Johann Joachim Eschenburg.

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of Rome named Laurentius, and, in noticing the different instruments, materials, and prepara-
tions of their feast, reniark upon almost every thing pertaining to the knowledge or customs of
the ancient Greeks.— ScAoZ/, iv. I^l.—Edinb. Rev. vol. iii.

3. Editions.— B.—A"c/iu!e!?^/u2U«T, Gr. & Lat. Argent. (Strasb.) ISOl-7. 14 vols. 8. Vols. i.-v. Gr. text, better than any previous
ed.; vols, vi.-xiii. Commentary, exceedingly valuable ; vol. xiv. Index. An Index Graecitatis promised. Cf Sch'll, iv. 300. Dib-
din, i. 335. Myalh. Mag. Jan. IS03. Afojs, i. 194.— tG. Dindorf. Lips. 1827. 3 vols. 8. Containing the Gr. text. Two vols.

of Comment. &c. promised. F.— There have been but few editions. Princ-ps, by Aldm (Musurus assisting as ed.). Ven. 1514.

fo\.—Etdrotvs (^ Heilinus). Bas. 1535. fol.-/s. Cutwauion, Gr. & Lat. 1597-1600. 2 vols. fol. Very celebrated. The Latin
version by Dalecampius {Dalechamp), first printed 1583, at Lynns; the 2d vol. printed 1600, contains Causiubon's Commentary.—
Same, repr. Lyons, 1612-21, and 1657-64.— G. E. Schdfer. Lips. 1796. S. Ouly Isl vol. published. The plan contemplated three
parts, each consisting of 3 volumes j comprising the text, the commentary of Causaubon with notes, and the French version of Fii-

4. Translalions.-French.— Micft. de Marolles. Par, 1680. 4. "very rare and not very good."-/. B. L. Vakbrune, first printed,
Par. 1789. 5 vols 4. " faulty." Latin.— In Schweighauier, as just cited.—" There is no translation in English, Italian, or Ger-
man." Moss.

5. Illustrative.— S. IVeston, Conject. in Athenseum. Lond. 1784. 9.—Jacohs, Addit. Animadvers. in Athenaeum. Jen. 1809. 8.
—R. FiorMo, Observ. Grit, in Athenaeum. Gott. 1802. S.—A. Meintcke, Curae crit. in Comicorum fragm. ab Athen. servata.
Berl. 1814. 8.

§ 124. Lenginus (Dionysius Cassius), a rhetorician and critic, who embraced
the Platonic philosophy, and flourished in the 3d century. His birthplace was
probably Athens, although it is not certain. Little is known of the circum-
stances of his life, excepting that he was a teacher and counsellor to Zenobia,
queen of Palmyra, and was put to death by order of her conqueror, Aurelian.

1 u. Many works, now lost, were written by him. The treatise Il£pi v-Jjovs, on the
suhlime, which has come down to us only in a defective state, is a celebrated production.
It does great honor to the judgment and fine critical powers of the author, and well
illustrates, by principles and examples, the nature of the sublime in thought and com-
position. , • • .

2. Longinus spent a considerable part of his life as a teacher of rhetoric and criticism
at Athens, before he became preceptor to Zenobia. He was born about A. D. 213, and
died A. D. 273. — Of the various works, of which we have merely the titles, with a few
fragments, the most important was that styled (.pCKoXoyoi, or (ptXoXoyot 6//iXrai, consisting
of 21 books, containing criticisms upon autlaors of his own and more ancient times.

Ruhnken (under the fictitious name Schardam), Diss, de vita et scriptis Longini. Lug. Bat. 1776. and in WeisUe, cited below.
Cf. SchSll, iv. p. 32'^.—/. fV. Knux, Remarks on the supposed Dionysius Longinus ; with an attempt to restore the Treatise on Sub-
limity to its original slate. Lond. 1826. 8.

