Johann Joachim Eschenburg.

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most, if not all, of the 12 attributed to ^scliines, the orator. Respecting those ascribed to Euri-
pides (cf. $ 63. 3), there is more doubt.

The tellers of .ffischiues were published separately, by T. S. Sammet. Lips. 1771. 8.— Those of Isocrates, by C. F. Matthim.
Mo6C. 1776. 8.

§ 157. Chion, of Heraclea on the Pontus Euxinus, a contemporary and scho-
lar of Plato, having slain Clearchus, tyrant of Heraclea, was himself put to
death, B. C. 353. He was probably not the author of the 17 letters which bear
his name. They treat particularly of the benefits of philosophical culture, and
are inspired with ardent political enthusiasm, and are not without merit as to
thought and style.

Published by /. CaseHus. Rost. )5S3. 4.—Fr. Morel. Par. 1600. 4.^. Gottl. Cober, Dresd. 1765. 8.— A. G. Hoffman, joinei
ja J. C. OreLlih fragments of Meninon. Lpz. 1816. 8. This is the best edition.

§ 158. Aristaenetus, of Nicaea in Bithynia, was a sophist of the 4th century,
who perished in an earthquake at Nicaea, A. D. 358. His letters, in two books,
are of the erotic class (cf. § 150), and in a manner of writing rather light and
sportive. They have, however, only the form and superscription of letters, be-
ing without that peculiar vivacity and interest which is imparted to personal
correspondence. Possibly they are the work of a sophist of a still later age.

1. Editions.— All the editions have been taken from a single manuscript, still existing at Vienna ; first published by /. Sambwnis,
(printer PLantin). Autw. 1566. 4.— Better than any previous edition, F. L. Abreich. Zwoll, 1749. 8. a vol. styled Lectionum Aria-
Ur.tietcarutn libri duo; and another entitled Vir. erud, ad Arist, Epitt. conjecturse. Amst. 1752. 8.— I'he most recent and com-
plete, Boissonade. Par. 1822. S.— Scholl, vi. 249.

2. Translations.- German.— 7. F. Here}. Altenb. 1770. 8. French.— HarZej (Brev. Not. p. 471) cites a French transl. Lond.

1739. 12. English.— fu/irTnaiin (Kl. Handb. 522j cites an English. Lond. 1771. 8.

§ 159. Alciphron was a contemporary of Aristasnetus, and a writer of the
same class. Many of the letters are of the amatory kind. The style is agree-
able, but too much ornamented, and showing too much of sophistic affectation.
They reveal, however, many little peculiarities, otherwise not made known, in
the private life of the Greeks.

I. Scholl places Alciphron much earlier, in the same age with Lucian in the 2d cen-
tury ; because, in the letters of Aristaenetus, Alciphro7L and Lucian are represented ^3
corresponding with each other. l"he letters are 116 in number, and styled 'ETncrroXai
aXievriKol koI STaipiKal.

2. Editions.— The first by Aldus, cited § 152. i.—Bergler. Lpz. 1715. 8. with a commentary, repr. Utrecht. 1790. 8.-7. A.
Wagner. Lpz. 1798. 2 vols. 8.— There are materials for a better edition.— SrABZZ, iv. 314.

3. Translations.— German.— 7. F. Herd. Altenb. 1767. 8. FreDch.— Abbe de Richard, Par. 1785. 3 vols. 12. English.—

J'h. Munro and W. BeU,e. Lond. 1791. 8. " Alciphron's Epistles, in which are described the Domestic Manners, the Courtezans,
and the Parasites of Greece."


§ 160. Heliodorns, of Emesa in Syria, bishop of Tricca in Thessaly, lived at
the close of the 4th century. In early life he wrote his iEthiopica, 'At^toTttxa,
in 10 books, respecting the luve of Theagenes and Chariclea. It is very merito-
rious as a narrative, and still more so on account of its pure morality. Yet its
diction has traces of the artificial taste and false eloquence of the sophists.

Cons. SchoU, vi. 228. Far. Quart. Rev. No. ix.

