens on eloquence. Such
was his reputation, that he was invited to Rome as teacher to Marcus Aurelius and
Lucius Verus. He died at Marathon, A. D. 185, at an advanced age.

His life is given bv Philostratus (cf. § 255 b. 4).— Sc/iBiZ, iv. 22S.

2. The remains of Herodes are given in Reishe, vol. viii. — In Dohson, vol. iv. p. 555. — Separately, R. Fiarillo. Lpz. 1801. 8.—
The inscriptions of Herodes have been already mentioned (P. IV. § 92. 4).

§ 120. Xlius Jrisfides, of Hadrianopolis in Bithynia, lived at Smyrna in the
second century, and was held in great estimation as a speaker.

1 u. There remain from him 54 declamations (/iEXtrai), which evince a successful imi-
tation of the ancient masters in Greek eloquence, but betray also in the -author too
high an idea of his own excellence. We have also from him some letters, and a trea-
tise in two books, entitled IlsplmXiTLKOv koX d^sXojJj \6yov, " Du style politiqiie el du style

2. His contemporaries considered him as equal to Demosthenes, and he was honored
with many statues. Some unedited pieces of Aristides were discovered by 3Iai in a
palimpsest or rescript manuscript of the Vatican. — Schdll, iv. 234.

3. EJitioDs.-WORKS; S. Jebb, Gr. & Lat. Oxf. 1720-30. 2 vols. 4— *G. Dindorf. Lips. 1829. 3 vols. 8. with notes and
BCho'ia.- The Prinaps by E. Bmiinus (print. Ph. Junta). Flor. 1517. fol. containing fifty-two of the /itXtTaJ, with the anony

mous scholia terni>;d viroSia-us.— CatHer, Gr. k Lit Genev. 1604. 3 vols. 12. The two books on S«i/'«. in .4Wm, Rheiores

Graee. cited § 1 13.— Separate y, L. Kormann. tjp-sal, 1688. 8.— The discourse against Lep tines; first by J. Morell. Ven.
:78a. &^F.J.. H'olf. Halle, 1789. S.-G. H. Graiurl. Bon. 1827. 8. with the oration of Demosthenes on the some subject.


§ 121. Luctari, of Samosata in Syria, flourished in the second century. He
at first engaged in the business of an advocate at Antioch, but rpnounced it for
the more congenial employment of a sophist, and finally professed to embrace
philosophy. He is said to have been procurator of Egypt under Marcus Aure-
lius. He was neither a pagan nor a Christian, nor did he espouse any sect in
philosophy. He was distinguished by acumen, lively wit, and a power at ridi-
cule and satire, which he often indulged too freely and wantonly, against men
and gods alike.

1 w. Most of the numerous pieces which we have from him are in the form of dia-
logues. His Dialogues of the Gods and Dialogues of the Dead are the most remarkable.
His pure Attic and tasteful style is the more praiseworthy, from the circumstance that
he was not a native Greek.

2. Leaving Antioch, Lucian traveled in Asia. Greece, Gaul, and Italy, delivering his
discourses in various places, and afterwards settled at Athens. It was in advanced life,
that he was put in office under Aurelius. " One of the chief characteristics of Lucian,"
says Scholl, "is that species of originality which the English term humour.''' — It has
been supposed by some, probably without foundation, that Lucian once embraced
Christianity and afterwards apostatized. In the pieces styled Ilfpi dk Yleptypivov rtXsvn]?
and ^AoTrarpi?, he makes unsparing attacks upon Christians; the genuineiie?s of the
latter piece has been doubted. — Besides the eighty pieces in prose, there are fifty epi-
grams ascribed to Lucian.

See SchUl, \v. 24S, where is a brief analysis of his several pieces ; which is given in Jnthon's Lempriere.— G. TTetzlare, De
JEtate, vita, scriptisque Luciani. Macb. 1832. 8.— Cf. J. M. Gesmer, De aetat et auctore Dialogi, qui Philopatris inscribitur. Lips.
1730. i.—JVidar^d, Geschichie des Philosophen Peregrinus. Lpz. 1791. S.—Krebmis, as cited below (5).

3. Editions.— B.—fl^emsicrAuu (with /. M. Gesmer If J. Reitz), Gr. & Lat. Amst. 1743. 3 vols. 4. To which is added as a
4th vol. the Lexicon Lticianeum (not perfect) of C. R. Reitz, I'ltraj. 1746. 4. The edition of Schmid, Mi'aii, 1776-80. 8 vols. 8.
is a reprint of Henislerhuis, with a brief selection of notes ; the Bipont edition, 1789-93. 10 vols. 8. a reprint of the same, without

the Lexicon. — /. G. Lehmann, Gr. & Lat. Lpz. 1S22-31. 9 vols. 8. Another vol. containing a Lexicon has been expected. F. —

Princept. (neither printer nor editor known). Flor. 1496. M.— Second, Jt!dus. Ven. I5P3, 1522. fol —Between this and that ot