3. Editions.— B.— 5. IViiske, Gr. & Lit. Lpz. 1709. 8. Repr. Lond. 1820. 8. T—Princep!, of RoborteVuu Basil. 1554. 4.

—P. Manutius. Ven 155S. 4.—^m. Portus. Gen. 1569. 8. Basis of all subsequent till that of Pearce.—G. de Petra, Gr. & Lat. Gen.
1612. 8.—TAliw>, Gr. & Lat. Traj. Rhen. 1694. i.—Pearce, Gr. & Lat. Lond. 1724. 4. Much valued and often reprinted ; best,
Amst. 1733, wih a commentary of F. Portus -ruTnermann ^ Konig, Gr. Lat. Gall. & Hal. Veron. 1733. 4.—F. N. Monti, Gr.
& LaL Lips. 1769. 8. Valued for the superior Latin version ; containing also a tract entitled Libelliis Animadv. in Long, and an
elegant essay De notione Suhlimitatis.—Toup, Gr. & Lat. Oxon. 1778. 4. and 8. Celebrated. Reprinted 1806.

4. Translations. -German.—/. G Schlosser. Lpz. 1781. 8. "with valuable psychological and jesthelical observations."

French.— Sot/fou, containing the Reflex ons Critiqiies. Amst. 1701. 8. and in Tumerrnann, cited above. Italian.— .4. F. Gori,

Firenz. 1737. 8 English.— W. Smith. Lond. 1739. 8. Often reprinted.

§ 125. Themistius, surnamed Euphrades, was a celebrated orator and sophist
of the 4th century, a native of Paphlagonia. He acquired great reputation at
Constantinople by his philosophy and his instructions in rhetoric. He enjoyed
also the favor of several emperors, especially Constantine. Besides several
commentaries, or paraphrases, illustrating Aristotle, we have from him 34 dis-
courses, marked by clearness, order, and richness of expression.

1. He was highly regarded by Julian and his successors, down to Theodosius the Great, who
intrusted him, although a pagan, with the education of his son, Arcadius. He was the master
of St. Augustin, and a friend of Gregory Nazianzen, who styled him Bao-iAsti j Xdywi/. He resided
for some time at Rome. He must not be confounded with Themistius, a deacon at Alexandria in
the 6th century, and fotinder of the sect ai J}gnoetiS.—T\\Q titles and arguments of his discourses
are stated by SchdU.—T)[\e Paraphrases four in Greek, and two extant only in Latin versions.

-Sch<Jll,vi. 141; vii. 121.

2. Editions.— The first, the Aldine, under the title, Omnia Themistti Opera {cur. V. Trincavelli). Ven. 1534. fol. Containing
4 <Treefc Paraphrases, and 8 Discourses.— The Latin Paraphrases were printed Ven. 1558 and 1570. Of the Discourses, sabsa


quent editions, H. Stephannt, Par. 1652. 8. (14 Disc.)— Dionyj. PtUavius. Par. 161S. 4. (!9 Disc.)— 7. Hardouitu Par. 1684.
fol. (33 Disc. Cf. Saimi, vi. 159; NarUs, Brev. Not. 479.)— A discourse found and pul)lished by Afai, Milan. 1816. 4.— G. Din-

dorf, Themislii Oralionea. (Gr.) Lips. 1632. 8.— A complete edition of Themistius is wanting. Cf. /. /. G. Raulez, Ob!. criL

in Themistii Orationes. Lov. IS28. 8.

§ 126. Iltmerius, a native of Prusa in Bithynia, flourished at Athens, as a
sophist and speaker, under the emperor Julian, in the 4th century. He was an
imitator of iEiius Arislides.

1. Like other sophists he traveled about, pronouncing discourses and harangues. Afterwards
he was established at the head of a school in Athens. Basil, Gregory, and Nazianzen were
among his pupils. lie died A. p. 386; leaving above 70 discourses ; of which we have only 24
entire and 10 imperfect. One of the most interesting is that in honor of Julian and the city Con-
stantinople. His style is atfected, and loaded with erudition.— Sc/id7/, vi. 162.