Editions.— /VinccpJ, by K Obsopseut (printer Heniagius). Bas. 1534. 4. from a maniucript obtained from a soldier who took
if at the pillage of the library of Matthias Corviiiiis, at BuJa, in 1526. {SchoU. vi. 229).— >/■. Commtlin. Heidelb. 1 396. 8. with
the Latin version of a Pole named Wanzewichi. first printed Bis. 1552. fol. — J. Bourdelot. Par. 1619. 8. erroneous. Repr. with-
out correct. Lpz. 1772. 8. ed. Sc/imid.— The edition o( Mitscherlich, Gr. & Lat. in 2il vol. of the Scriptcres Erotici, cited § I5i 2.
is better.— The best is said to be by D. Coray. Par. 1804. 2 vols. 8. n ith notes, &c all in Greek. Repr. Lpz. 1805. 2 vols. 8.

2. Translations.— Gjrman.—.Vein/ia)d. Lpz. 1767. 2 vols. S.—K. IV. Gottling. Frankf. 1822. 8. French.— Mtrcier, in the

Bibliolh. des Romans, cited § 152. 2. English.— (Anonymous). Lond. 1791. 2 vols. 12.

§ 161. Achilles Tatius was a native of Alexandria, but of an uncertain age,
although commonly placed in the 3d century, before Heliodorus. His history
is almost entirely unknown.

1 u. He composed a romance, in 8 books, entitled Ta Kara KevKi-rrrrnv Koi KXcirorlMVTa,
or (he story of Leitcippe and CUlophon. It is not without ingenuity and invention, and
the style is agreeably animated, although its excellence is marred by frequent affecta-
tion of beauty and ornament.

See SchSll, vi. 212.— for. Quart. Rev. No. is.- FiZ/fmain, as cited § 152. 2.

2. EiiWous.—Pri/tceps, by /. Cumnulin (ed. Bonnviiiusl. Heidelb. 1601. 8. with Latin version of Crtxx (jCruceus) that had been
previously published, and Longus—Salmasiua. Leyd. 1640. 12.— B. Goltl. L. Boden. Lpz. 1776. S.— Mitscherlich, as cited
\ 152. 2.—Fr. Jacobs, Gr. & Lat. Lpz. 1821. 2 vols. 8. the best edition.

3. Transbtions.— German.— .^Jt ^ GUtdmapfel. Lpz. 1S02. 8. French.— 3/tTCicr, in 2d vol. of BiUioth. des Rom. cited

§ 152. 2.— There are several others. English. — {Anonymous). Lond. 1720. 12.

§ 162. Longus was a sophist of the 4th or 5th century. He is the best erotic
writer of the Greeks (cf. § 151). His romance in 4 books, commonly called
the Pastorals of Daphnis and Chloe, is an attractive work, written with care, but
sometimes too exact, and having some passages which are exceptionable on ac-
count of their freedom.

1. The period when this writer lived is wholly uncertain ; the name is not mentioned
by any ancient writer, and is by some supposed to have originated in mistake. The
celebrated manuscript, now existing at Florence, does not name the author of the work,
but bears the title Ataffianoi' cpiortKcii' Xoyot S ; and it is possible that, by some copyist,
the last word was taken for the name of the writer.

Schm, vi. 238.— Cf. For. Qtcart. Rev. No. ix.

2. Editions.— ^n/icepi, by Columbaiiics (printer, Junta). Flor. 1598. 4.— Three editions in the 17th century.— iVeaZmus {yeatdme
publisher). Par. !754. 4. with Latin version and plates.— Bod«i, Gr. & Lat. Lpz. 1777. 8. — niloiscm,Gr. k Lat. Par. 1778. 2
vols. 4. one of the best editions. Mitscherlich, as cited § 152. 2.—* G. B. Schdfer, Gr. & Lat. Lpz. 1803. 8. a better text,— A splen-
did ed. with plates, was printed by Didot. Par. 1S02. 4.— £. Seiler, Gr. & Lat. Lips. 1834. 8.

3. Translations.- German.— /. C. Krabinger. Landsh. 1809. S.—Fr. Passow, with the Greek text. Lpz 18M. 12. French.

/. Amyot. Par. 1559. 8. often reprinted. Far. 1827. 12. Gr. & Lat. & Gall. English.— G. Jhomley. Lond. 1617. 8.

