Johann Joachim Eschenburg.

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ble Preface by the latter, on the use of the Dictionary,

4. We have before named (§ 131) as lexicographers, in the period of Greek litera-
ture designated by the epithet Roman (§ 9), three authors besides Pollux: Apollonius
Sophistes, in the time of Augustus, from whom we have a Homeric Lexicon, Ae^ctg
'OjiripiKai^ ; Erotian, in the time of Nero, from whom we have a Glossary to Hippo-
crates^; TimoEus, who lived later, in the end of the 3d century, and from whom we
have a Platonic Lexicon, Ae^eig UXarojviKafl.

1 Published by Villmsm. Par. 1773. 2 vols. 4.-by H. Tollius. Leyd. 1788. 8. 2 Published by Franz. Lpz. 1780. 8.

3 Published by Ruhnken. Leyd. 1754. 8. inipr. repr. by W. A. Kuch. Lpz. 1828.

§ 138. JElius Moeris, surnamed the Atticist, flourished about A. D. 190. His
work, styled At'lftj 'AftixCjv xal 'EyiV/^vcov, is preserved.

Editions.— B — rr. A. Koch. Lips. 1830. 8. with useful notes. F.— The first, by /. Hudson. Oxf. 1712. 8 —next, /. FifcJur.

Lpz. 1756. 8. with the Lexicon of Tiniaeus.— /. Pitrson. Leyd. 1759. 8. J. Bekker (with Harpocration). Berl. 1833. 8

mere text.

§ 138 b. Tryphon of Alexandria and Phrynicus the Arabian were mentioned (^ 131)
in connection with Mceris, as having also written on dialects. There are some remains
from them ; the principal from Phrynicus, who lived in the latter part of the second
century, is a work in thirty-seven hooks, caWedUpoTrapouTKEvfimipiaTiKfi,^^ Apparatus sophis-
tique;" from Tryphon, who lived in the time of Augustus, a treatise on the affections
of words {-aOri Xelewt'), and a treatise on tropes («pi Tp6-iov).

Edition's —The Apparatus Sophist, by /. Bekker, in his Anecdota, cited § 133.— The selection of Attic noum and verbs (another
work of Phr)-nicus), by C. A. Lobeck. Lip3. 1820. 8.— The treatises oi Tryphon, in \)^e Museuvn Criticun^, Cambr. 1814.8.
vol. I — Cf. Sch'dU. vol. V. p. 11.

§ 139. Harpocraff'on, of Alexandria, probably flourished as a contemporary
of Libanius, in the 4th century. He was the author of a Lexicon entitled Atl? tj
t^v 5ixa (j'/yropwv, useful in reference to the Greek language generally, and the
Attic orators in particular.

Published by Aldus (withUlpian's Comni.). Ven. 1503. (oL—Blanoard. I.eyd. 16S3. 4.'-Better, by/. Gronov. Leyd. 1696. 4.
—A new edition. Lips. 1824. 2 vols. 8.— Later, by /. Bekker. Berl. 1833. 8.

§ 140. HesycMus lived at Alexandria, as is generally supposed, towards the
close of the 4th century. He compiled a Greek Lexicon or Glossary, from the
more ancient grammarians, and illustrated his selections by examples from the
best Greek authors. Additions were made to this work by later hands, ainong
which are probably the numerous theological glosses (glossas sacras). Perhaps,
in its present state, it is the work as enlarged by some Christian author.

1. Editions.— B.—/. Alberti (completed by Ruhnken). Leyd. 1774-76. 2 vols. fol. A kind of Supplement is the work of Nic,
Schow, Lips. 1792. 8. exhibilin? the results of a collation of AlbcrtVs edition vvilh the only ex.stin? manuscript, that in the libra-
ry of St. Mark at Venice.— A new edition has been expected from Gaisford. F.—Princ£ps, by Aldus. V:n 1514. fol (ed. M.