2. The only complete edition is that of GoUl. {Theoph.) H'emsdnrf. Gott. 1790. S.— H'irnsdoTf, a professor at Danlzig, had
spent many years in preparing this work, accompanied with a version and commeutary, but died, 1774, without having found a
publisher. In 1783, Harles published a specimen of the work, which induced a bookseller to publish the whole.

§ 127. Julianus {Flavius Claudius), more commonly known by the name of
Julian the Apostate, became emperor of Rome on the death of Constantius, A. D.
361. He possessed undoubted abilities, and a philosophical turn of mind, yet
was by no means free from sophistry and bigotry. He wrote discourses, letters^
and satires. One of the most celebrated of his pieces is the satire called the
Caesars, Katcapfj, or 'ZvfjiTioaiov.

1. The epithet Apostate ('ATroo-rdrrjj) was given to Julian on account of his openly
renouncing the Christian religion, in which he had been educated by his uncle, Con-
stantine the Great. He made great exertions in various ways to overthrow Christianity.
He intended by rebuilding Jerusalem to disprove the predictions of the sacred scriptures,
but his efforts were all defeated^ by the most signal disasters. His opposition to
Christianity was a leading motive for his warm patronage ot the teachers in the Greek
schools of philosophy^. He died in consequence of a wound received in battle, in an
expedition against Persia, A. D. 363, at the age of 32. Gibbon has very speciously
and artfully drawn his character".

> W. IVarburton, Julian ; a Discourse coucernin^ the fiery eruption which defeated that emperor's attempt to rebuild the Tem-
ple. l*nd. 1751. S. 2d ed. 2 See P. IV. § SI.— For an account of these schools and teachers or professors, see also Schloiser,

Archiv. far Gesch. und Li'eratur. Frankf. 1S30. vol. 1st. 3 Gibbon, Rom. Enip. ch. xxiii. xxiv.— For the life of Julian, Am

vitamis Marcellinus is considered good authority.— His life written in French, by Ph. C. de La Blttterie. Amst. 1735. 12.— Same,
Iraiisl. by A. V. De.iv3MX. Dubl. 1746. 8.— Also, in French, by TourUt, as cited below.— The best probably ; A. Xeander, aber
den Kaiser Julianus und sein ZeiUlter. Lpz. 1812. 8. See also his KirchengeschichU (1829), B. ii. Abth. i. p. 51.— And Uilmann't
Gregory of Naziauzus, p. 72. — Cf. Murdochs Mosheim, vol. i. 265.

2. Among the most singular of his discourses are the two with the following titles;
Eij Tov 0am\^a "HXioi/, to the monarch, the sun; and Ei's Tr,v firirspa ^eaw, to the mother of the
gods (Cybele) ; they exhibit his bigoted or hypocritical attachment to the grossest pagan
absurdities. — Of the letters, one pecuharly interesting is addressed to a pagan priest,
instructing him how to sustain the cause of paganism against the Christians. — Scholl,
vi. 186. Cf. Christ. Spect. vol. v. p. 539.

3. Julian composed a work expressly against the faith of Christians. It is lost, and most that
is known respecting it, is learned from a refutation written by Cyrill of Alexandria —In the last
century a French author, the Marquis D'Jlrcrens, undertook to restore the work of Julian, and
published his performance, Berl. 1761. 8. It was soon refuted by G. F. JUeir, Beurtheilung der
Betrachtiinsen des Marq. v. Argens iiber den Kaiser Julian. Halle, 1764. 8 ; and by fV. Crichton,
Betrachtungnn iiber des Kaiser Julian Abfall von der Christlichen Religion, &c. Halle, 1765. 8.