§ 163. Xenophon of Ephesus, whose period of flourishing is unknown, was
the author of the stori/ of Anthia and Abrocomas, in 5 books;

1. Some have placed this writer as late as the 5th century ; others suppose he must have lived
before the time of Constanliiie ; Peerlkamp, whose editiori of the romance is cited below, thinks
that its author was the earliest writer of the class, and that Xenophon is merely an assumed

Scholl, iv. i\a.—Diinlop, Hist, of Fiction.

2. Editions.— The first, by Anl. Cocchi, Gr. & Lat. Lond. 1726. 8.— Two next editions faulty.— (fwrtA) Mitscherlich, cited
§ 152. 2.— A. E. de Locdla, Gr. & Lat. Vindob. 1796. 4. good.— Best, P. H. Peerlkamp, Gr. & Lat Harl. 1818. i.—SchSll,
iv. 311.

3. Translations. — German. — J. G. Krabinger. MOnch. 1820. 8. French.— 7our<ian. Par. 1748. 12. and in Bibliottu cited

§ 152. 2. Italian.— .SaZuini. Lond. 1723. 12. before 1st edition of the original.

§ 164. Chariton, of Aphrodisia, is another romance writer of whom nothing
is known. The work bearing his name is entitled Tuiv rtBpi Xatplai/ xal KaXTicp-
fjorjv f pwrtxtov Sirjyr^ixdtiov ^6yo^ jj, the love-story of Chxreas and Callirrhoe, in 8

Scholl, vi. 246.— i'or. Quart. Rev. No. ii.

1. This was first published by /. Ph. d'Orville {Doruillius). Amst. 1750. 3 vols. 4. with a Lat transl. by Rciske, and a very
learned conimentary. — Repr. of same ed. C. D. Beck. Lpz. I7f3. S.

2. Translations.— German.— flei/ne. Lpz. 1753. S.—Schmieder. Ebend. 1806. 8. French.— iaicAer. Par. 1763. S. English.

—Lond. 1764. 2 vols. 12. (Fuhnnann, p. 528.)

§ 165. Eumathius, or Eustathius, of Egypt, also of an uncertain age, was a
writer belonging to the same class. This person must not be confounded with


Eustathius the celebrated commentator upon Homer (cf. § 145). He wrote the
tale of Hysmine and Hysminias^ To xad' 'TsfiivTjv xai 'Tafxtviav bpaixa, in 11

1. This romance, of little value, has been printed but seldom, (cf. Schbll, vi. 247).— G. Gaulmin, Gr. & Lat. Par. 1617. 8. repr
Vienn. 1791.— L. H. Teuchner. Lpz. 1792. 8. (Gaulmin's, without notes.)

2. Translations.— German.-Midam Reiske, in the Hdlas (Th. i. p. 101). Lpz. 1778. French j in the BiUioth. and Collect.

cited § 152. 2.

VI. — Philosophers.

§ 166 u. Grecian philosophy was not, properly speaking, of native origin ; but was
introduced, by various colonists, from Egypt, Phcenicia, and Thrace. It tirst appeared
in the poets who treated, in their verse, ot the nature of things, the origin of the world,
the system of the gods, the principles of morals, &c. Linus, Musaeus, Orpheus, and
Hesiod, belong to this class ; and even Homer may be included. I'he poets of Greece,
it may be truly said, were her tirst philosophers. Cf P. IV. § 40 — 42.

See D. Tiedmann, Griechenlands erste Philosophen, oder Lebtn und Systeme des Orpheus, Thales, &C. Lpz. 1780. 8.— TVnne-
mann. Hist. Phil. (Fr. vers, of Cousiii, or Engl. vers, by Johnsoii, cited § 183. 2. ; seel. '5.)— Enfield, Hist. Phil. bk. ii. ch. ».—
La Blelttrie, L'etude de la philosophie ancienne, in the Mem. Jicad. Jnscr. vol. xxvii. p. IbS.—Ritter, Theil i. p. 137—174. as cited
§ 183. 2. " This author maintains that the earliest Greek philosophy has no traces of an oriental origin."