Atusurus).— Junta. Flor. 1520. M.—Schrcvelitu. Leyd. 16S8. 4.— The glos<:x sacts were collected by /. C. G. Eniesti. Lpz.
1785. 8. with a Supplement, I7S6. 8. See Schleusner, Observ. in Suid. et Hesychium. Wittemb. 1810. 4.—Scholl, vi. 2S2.

2. The author of the Lexicon must not be confounded with Hesijr.hius of Miletus, in the 6tL
century, under Justinian, from wliom we have some remains not very important.

Published by J. OrelH. Lpz. 1S20. S.—Scholl, vi. 404. vii. 75.

§ 141. Jmmoniiis, of Alexandria, probably lived in the latter part of the 4th
century. He is said to have been an Egyptian priest, and to have fled from
Constantinople on the destruction of the pagan temples. He was the author of
a work entitled xifpt) ujxoiiov xal bia^o^uv t^b^buv. It is a work of some value in
the criticism of words.

It was published by Aldus, in the Dictioruirium, etc. cited § 133.—//. Slephanus, in Append, to his Thesaurus, cited ^ 7. 3.—
&iven also in Scapula's Lexicon, cited § 7. 3.— The best edition is Valchen'dr. Lug. Bat. 1739. 4. Repr. (ed. Schafer.) Lpi,

1822. 8.— A good .ibridgment of Vakkcndfs, by C. F. Ammotu Erlang. 1767. 8. A French translation, by, 3. Pillun. Far

18i4. 8. — There is a treatise by Ammonius, Htpl 'AKtipoXoyi'as, On improper use of words, never printed.

§ 142. Fhotius, Patriarch of Constantinople, died A. D. 891. He may be


placed in the class of writers now under notice, although he was a man of let-
ters in general, rather than a grammarian.

1. The life of Photius presents a series of interesting incidents. His character was
not without some blemishes, and he experienced great vicissitudes of fortune. From
a layinan he was raised to the office of patriarch. He was deposed and banished ; after
ten or eleven years recalled and reinstated; but again deposed, and confined in a
monastery, where he died.

GilttKni, Roman Empire, ch. ix. — Milner, Church History.

2«. His ]\I?'p/o/3(,JW, Bibliotheca or Library, is in many respects valuable. It con-
tains critical notices of about 280 works of ancient writers, accoiupanied with extracts.
Of a number of these works we should otherwise have scarcely known the titles. His
Lexicon Affcwy rrwayayfj, although in a mutilated state, is useful in the study of the
historians and orators.

3. Besides the works above named, we have also from Photius a work styled No-
mocanori, a collection of canons of the church, and a number of letters, homilies, and

For a particular account of the MyrioliUcn, see SchSll, vi. SaS.—Fabriciu!, in Bibl. Gr. X. 678. ed. flaWe*.— Cf. Edinb. Reo,
No. ilii.— £ond. Quart, vi. 218.—/. H. Leichii Diatribe in Photii Bibliothecam. Lips. 1748. 4.

4. There is no edition of the whole works of Photius.— Of the Library, there have been, until recently, but <Aree editions. — D.
Hoschel. Au?sb. 1601. (o\.—P. Stephama. Genev. 1611. fol. with the version of M. Schott, first pubU Augsb. 1606.— Siime,
repr. by Berthdin. Rouen, 1653. fot.— A new edit, was commenced hy Btkkir. Berl. 1824. 4. The ifjncon was first pub-
lished by G. Hermann, with the Lexicon of Zonaras. Lips. 1S08. 3 vols. 4. (by Tittmann S,- Hermann.) Photius, the 3d vol —
Better, R. Person. Lond. 1S22. 8. (ed by Dol/ree.)—C(. J. F. Schleusner, Animadv. ad Photii Lex. Lips. 1810. 4.— Same, Curaj

noviss. in Phot. Lex. Lips. IS12. 4. The Koinocanon was printed Par. 1620. fol. with Balsamon. The Laten (248), by

Mcjntacutius (Monta^ie). Lond. 1651. fol.