4. E'iitions.—Of his WORKS there have been three.— itfar(mit« i^- Canloc/amj. Par. i5S3. S.—Dion. Petavms (Petau). Par.

1630. 4. B.—Ez. Spanlidm. Lpz. 1696. fol. with the work of Cyrill mentioned above.— But of these e. n.ain§ all the

Ultert. Several, not in Spanheim, are given by Muratori, Anecdota Graeca. Patav. 1709. 4. and some others in Fabiicitis, Lux

salutaris Evangelii. Hamb. 1731. 4. Of separate pieces, we notice the following.— TVie Csaara. Amst. 1728. 4. With plates

by B. Picart, and French translation by E. Spanheim.— Best, by /. M. Heuringer, Gr. Lat. & Fr. Gotha, 1741. S—The Cietars
and Misipogon, by H. I. Lasiur. Greifsw. 1770. S.—The Eulogy on Constantius, by G. H. Schdfer. Lips. 1802. 8. with D.
Wytteiibach's notes.— Of the Letters, by H. L. Heyler, Gr. et Lat. Mayenne, 1S28. 8. with commentary ; good.

5. Translations— English.— Css?arj, !fC., in /. Duticombe, Select Works of the Emp. Julian. Lond. 1784. 2 vols. 8. French.

—IVhoU vjorks, by R. Tourlet. Par. 1S21. 3 vols. 8.

§ 128. Libanius, of Antioch, lived also in the 4th century, and mostly at
Constantinople. He belonored to the profession of sophists, and was distin-
guished beyond all his contemporaries in eloquence.

1 u. His writings were various. Besides a treatise stj'led Ilpoyv/.ii'aff/idrwi' napaSetyftaTa,
Examples of rhetorical exercises (or prcp.exercitationes). and numerous Letters, we have
also many of those pieces which were called MeXfrat, Harangues or Declamations. We
may observe in the style of these discourses an affectation of Attic purity and elegance,
by which the charms of natural ease and freedom are often lost.

2. Libanius suffered from the envy of rivals, by whose influence he was banished
from Constantinople, A. D. 346. He retired to Nicaea and then trt Nicomedia, but


was afterwards recalled to Constantinople. Subsequently, however, he withdrew, and
passed the remnant of his days at Antioch, his native city. He was admired and pa-
tronized by Julian the Apostate, and in common with the latter cherished the hope of
restoring the reign of paganism in the Roman empire. He has left an autobiography,
styled Aoyoj Tvepl rfjs tavrov Tvxn<;, which is placed among his discourses.

Schill, vi. 159.— See also Gibbon, Rom. Enip. ch. xs'w.—Tilkmont, Hist, des Empereurs, tome iv. p. 571. — Lardner, Heathen
Testimonies, vol. iv. p. 576,— F. C. Petersen, Libanio. Hafn. 1828. 4.

3. SchoU gives the Greek titles of above 60 of the Declamations. In the Rhetorical
Examples are 13 sections, each devoted to examples of a (separate kind. The Letters
are about 2000; some of them to Christian Fathers; Basil and Chrysostom both were
pupils of Libanius. He left also Arguments to the Orations of Demosthenes, which are

usually given in the editions of this orator. Ihere exists a work entitled 'EntrroAivoi

Tti-oi, or Formularies of Letters, of which it may be doubtful whether it should be ascribed
to Libanius, or to Theon (cf § 122. 2) ; in which the author notices above twenty classes
or species of epistles, and gives an example of each class.

4. There is no edition of the wliole warlis of Libanius. The most complete edition of the Decla-
mations is that of J. J. Reislie, Altenb. 1791-97. 4 vols. 8. published after his death by his widow.
It contains the Rhetorical £zerc!.?es.— Two additional discourses have been since published, one
by Ch. Siebenkees, in his Jinecdota Ormca, Norimb. 1798. 8: the other by Ji. Mai, in his Fronto,

Milan, 1815. 8; Rome, 1823. The most complete edition of the Letters is that of J. Ch. H^olf.

Amst. 1738. fol.— In the libraries of Spain are discourses and probably other writings of Libanius
hitherto unpublished.