^ 167. It may be also remarked with propriety, that the next philosophers of Greece
were her priests and legislators. Grecian philosophy had a religious aspect in its very
beginnings, in the fanciful speculations of the poets respecting the origin of things, and
the nature and offices of the gods. The notion of a multitude of supernatural spirits,
having each an appropriate department in governing the world, could not but affect the
philosophical reasonings of all embracing it. It was perfectly natural to inquire how
these superior agents would make known their will, and predict to man the future, or
warn hiin of danger. Thus was furnished a fruitful field of speculation upon the va-
rious subjects of augury, omens, oracles, and the whole system of divination. The
ideas, which became incorporated into the popular belief, were indeed but a mass of
absurdities not deserving the name of philosophy ; yet it was about such ideas that the
early Greeks expended much thought, or rather indulged in much imagination. Upon
this foundation arose a curious fabric : divination, under the ingenuity of priests, who
united to personal shrewdness and foresight some knowledge of physical nature,
grew into a sort of regular science. The institutions termed mysteries had, in their
nature and design, some intimate connection with this earlv relisioas philosophy.
Cf P. IV. § 41. P. III. % 70—75. . h ^

When the progress of society demanded the care of the lawgiver, and began at the
saine time to furnish the talents and knowledge requisite to frame successful codes, then
philosophy assumed a new aspect. The moral and social nature of man began to be stu-
died more. Reflecting minds examined into the motives by which men may be actuated,
and contemplated the nature, proper punishments, and preventives of crime, the theory
of government and of education. In learning the character of this political philosophy,
we must consider particularly the civil institutions of Lycurgus and Solon, and the
character and doctrines of those who are called, by way of eminence, the wise men

of Greece.- A glance at the former shows us, that very particular reference was had

to the training of youth for their future circumstances. The two legislators differed
widely in their systems. The Spartan aimed to form a community of high-minded
warriors ; the other sought rather a community of cultivated scholars. The plans of
education varied accordingly. Lycurgus enjoined abstinence and hardships ; Solon
furnished books and teachers. It must not be forgotten, however, that the Spartan

system was two hundred years earlier than the Athenian. The seven sasres belong

to the age of Solon, who was indeed himself one of them. They were all acuially em-
ployed as magistrates and statesmen ; but they were also the philosophers of the age.
They were not merely speculative, like the disciples of the different sects afterwards;
nor did they, hke the preceding poets, indulge in fanciful dreams : they were rather
men of shrewd practical observation. Hence the character of their philosophical frag-
ments, which are wholly proverbial maxims, adapted for the conduct of life in manners
and morals. Their precepts were not always given in formal statements, but some-
times clothed in symbolic expressions, which were understood only by those to whom
they were explained. Fabulous tales were also sometimes employed for the same
purpose ; such were those of ^sop, in which moral and pofitical maxims are drawn
out into allegory.

On the political philosophy of the Greeks, Enfield, Hist. Phil. bk. ii. ch. 2.—RMer, Theil i. p. 137, as cited § 183. S.—Wdrbur-
ton, Div. Legation of Moses, bk. ii. sect. 1-3.— Chevalier Ramsay, Travels of Cyrus, bk. iv. & v.—De laSarre, Histoire de Lycurge,
u. the Mem. Acad. Inscr. vii. 262.— ia Nauze, Elat des Sciences chez les Lacedsmoniens, in Ibe Mem. Acad. Inscr. xix. p. 166.


— C. O. Heyne, De Zaieucj et Charondas legibus atque inslilulis, in his Opiiic Acadtm. lom. u.—It. it Larrey, Histoire des sept

Bages (wiih rem. by Beaurnarchois). Lahaye, 1734. 2 vols. S.

^ 168. The next aspect in which we find Grecian philosophy, presents it as exhibited
in the different schools, and sects. This aspect was not distinctly assumed uniil a little
after the age of Solon, daring our third period of Greek Literature (cf. § 9). The first
origin of dilferent schools is commonly ascribed to the clashing interpretations, which
were put upon Homer by the Rhapsodists (cf. ^ 21), who alter rehearsing passages
from the great poet and master, added their own explanations and comments. I'hese
interpreters disagreed in expounding the Homeric pliilosophy, and soon had followers

or advocates among those not belonging to their particular profession. At length

two very eminent men arose and became each the head of a school in philosophy,
about the same period : viz. Thales and Pythagoras, who died, the former about 540,
the latter about 500 B. C. — Thales founded what is called the Ionic school, and Pytha-
goras the Italic school. From these two original schools, all the sects may be derived.
We will first slightly notice these two, and then briefly speak of the sects that sub-
sequently grew out of each.

i 169. '1 he Io?iic was the earliest of the two schools. Thales, its founder, was a
native of Miletus, possessed of wealth, and great talents. He traveled in Crete and
Egypt. Ranked among the seven sages, he devoted much thought to political philo-
sophy. But he also took up all the inquiries about the physical and material world,
which were agitated by the Rhapsodists. The precept yvudt tycavTov is attributed
to him.