§ 143. Suidas probably lived about A. D. 1000, although it cannot be made
certain. He was the author of a Lexicon, compiled from various authors, gram-
marians, commentators, and scholiasts. It is not executed with much judg-
ment, accuracy, or skill in arrangement. Yet it is of considerable value on
account of its store of literary and antiquarian information; and many of its
defects, especially in the apparent want of method, may be owing to interpola-
tions and additions made by transcribers and others.

1. Editions.— Prinreps, by Dem. Chalcondylas. Mil. 1496. fol.— ^Wus. Yen. 1514. fol.— ^oieniu?. Bm. 1544. M.—JEm.
Portus, Gr. & Lat. Gen. 1619. 2 vols, fol.— i. KuUer, Gr. & Lat. Camb. 1705. 3 vols. fol. This is altogether superior to any
preceding edition ; yet not without defects. Some severe criticisms of J. Grot.omus called forth an answer fronj Kufler in his
Diatribe Anti-Grmwviana. Amst. 1712. S.— r. Gaisford. Lond. 1833. a greatly injproved ed.— G. Bernhardy, Gr. & Lat.
Halle, 1836. 2 vols, (post Thorn. Gaisfordum) with notes.

2. Illustrative.— The following works further illustrate Suidas.— roup Emend, in Suid. Lond. 1760-75. 4 vols. 8; also in his
Opusc. crit. Lips. 17S". 2 vols. 8. and ed. by Burgess. Lond. 1790. 4 vols. S.—Schweighduser, Emend, et Obs. in Suidam.
Argent. 1789. S.—Reinesii Observ. in Suidam (ed. C. G. Muller). Lpz. 1819. 8.

§ 144. In this connection we ought to notice the work of an unknown author^
who lived about A. D. 1000. It is a Greek Glossary, styled ^l^tviioxoyixov fiiya^
the Eiymnhgkum magnwn. Besides its value as a grammatical work, it is still
more useful because it has preserved many passages of ancient authors, and fur-
nished solutions of many difficulties in history and mythology.

1. Editions of the Elymclogia(m.—Pri?iceps. by Z. CalUergits (ed. M. Musunis). Ven. 14P9. fol.— P. Manutius (ed.
Torrisani). Ven. 1549. fnl.— CcmimcZin (ed. F. Sylburg). Heidelh. 1594. fo!.— /"anajiora (of Sinope). Ven. 1710. fol.— ScAa/er.
Lpz. 1816. 4. a repr. of Syllurg's. To this last edit, the following works may be viewed as the 2d and 3d vols. ; F. fV. Sturtz,
Elymnlogicum ling. Gr. Gudianum, &c. Lpa. 1813. 4.— By lame, Orionis Elymologicum. Lpz. 1820. 4. — C(. SchSll, vi. p. 277,
294 — Mem. de I'.tcad. dea Inscr. vol. xlviii. p. 105. Remarques crit. snr I'Etyniolog. Magnum.

2. In the libraries of Europe are several Lexicons, or Glossaries, still remaining in manuscript,
particularly in the Royal library of France. — We may also mention here one first published by
Villoison in his Jinecdota, cited $ 133; the '\wvia or Violarium, by Eudocia, wife of the emperor
Constantine Diicas, and his successor for a short time, but soon after placed in a convent. In
this retreat she wrote her work, a sort of hystorico-mythologic compilation, supposed to be of
much value before Villoison published it. — Sckoll, vi. p. 296.

§ 145. Eustathius, of Constantinople, flourished in the 12th century, and be-
came finally bishop of Thessalonica.

1 u. He is particularly celebrated for his copious and learned Commentary on Homer
entitled. TlapzKoo\a\ ciV -hv 'Ofifjoov 'YXiaia, and WapzKSoXal eii rhv 'Ocvaactav. We have also
from him a less valuable commentary on Diouysius Periegetes.