Hemsterhuis were several. Cf. SchOn, iv. 2S0. R.—Fr. Schmieder. Halle, 1810. 2 vols. 8. A good edition of Greek text; a

promised commentary has never appeared.—/*. F. Fritzschc. Lpz. 1826, ss. 8. The Diatogiies of the Gods, and several other pieces

have appeared. This promises to be an excellent edition. Of editions of select parts we can name but few.— Sey bold. Gotba,

1785. 8.— F jj. IVolf. Halle, 1791. S.—Gehrich. Gotling. 1797. S.— Dialogues of the Dead, by/. Gail. Far. 1806.—/. G. Leh-
mann. Lpz. Igl3, 1826. S.— Dialogues of the Gods, by Lehmann. 1SI5. 8.— £. F. Pcrppo. Lpz. ISI7. S.— Lucius, or the Ass,
by Courier. Par. 1818. 12.— §/". .i, Ch. Grauff, Somnium {the Dream, or the Cock). Berne, 1836. 8.—K. F. Hirmanrx, Quomodc
Historiam scribere oporleat. Frankf. 1828. 8,— JT. G. /aco6, Toxaris (or i'ricndjAip). Halle, IS23. 8. and Alexander {ortheFaX»
Prophet). Cologn. 1828. 8. with notes.

4. Translations — German.- C. M. Wieland. Lpz. 1788. 6 vols. 8. French J. ff. Bdin de Ballu. Par. 6 vols. 8.

English.— r/i. FranUin. Lond. 1780. 2 vols. 4.—/. Carr. Lond. 1773-98. 5 vols. i.—W. Tooke, with the comments of Wieland
and others. Lond. 1820. 2 vols. 4.

5. Illustrative.— /orMn, Remarks, in his Tracts, Philological, &c. Lond. 1790. S.—R. Parson, in his Tracts, Ac b\ T. Kidd.
Lond. 1815. 8.—/. C. Ttemann, Versuch Qber Lucians Philos. und Spraehe. Zerbst. IS04. 8.— J. T. Krcbsius, De maliiioso Luciani
coDsilio relig. Christ, ridiculam reddendi, in his Opusctda Academica. Lips. 1778. 8.

■§ 122. Hermogenes, of Tarsus, lived about the middle of the 2d century. He
left a celebrated work on rhetoric, consisting of five parts, which was written
when he was about 17 years old. At the age of 25, he lost memory, language,
and understanding.

1. Hermogenes lived to advanced age in this state, a striking and melancholy
example both of the power and of the weakness of the human intellect. The account
we have of him is drawn from Philostratus, Suidas, and Hesychius. — The parts of his
Tbcvri priTopiKTi were 1. n(X)y"/ij'ao-/iora, Preparatory Exercises; 2. Uepi orao-swi^, On the
states of the question ,* 3. llepl dpetrs-ov, On invention, the most valuable part of the
work; 4. Uepl iiewu, De Formis ; 5. Ilfpl i^sddSov kivorrjTOt;, De effectu. This work was
long used as a text-book in the schools of rhetoric, and several commentaries were
written upon it.

2. Under the title which the first part of Hermogenes bears, there exist two separate
rhetorical works of two later authors ; viz. the Wpoyv^ivaxjuaTa, oiAphthonius, based upon
or extracted from Hermogenes, and the Upoyvuvauiiara of Theon, explaining the prin-
ciples of both the preceding. — Scholl, iv. 322, ss.

3. Editions.— The Isf part of Hermogenes was published first by Heertn in the Bibl. der alien Lit, u Kunst. viii. and ii. — After-
wards in Class. Journal (v. -viii.), 1812— Separately ; G. yeseiimeer. Norimb. 1812. 8.—Ang. Krehl, (with works of Priscian.)

Lpz. 1819. 2 vols. 8. The other 4 parts were printed first by Aldus, as cited § 113. The best editions are /. Stunnius, Gr. &

Lat. Strasb. 1570-71. 4 vols. 8.— and G. Laurentxus, Gr. & Lat. Genev. 1614. 8.

The Progymnasmata of Aphthonius and Theon were published together, by /. Scheffcr. Upsal, 1680. 8.

§ 123. Alhenseus, a grammarian and rhetorician, may be placed perhaps as
well here as in any department, although he was properly an encyclupaedian
compiler. He was a native of Naucratis in Egypt, and lived at the beginning
of the 3d century.



1 u. His \zivvomj)iaTax, or Banquet of the Sophists or Learned, in 15 books, is a trea-
sure of various and useful knowledge. It is a rich source of information on topics of
philosophy, history, poetry, and antiquities, and preserves many interesting fragments
and monuments, which the stream of time must otherwise have borne away from us.
It is to be regretted, that the work has several lacimse, or places wanting or defective,
especially in°the last book. The first two books, also, and the beginning of the third,
are extant only in an abridgment or epitome, made by some grammarian at Con-

2. The work is in the form of a dialogue. A number of learned men, above 20, lawyers, phy-
Bicians, poets, grammarians, sophists, and musicians, meet at a banquet given by a rich citizen

Online LibraryJohann Joachim EschenburgManual of classical literature : from the German of J.J. Eschenburg, with additions → online text (page 105 of 153)