Philosophy as studied in this school included in reality every branch of science, not
only morals and politics, but rhetoric, mathematics, astronomy, and all that is now
comprehended under natural philosophy and natural history. — It was a grand point of
inquiry among the disciples to ascertain w'hat was the Jirst principle of all things in the
universe. Some found it in one or other of the material elements ; others recognized a
divine mind, as prior to all other causes. The principal philosophers were Anaximan-
der, Anaximenes, Anaxagoras, and Archelaus of Miletus.

Enfield, bk. ii. ch. \%.—CudworWs Intdleclual System, ch. i. § 22, and ch. iv. § 20.— a Ritter, Histoire de la Phitosophie loDi-
enne. Berl. 1S21. S.— Sa>ne, Geschichte, &c. Theil i. as cited § 183. 2.—Abbi de Canaye, tur le ptiilosophe Thales, in Mem. de
VAcad. dts Inscr. tome s.— Johnson's Tennemann, sect. 85-87.— D. Tiedemann, Geist. der Speculat. Fhilosoph. von Thales bis
Socrates. Marb. 1797. 2 vols. 8.

"& 170. The /^Jtc school was still more celebrated. Its founder, Pythagoras, was
a native of Samos. After traveling, especially in Egypt, he taught morals and politics
at Samos. For some cause he afterwards went to Italy, and established his school at
Crotona in Magna Greecia. The pupils, whose numbers soon amounted to 600, dwelt
in one public building, and held their property in common. Their business for each
day was very regularly planned. They were divided into two classes, frohationers
and initialed; the latter only were admitted to all the privileges of the order, and made
acquainted with its highest knowledge. This establishment was at length broken up
by popular violence.

Under philosophy the Italic school, like the Ionic, included every object of human
knowledge. But Pythagoras considered music and astronomy of special value. He
is supposed to have had some very correct views of astronomy, agreeing with the true
Copernican system. The beautiful fancy of the music of the spheres is attributed to
him. The planets striking on the ether, through which they pass, must produce a
sound ; this must vary according to their different magnitudes, velocities, and relative
distances ; these difierences were all adjusted with perfect regularity and exact pro-
portions, so that the movements of the bodies produced the richest tones of harmony;

not heard, however, by mortal ears. One of his distinguishing peculiarities was the

doctrine of emanations ; God is the soul of the universe, pervading all things, incor-
poreal ; from him emanated /oz/r difl^erent degrees of intelligences, inferior gods,
daemons, heroes, and men. Another was the doctrine of n£T€j.ixpvxco(Tii, or transmigra-
iion of the soul. General abstinence and self-government were strongly urged. —

Some of his apophthegms and symbolic precepts are preserved. Cf. ^ 5S. 1. Some

of the principal disciples were Empedocles (cf. § 64), Ocellus. Archytas, and Philolaus.
The latter is said to have sold to Plato the records and books of the Pythagorean school.

Enfield, bk. ii. ch. xii.— ff. Rilter, Geschichte der Philos. Theil i.— Ramsay, Trav. of Cyms, bk. vi.—Hecren, by Bancroft, ch.
xiv. p. 297.—/. Scheffar, de naiura et constilutione philosophiae Italicae. Vjlenib. 1701. 8. — Dacier, La vie de Pythagore, ses sym-
bols, &c. Par. 1706. 2 vols. \2.—Th. Kiessling. Jamblichi de Vita Pyth. liber. Lips. 1815. ^.—Cousin's Tennemann, § 88-95.—
Good, Book of Nature, vol. i. lect. 2.— C. L. Gravt, De Pylbagoreorum et Essenoruni Disciplina et Sodaliliis. Goit. 1S08. 4.