2. The Conim, on Homer was first published, Rome, 1542-1555. 3 vols. fol. containing the index of Devarius. (Cf. § 50. 5.V
This repr. Has. 1560. 3 vols, fol.— An ed. commenced by Polili, Flor. 1730, but never finished.— Extracts from the Comm. often
published with Homer — J. B^kker, Eust. Comm. ad Hom.Odysseam. Lips. 1825. 2 vols. 4.— Same, Eust. Comm. ad Hojn. Ilia

dem. Lips. 1829, ss.— Cf. Bulletin des Sciences Hstoriques, vol. iv. p. 337. A commentary by Eustathius on Piudar is lost.

Scholl, vi. 269 Bested, of Comm. on Horn, by Stallbaum, Lpz 1825-30. 7 vols. 4.

3. .Ti'hn Tzetzes may be named in connection with Eustathius ; he was a grammarian at Con •
etanlinople in the same century (cf. J 81).


§ 146. Gregnrius, surnamed Pardus, and afterwards Cnrinthius from being
the Bishop of Corinth, lived about the middle of the l-2th century. Of his
many works two only have been published ; one is a treatise on ike Greek dia-
lects, lispl AtaTiixT'cji', and the other a Commentary on the last part oi the Rhetoric
of Iltrmogenes (cf. § 122. 1).

The trtatist on dialects, edited by G. Koen, Leyd. 1766. 8. belter than any ed. previous.— By G. H. Schiifer, Lpz. 1811. 8. still
better. — The Commentary is given in Reuhe (cited § 99), vol. viii.

§ 147. Thomas Magister or Theodulus may be mentioned here. He lived in
the beginning of the 14th century (about 1310). After holding the place of the
Magister officiorum under the emperor Andronicus Palaeologus, he became a
monk with the name of Theodulus. A work by him is extant, called 'ExXoyat
dvo/xatcov 'ArtLXil)V.

First published by CaUiergva, Rome. 1517. 8.— Bett. by J. S. Bernard, Leyd. 1757. 8. and /. G. S. Schwabe, Altenb. \T.3. 8.—
Cf. G. Hermann, Prog, da prseceptis quibusdam Atticistarum. Lips. 1810. 4.— Latest ed. F. Bitschel, Hal. 1832. 8.

^ 147 b. Here might be mentioned Emmanuel Moschopttlus Cretensis, Manuel Mo-
schopulus Byzaniinus, Emmanuel Chrysoloras, Theodorus Gaza, and other gram-
marians, whose labors were connected with the revival of classical learning in Europe.
See § 7. 2. and P. IV. § 85. 1.

Y.— -Writers of Epistles and Romances.

§ 148 u. We shall next introduce the class of writings called Letters or Epistles.
There are many extant, ascribed to distinguished men of ancient times. But a great
portion of them are spurious, being the productions of the sophists and grammarians
of later periods. Some of them, however, are unquestionably genuine; as e. g. those
of Isocrates, Demosthenes, and Aristotle. In these (the genuine), there is generally a
noble simplicity of manner, entirely free from the art and labor which are betrayed in
the epistles fabricated in the age of the later sophists. The latter class were composed
with designed reference to publication, and treat of various subjects, particularly sub-
jects of an historical and romantic character. We shall mention below some of the
principal authors of Greek epistles, either real or supposed.