The work called Formulariet of Letten was published, Gr. & Lat. at Lyons, 1614. 12.

5. Translations.— There is a German translation of five of the Discourses, by the wife of Reishe, in the Hellas. Lpz. 1791.

IV. — Grammaria7is.

^ 129. Next to the rhetoricians, it will be proper to notice the writers called gram-
marians, TpnunaTiKol. This class included not only such as treated of the subjects now
comprehended under mere grammar, but all who devoted themselves to any of the
various branches of philology (cf. P. IV. § 71). This department of study began to be
more specially cultivated in the period after Alexander, and particularly at Alexandria.
It was in this period that catalogues were first formed of authors regarded as classical ;
these catalogues were called cmions.

§ 130. The works of these grammarians were of various kinds. Among them were
the following ; AiopOwo-cif, revisions of the text of classical authors ; 'YnofivijixaTa and 'Ef?;-
ynaei;, commentaries ; "ZxoXia, explanatory notes; ZriryifiaTa, Avasts, investigations and
soZii^io?iS of particular difficulties; rXcSo-aai and Aileig, which treated of dialectic and
peculiar forms and single words; Yv^niKra, collections of similar phrases and passages
from different authors. Some wrote upon the subject of grammar in the most Umited
sense ; some upon different specific topics included in it, as syntax, meter, dialects, and
the like. These authors undoubtedly exerted considerable influence upon the language
and hterature of their own and subsequent times ; and their works are of value to us,
as containing much information respecting earlier periods and authors.

§ 131. The most distinguished that flourished before ths fall of Corinth, B. C. 146,
were Zenodotus, founder of the first school of grammar at Alexandria, Aristophanes
of Byzantium his disciple, and Aristarchus of Samothrace, a disciple of Aristophanes.
The latter was especially celebrated (cf Hor. Art. Poet. 450) ; so that his name became
a common designation for an eminent critic. Crates, Philemon, Artemidorus, and
Sosibius are names which occur also in this period. That of Zoilus has been pre-
served as a common name for a severe and captious critic ; he made himself notorious,
in an age abounding with adtnirers of Homer, by his criticisms and declamations against
that poet, and thus gained the epithet Homeromasiix. Whatever the grammarians of
this age composed, nothing remains to us but trivial and scattered f-agments. — SchoU,
bk. iv. ch. XXXV.

In the next period of Grecian hterature, particularly after the time of Augustus, the
list of grammarians is altogether larger. Only a few names can here be given. Of
those who may be called lexicographers, Apollonius surnamed the Sophist, Eroiianus,
Timseus, and Julius Pollux, are the principal. Tryphon, son of Ammonius, Phrynicus
the Arabian, and jElius Mceris, wrote on dialects. Among the scholiasts and com-
mentators may be mentioned Ptolemy VII., Didymus, Apion, and Epaphrodims. Of
the writers on different topics of grammar, we may select Dionysius Thrax ; Tryphon
above named; Apollonius Dyscolus, and his son Herodianus ; Arcadius of Antioch,
author of a treatise on accents ; and Hephaestion, whose Manual on Meters compiises
nearly all that is known on the subject. Some of the above mentioned will be noticed

Schmi, Hist. Lit Gr. bk. v. ch. Vix.—Beck, De Philologia Saeculi Ptolemaeortun. Lips. 1818. 4.— C. Koch, Comment, dc Bei Cri
Uke Epochis. Marb. 1822. 4-