•^i 171. The first school, that drew its descent from the Ionic, was the Socmfic. This
is so named from its founder, Socrates, who was a pupil of the last public teacher of the
Ionic school. Socrates is entitled to the praise of being the best man of pagan aiitiquif y ;
the charges brought by some against his purity being without evidence- — He was first
trained to the manual employment of his father, a common statuary ; but was after-
wards patronized by a wealthy Athenian, named Crito, and enjoyed the instruction
of eminent teachers. He was several times engaged in war as a soldier ; in one en
gagement he saved Alcibiades when wounded; in another, Xenophon. After he
64 2U


began to teach, most of his time was spent in pubhc, and he was always ready and free
to discourse. In the latter part of his hfe he was called to civil offices. His" domestic

vexations from his wife are proverbial, but very possibly exaggerated. The trial,

condemnation, and death of Socrates, are themes of intense interest both to the scholar
and the philanthropist ; tmd have fixed an indelible blot on the character of the Athe-
nians. At trial he bad no advocate, but made his own plea. Lysias had prepared an
oration for his use, but he declined the favor ; Plato would have spoken, but the court
forbade it.

The Socratic mode of instruction has been mentioned before (P. IV. ^ 73). One of
the grand peculiarities of Socrates was, that he confined the attention of his pupils
chieHy to rnoral science. He considered the other subjects included in the studies of
the old Ionic school as comparatively useless. He seems to have believed, but with
some doublings, the immortality of the soul. He left nothing in writing ; but we have
an authentic source of knowledge respecting his views in his Memoirs. 'Anojii>r]iiot'svnara,
by Xenophon. The writings of Plato cannot be so much depended on for this ob-
ject, because he was himself the founder of a new sect. Those disciples of Socrates
who adhered to their master simply, without advancing notions of their own, are some-
times denominated pure Socratic. .^schines, Cebes, and Xenophon are the principal.

Enfield, bk. ii. ch. iv. — Rollin, bk. ix. ch. iv. — Gillies, Hist. Greece, ch. xxiv. — Mitford, ch. xxii. § 3. — /. G. Cooper, Life
of Socra'es, &e. Lond. 1771. 8. — G. JVizgers, Socrate comme homme, ciloyen et philosophe. Rosl. 1807. — Fraguier, Ueiiion da
Socrates, Mem. de V.icad. des hua: iv. 360. — Freret, Sur le condemnation de Socrate, In the same Mem. &c. xlvii. p. 209. — R,
Kares, Essay on the Denjoii of Socrates. Lond. 1712. S.—Cndwortfi, Intel). System, ch. iv. ^ 23. — CousiyVs or Johns ni's Tenue-
niann, § 113 118 —Cousin'j Nouveaux Fra^mens Philosophiques. Par. I82S. S. p. \b\.—Schwcishdwer, Theology and Morals
of Socrates, in his Opusc. .^cadtm.— and transl. by F. M. Hubbard, in Bibl. Repos. July, 1S3S, and Jan. 1839.

"5i 172. The Socratic school was soon divided into numerous branches. No less than
five sects appeared, headed by philosophers who had listened to Socrates, and two of
these ere long gave birth each to a new sect, thus raising the number to seven. These
may be divided into two classes, and perhaps well designated as Alinor Socratic and
Major Socratic sects, the original and proper school of Socrates being called Pure
Socratic. •

I'he Minor Socratic were three ; the Cyrenaic, Megaric, and Eliac.

The Cyrenaic had its name from Cyrene, in Libya, the native place of hs founder,
Aristippus. The peculiarities of this sect favored indulgence in pleasure. Its author
was fond of luxury and ornament. The sect was of short duration. They were some-
times styled 'Hwi'u-oi. The Megaric took its name from the native chy of its founder,

Euclid, who was born at Megara^ It was also called Eristic, from its disputatious
character, and Dialectic, from the form of discourse practiced by its disciples. This
sect was famous for its subtleties in the art of reasoning. Some of their futile sophisms
are recorded ; e. g. the Horned ; what you have never lost, you have ; horns you have
never lost; therefore you have horns. Thsse philosophers also agitated the controversy
about nniversals and particulars; the same substantially as that which was so acrimo-
nious in the middle ages, between the 7iominalists and the realists. The Eliac was

so called from EUs, the place where its founder, Phtedo, was born and delivered his
lectures. It is sometimes called Eretriac, from the circumstance that Menedemus, a
disciple of Phsedo, transferred the school to Eretria, the place of his own nativity. It
opposed the fooleries of the IMegaric philosophy, and the licentiousness of the Cyrenaic,
but never acquired much importance.

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