§ 149. As the form of epistles was so often adopted by the sophists and others in
composing pieces which were, properly speaking, works o{ fiction, we shall mention
the narnes of the principal writers of romance in the same connection. The species of
composition termed romance was unknown in the most flourishing periods of Greek
literature. A modern writer has pointed out the reason. " In the most refined ages,"
says he, " the whole empire of fiction was usurped by the ingenious polytheism of the
Greeks. This filled every imagination and satisfied the love of the marvelous so
natural to man. Every festival renewed the tale of some god's singular adventures.
The theatre owed its charms, in great measure, to the strange union of the heroic
daring of mortals and the intervention of deities. In a nation so happily adapted for
the elegant arts, fiction naturally assumed the garb of poetry, and the beautiful fables
so well sung by the poets left no place for recitals in prose, composed as it were of
vulgar drearns. The people, it must also be remembered, were all engrossed in public
and active life. Retirement and solitude were almost unknown. The state, so to
speak, made it a business to amuse its citizens in public. While such was the publi-
city of the master's hfe, the universal prevalence of domestic slavery, and the degraded
and immured condition of the female sex, rendered private life a uniform and mono-
tonous scene. Thus, while there was no opportunity to imagine any wonderful ad-
venture, or very singular character and destiny, without violaiing probabilities, there
was at the same time but little scope for the passion of love, which holds so important
a place in modern romance." {Villemain, quoted by Scholl, iv. p. 304.)
_ ^ 150. It was not until the fifth period of our outhne (§ 9), that works of this descrip-
tion made their appearance, and scarcely any thing of the kind is earlier than the tinie
of Augustus. These works are called in general erotic tales. But we may include in
the same class, not only romances properly so called, or formal love stories, but also
amatory letters, Milesian or magical tales, and imaginary voyages.

Oi imaginary voyages one of the first authors was Antoniiis Diogenes, whose work,
Ta iwip QovXrtv amffra, The incredible things beyond Thnle, is quoled by Photius. It
seems to have contained a tissue of absurdities m forty-four books. Lucian also wrote
en imaginary voyage, entitled 'KXrfifi^ larof/ia, in two books; a satire upon voyagers
who relate marvelous stories ; full of grotesque representations, M'ith malignant allu-
sions 'o the miracles of the sacred Scriptures.


Milesian tales Sre so called because a certain Aristides of Miletus, of whom little is
known, wrote a series of stories, the scene of which was Miletus. A specimen of this
sort of tale is found in the piece of Lucian styled Aovkio; J; "Ofoj (cf. § 121). 'I'he Latin work
of Apuleius, styled the Golden Ass (cf. § 471. 2), belongs to the same class of fictions.

Oi amatory letters the only specimen, before the time of Constantine, is given in
Bome of the letters of Alciphron (cf § 159). In the next period, not long after Con-
stantine, we find a work of this class, entitled 'EmffroXai ipunxai, ascribed to Aristae-
netus (cf. § 158).

§ 151. A work of Parthenius (cf. ^ 226), in the age of Augustus, may be considered
as a precursor of the formal romance, being a collection of amatory tales, entitled lUpl
i.p(j)TiK<xiv l\a%aaru>v, chiefly of a melancholy cast. But the most ancient writer of the
proper romance was Jamblichus of Syria, in the reign of Trajan. His work styled
'Icrropiai BaSuXconiKai, or the Loves of Rhodane and Sinonis, is quoted by Photius. The
next author in order of time is probably Xenophon of Epheeus, to whom is ascribed a
Greek romance, called 'E(p£aiaKa.

In the period after Constantine, we find several romancers. Three, whose works
were in verse, have already been named (^ 33). Besides these, there were at least
four prose writers, whose romances are extant ; Heliodorus, Achilles Tatius, Longus,
and Eumathius, The romance ascribed to Chariton also was probably written in the
same period. Xenophon, already named, is by some likewise placed here. Heliodorus
is considered by many as the best writer of the whole class, and his work is said to
have been the model, not only of the Greek romances, but also for the early French
romances of the 16th century (cf '^ 260. 3), Others pronounce Longus to be decidedly
the first among the Greek romancers.

§ 152^. The following are references on the class of authors and works now
under notice. The principal names will be given in the subsequent sections;
the real or supposed writers of epistles first, and the romancers after them.