$ 132, After the time of Constantine, letters continued to be cultivated by the gram-
marians. Constantinople was now the seat of erudition, as well as of the Roman
empire ; but the Greek language and not the Latin was the language of letters, and
works were now translated from the Latin to the Greek'. A sort of University was
founded here, in which all the branches of human knowledge were professedly taught.
The teachers or professors were styled OixovficviKol. A valuable library was also esFab-
lished. Philology in its various parts was among the sciences taught by the acinnejiical
professors. I'hese studies were not renounced with the destruction of the library and
the decline of the royal college, but were continued with more or less attention until
the final capture of the city by the Turks. The writers during this long period were
very numerous ; only a few have acquired celebrity ; while many of their productions
yet remain in manuscript. The names and works of the most important authors will
be given below. — It may be proper to observe here, that the Greek literati, who fled
from Constantinople on its capture in 1453, and exerted an important influence on the
study of Greek letters in Italy and western Europe, belonged chiefly to the class de-
nominated grammarians^.

t See p. IV. § 79.— C. F. Weber, De Latine Scriptis qua; Grseci Veteres in linguam suam transtulerunt. Cassel. 1S35. 4.

» Their labors, in their new retreats in the west, were also chiefly of a philological character; cf. § 7. 2.

§ 133^. We shall place here sonne general references, and then proceed to
notice separately a few of the Grammarians.

Lexicographical Collections.— ALDINE, DictioDarium GnEcum, &c. Ven. 1497. fol.— Diclionariuni Graerum, &c. Ven.
1524. fol.-H. STEPHANUS, Glossaria duo e siuu veluslatis, &c. 1572. fol.— VULCANIUS, Thesaurus utriusqve I'insuae, &c!
Lug. Bat. 1600. fol.— Cf C. F. Matthis, Glossaria gr^ca minora, &c. Rig 1774. 8.— X ji. Ertiesti, de gloss. gra;c. vera inJole et

recto usu. Lips. 1742. 8.— fainciu*, Bibl. Gr. vi. 141.— &/.e«, H^st. L. G. vi. 2SI,ss. Grammatical Collections.— ALDINE

C. Lascaris. Erotemala, &c. Ven. 1494. i.—Theod. Gaza:, Introd. Gram. &c. Ven. I4S5. fol. and 1525. 8— Thesaurus Cornucop!
et Horti Adoriidis. Ven. 1496. fol.-Eroteniata ChrysoloTse, &c. Ven. 1512 and 1517. 8.— Respecting the .Sldine collections, see fairt-
dus, Bibl. Graica, lib. v. c. 7, in the ed. of Harks, lib. iv. c. 39.— Also 5'c/ioH, Hist. Lilt. Gr. as cited § 7.9. IntroJuc. p. xliv. xlviii.
—and Renruard, Annates de I'ln.primerie des Aides, kc. Par. 1803. 2 vols. 8. Supplem. 1812.— H. STEPHANUS, in the Appen-
dix to his Thesaurus (5 7. 3).— PHIL. GIL'NTA or JCNTA, Enchiridion grammat. Introd. &c. Fior. 1514, 1517, 1540. fol.— BER.
JUNTA, T/ieod. Gazx Grammat. &c. Flor. 1526. 8.— M. VACOSA.VUS, T/wnue Maestri et Moschopuli Ecloga;, sc. Lut. 1538.
— VILLOL-ON, Anecdota Graeca, &c. Ven. 1781. 2 vols. 4.— I. BEKKER, Anecdota Grseca. Bert. 1812-21. 3 vols. 8.— W UIN-
DORF, Grammatici Graeci. Lips. 1823. 8. — See C D. Seek, Commentarii de Uteris el auctoribus Gr£pc atque Latinis, sect i. p. 47
— Cf. J. Harris, in his MiaceUaniu. Lond. 1781. 8. 4lh vol. p. 2il, ^s.—Haries, Introd. in Histor. Ling. Graeci, Proleg. § 10.—
Scholl, HisL Litt. Gr. Intrnd. p. Ixii. — On the value of the schoUasls ; Jo. Mart. Chladeiiius, Opusc. Academ. Lips. 1741. 8.

§ 134. Hephsestion, of Alexandria, lived about the middle of the 2d century.
He is to be distinguished from the mythographical writer, who had the same

1 u. His Manual on Meters, ''EyK^ipiiiov mpl fisrpav, contains almost every thing which
is known respecting the rules and principles of the ancient critics on this subject.