1. On the e p i s 1 1 e s attributed to ancient Greeks.— ScAo!?. ii. 273.— ScKnheyden, in the ^\ Biblioth. der sch. Wiss. vol. v.

Collections of Greek Epistles.— .^Jdiw, Epistolarum Grscarum Collectio. Ven. 1499. 2 vnls. 4 —Reprinted, Gen. 1506. fol. with
Latin version ascribed to Cujacius.—Camerarius, 'E/cXoy;y diaddguiv inicrTo'KGiv, e'c Tilbin?. 1540. S.—Sleph. Prevoteau, Tiuv
iWriViKMV iTTio-ToXwv Aveo\oyCa. Par. 1583. 4.~Eilh. Lu'oinus, Gr. et Lat. Heidelb. 1609. 3 vols. 8 Rarely found complete —

L. Allaliut (AUazi), Socrates et aliorum Epistolae, Gr. & Lat. Par. 1637. 4 J. C. Orelli, Colleclio Epist. Graec. Gr. & Lat 1815.

S.—Savnge, Letters of the Ancients. Lond. 1703. 8.

2. On the Greek r o m a n c e.—{^iUemain, Essai litteraire sur les Romans Grecs (in the Collect, des R. Gr. &c. cited below).—
Cliardon la Rocheltc, Melanjes de crit. et de philol— il/ewicr's Gesch. der KUnste u. Wissensch. in Griech. u. Rom. vol. i. p. 276.
—RamdoUr's Venus Urania, Th. 3. Abth. l.—Manm's AbhinJl. Uber d. griech. Romane, in 2d Bd. of his Vermisch. Schrift. Lpz.
1801. 2 Bde. S.— lVarton's Hisl. Eng. Poetry, vol. ii. p. 183.- 7. Dunlop, History of Fiction ; a critical account of the most celebrated
prose works of fiction from the earliest Greek Romances to the Novels of the present day. Edinb. 1816. 3 vols. 12. Cf. Lond. Quart.
Rev. xiii. 384. and Ft. Quart. Rev. vol. is.—Scholl, Hist. Litt. Gr. iv. 304, iv. 22S.—F. Passow, Scriptores Erotici. Lips. 1833. 2 vols.

12. On the origin of romance ; D. Huet, de Origine Fah. Romanensium. Hag. Com. 16S2. 8. Trans. French. Par. 1693 and

1711 (cf. § 80). 12. Transl. Engl, by S. Liwis (History of Romances). Lond. 1715. H.— IVarton's Diss, on Orig. Fiction in En-
rope ; pref. to Hi^t. Eng. Poetry. Collections of Greek romances ; Cft. G. Mitscherlich, Scriptores erotici Grsci, Gr. & Lat. Bip

1792. 4 vols. 8. containing A. Tatius, Heliodorus, Longus, and Xenophon.— ^liJiofecarfe' Romanzieri greci, tradotti in Italiano. Flor.
1792.— BiiiioiA. des Romans Grecs. Traduits en Franc Par. 1797. 12 vols. \2.— Collect, des Romans Grecs, trad, en Franc, avec
des notes par Courier, Larcher, (fC Par. 1822-28. 14 vols. 16.

§ 153. Jnacharsis, a native of Scythia, resided some years at Athens in the
time of Solon, B. C. about 600, and was celebrated for his wisdom. There are
nine letters ascribed to him, but they are not genuine.

1. He is said to have written a work on the laws of the Scythians, and a poem on war, which
are lost.

2. The Letters are given in most of the CoJleclions above named.— Separately, Par. I58I. 4. Gr. & La'.- One of them (5*h) i>
translated by Cicero (Quaest. Tusc. v.) ; another (9th) is contained in the life of Anacharsis by Diogenes Laertius.

3. The nnme of Anacharsis is applied to a fictitious personage, imaffined by the Mbe Bar-
ihelemi, as the basis of a sort of plot for a very interesting work on the history, literature, and arts
of Greece, called the Travels of Jinncharsis the Youvsrer. The author imagines the Scythian to
arrive in Greece some vears before the birth of Alexander, to reside in Athens, making occasional
excursions and journeys in different parts of Greece, until after the conquests of Philip, then to
return to Scythia and give an account of his observations.

One of the best editions of this work is Travels, i,-c translated from the French, Lond. 1806. 7 vols. 8. with a vol. of Plates, 4.

§ 154. Phalarts, tyrant of A^rigentum, respecting whose age there is uncer-
tainty, probably lived B. C. about 560. To him are ascribed 148 letters.

1 u. Were they really his, they would show him to have been, not only far removed
from the cruelty with which common tradition has charged him, but a rnan of the
noblest feeling. But they are undoubtedly the work of some sophist of later times.
On this point there is no longer any dispute ; the vehement and ill-natured controversy
between Bentley and ^ot/?e "respecting it gave the inquiry an importance, which the
subject in itself did not possess.

2. The wits and scholars at the time of the famous controversy were generally against


Bentley, who wholly denied the genuineness of the letters; but his arguments have
been considered by all since that time as perfectly conclusive.

For an account of the controversy, see Mmik's Life of Bentley, Lond. 1830. — Land. Qiiarl, Rev. No. xci. — North. Amor. Reo.
Oct. 1836.— Cf. R. Bentley, Diss, on Phalaris, cited § 63.3.— C. Boyle, Dr. Bentley's Dissert, on the Epist. of Phal. examined. Loud,
1698. 12.— 7. Miljier, View of Dr. B.'s & Mr. Boyle's Diss, on the Epist. of Phalaris. Lond. 1698. 12.

3. The letters were first published in Latin, without date ; the 2d ed. 1470.— In the original Greek first, 1498. 4. Ven. In Jlldia,

1499, as cited § 152. 1. also in the other Collections there named.— C. Boyle, Or. & Lat. Lond. 1695. 8. repr. 1718. S.—J, D. K
Lennep ^ L. G. Valchaiar. Groning. 1777. 2 vols. 4. The 2d vol. containing a Latin translation of the tracts of Beutley.— G. H.
Schufer. Lpz. 1823. 8. A re-impr. of the 1st vol. of the preceding ; and is probably the best edition.— Scholl, ii. 977.

§ ]55. Themistocles, the Athenian general and orator (§ 88), flourished B. C.
about 480. There are 21 letters extant, ascribed to him. They purport to have
been written during his banishment, and their contents are chiefly of an historical
nature. Their genuineness is very questionable; it was fully examined and
controverted by Bentley.

The letters of Them, were published /zrjr by J. M. Caryophihis, Gr. & Lat. Borne, 1^6. 4.—E. Eliinger. Fraukf. 1629. 8

Ch. Schottgeii. Lpz. 1710. 8.— J. C. Bremer. Lemg. 1776. 8.— Cf. Bentley on Phalaris, as cited above (§ 154. 2).

§ 156. Socrates, the most distinguished sage of Greece, was born B. C. 469,
and drank the cup of hemlock under judicial sentence, B. C. 399. He committed
nothing to writing, and probably had not the least agency in the composition of
the 7 letters which are ascribed to him. Like most of the letters, which are
called Socratic, professing to come from Antisthenes and other followers of So-
crates, they are the production of some of the sophists.

1. The letters termed Socratic are 41 in number; among them, besides the 7 ascribed to So-
crates, are 7 of Xenophon, and 1*2 of Plato. Cicero quotes one of the latter (Quccst. Tusc. V).
Letters of Antisthenes and jEschines the philosopher are also included.

They are found in the Collections of Mlatjus and Orelli, cited § 152. I.— Cf. Scholl, ii. 280, 361, 414.

2. The letters ascribed to Isocratfs (cf $ 103. 2) and Demosthenes (cf $ 106. 3) are genuine ; and

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