2. The first edition «as in B. Junta, cited § 133.-va. Toumebouf. Par. 1533. 4. with scholia Best edition, Gauford. OxC

1810. 8. & Lips. 1832.

§ 135. Jpolhnhis Byscohis was also of Alexandria, and flourished in the 2d
century under Hadrian and Antoninus Pius.

1 u. He has left us four grammatical treatises, viz. Ilfpl o-tii/raf^df. Of Syntax ; Ilrpi
dvrwwiiiai, Of the ■pronoun ; Yliplavvl^hiiw, Of conjunctions ; and Ilspl ETrif pr}naTOiv , Of
adverbs. We have also a compilation styled 'laropiai Ba>^)iaaiai, or Wonderful Histories.

2. The treatise on Si/ntai was published by .4Wu», in Thesaurus Cornttc. cited § 133.— Sylburg. Francf. 1590. 4 J. Behker.

Berl. 1817. 8.— That on the Pronot/?!, by /. BeiJter, in the Museum Anliquitatis Studionim. Berl. 1808. vol. i. p. 225.— The
tHher two treatises, also by L Behker, in his Atiecdata, cited § 133.— The historical compilation, by Toucher. Lpz. 1792. 8.

3. We have a work on Grammar from an earlier author, the Tf.xvri TpanpiaTiKr] of Dionysius
Thrax, who lived at Ale.xandria, B. C. about 60.

Published in Fairicius, Bibl. Gr. {Harles ed. vol. vi.)— in ViUoifon, and Bekker, as cited § 133.

§ 136. .^h'us Herodianus was a son of the Apollonius just mentioned. He
enjoyed the favor of the emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus. There was an-
other person of the same name, who was an historian^ and must not be confound-
ed with the grammarian.

1 M. Of many works written by the latter, the treatise Uepl iiovfipovs Xe^^wj appears to
be the only one that has been preserved entire.

2. This treatise is found in Dindorf, as cited § 133.— The lilies of several other treatises are given by SchSIl, v. 28. Fragment*
of some of which are given in Bekker, and ViUoison, as cited § 133. and in G. Hermann, De emendanda ratione gram. Gr. Lips.
1801 8.— The piece styled ' Zniii.t.oi<r iiol was published by Ewd. H. Becker. Lond. 1819. 8.— Cf Schi'M, v. p. 27.

§ 137. Julius Pollux (for Polydeuces, U.o-Kvhivxrii), of Naucratis in Kgypt,
flourished in the 2d century, at Athens. He was in profession a sophist, but is
chiefly known by his Greek Dictionary.

1 u. It is entitled 'OvonauTLKov. This work is divided into 10 books, according to sub-
63 2t2


jects. It is very useful, not only in illustrating Greek words and phrases, but also
in explaining many subjects of general antiquities.

2. The following are some of the topics of the books respectively. 1. Gods, Kings,
Commerce, Mechanic Arts ; Houses; Things relating to War; Agriculture. 2. Ag^
of Men ; Members and parts of the Human Body. 3. Family Relations, Friends;
Travels; Roads, Rivers. 4. Sciences. 5. Animals ; the Chase. 6. Repasts ; Crimes.
7. Of various Trades, 8. Things relating to the administration of Justice. 9. Cities,
Edifices, Money, Games. 10. Furniture, Utensils, &c.

3. Editions.— B.—fT. Dindorf. Lpz. 1824. 2 vols. 8. "The 4th and 5th volumes comprise the entire body of notes ty the

precedin? editors." F.—Princeps, by Mdiu. Ven. 1502. tol— Junta. Flor. 1520. (ol.—Seber. Francf. I60S. 4. with thj

Latin version fiis' published by Wallher. Bas. 1541. 8.-7. H. Lederlin ^ T. Hemsterhuis. Amst. 1706. 2 vols. fol. with a valua-

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