Johann Joachim Eschenburg.

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Cecropia, from the name of its founder ; and afterwards 'A^rjvai, Athens, in honor
of the goddess Minerva (whom the Greeks called 'ASrfivri), because she was the pro-
tectress of the city. In its most flourishing state, it was one of the largest and most
beautiful cities of Greece, and is said by Aristides to have been a day's journey in
going around it ; according to other and more exact computations, it was about one
hundred and seventy-eight stadia, or rather more than twenty-two Roman miles ; and
Dion Chrysostom reckons it to have been two hundred stadia, about twenty-five Ro-
man miles in circumference. — Col. Leake considers the ancient city to have been much
larger than the modern, and estimates the circumference as not less than 19 miles at
least, reckonmg the sinuosities of the coasts and walls. — The number of gates is not
known ; thirteen are named by Robinson ; the largest was called AittwAoj', and was near
the Ceramicus ; the 'l£p« was that leading to Eleusis.

For a plan of Athens, see our Plate I., by which the reader may learn the situation of the principal parts and buildings. — The
description here given, is drawn chiefly from Rohinson't Arcbaeologia Graeca.

§ 105. Athens hes in a valley, extending from motmt Penfelicus on the east to the
Sinus Saronicus on the west, between mount Fames on the north, and Hymcttus on
the south. In the plain of this beautiful valley thus surrounded by natural, we
behold the very singular geological feature of six insular mountain rocks standing in regu-
lar succession, and gradually diminishing as you descend froin Pentelicus westward to
the sea. The one nearest the sea is called the hill of I\Iusn>Ais. On the next is the Acro-
polis of Athens. The one next to this on the east is 3//. Anrhesmus, on the summit
of which was a temple and statue in honor of Jupiter; from this eminence an observer
could survey the whole of Athens and its environs. — Two streams furnished their
waters to the city. One was the Ilissus, which flowed to the east and south of the
chy, and which is supposed, from the appearance of its channel and from the allusions
of the poets, to have been anciently much larger than it has been seen in modern
times. The other, Cephissus, was still smaller and ran on the other side. — v-Athens
mav be described in two parts ; the Cecropia, built by Cecrops on the summit of the


hill termed Acropolis {dKpSmXig), and called the upper city, fi ava tt6\i; ; and the part
built afterward, rj kolto) tt6\i;, or the lower city.

The hill or Acropolis, as distinguished from the lower part, is distinctly seen in the View of Athens given in our Plate IX a, on
page SO ; which is taken from /. C. Hobhmise't Journey through Albania and other provinces of Turkey, &c. Lend. 1S13.

2 vols. 4.— The Grecian method of thus connecting an Acropolis with their towns, is also illustrated by our Plate IV. cf. § 80.

'^ 106. The citadel, or upper city, was sLxty stadia in circumference, and was fenced
with wooden pales, or, as some say, was surrounded with olive-trees. It was fortitied
on the south side by a strong wall, which was built by Cimon, the son of Miltiades,
from the spoils taken in the Persian war, and which was called Kinuviov teTx^s- The
north wall was built many ages before by Agrolas, or according to some, by Euryalus
and Hyperbius, two brothers, who first taught the Athenians the art of building houses.
This wall was denominated neXacyiKov or UeXanyiKov, from the Pelasgi, the name of
its founders. This wall was beautified with nine gates, from which it is sometimes
called 'Evi/eaiivMv ; but though there were several lesser gates, there was one grand en-
trance into the citadel, the Tlpo-rrvXaia, to which the Athenians ascended by steps covered
with white marble, and which was built by Pericles at great expense. Over this en-
trance is one of those enormous slabs of marble called "marble beams" by Wheeler,
and to which Pausanias particularly alluded when, in describing the Propylaea, he
says that, even in his time, nothing surpassing the ioeauty of the workmanship or the
magnitude of the stones used in the building had ever been seen.

I'he inside of the citadel was ornamented with innumerable edifices, statues, and
monuments, on which the ancient stories were fully described. The noble statues of
Pericles, Phormio, Iphicrates, Timotheus, and other Athenian generals, were here
intermingled with those of the gods.

Here was the temple of Minerva, called NtV>7 or Victory, constructed of white mar-
ble, and placed on the right of the entrance into the citadel.

^ 107. About the middle of the chadel was the stat-ely temple of Minerv^a, called
Parthenon, because that goddess preserved her virginhy inviolate, or because it was
dedicated by the daughters of Erechtheus, who were particularly called Trap^evoi, vir-
gins. It was also denominated 'E/card/^TrcJoi/, because it was one hundred feet square.
It was burnt by the Persians, but restored by Pericles, who enlarged it fifty feet on
each side. It was of the Doric order, and built of that beautiful white marble found
in the quarries of Pentehcus, a mountain of Attica. Within this temple was the statue
of Pvlinerva, so celebrated for its size, the richness of its materials, and the exquisite
beauty of the workmanship. The figure, the work of Phidias, was twenty-sLx cubits
high. This temple still remains a noble monument of antiquity, being 229 feet in
length, 101 in breadth, and 69 in height.

A view of the Parthenon is given in our Plate XXI. fig. 1. cf. P. III. § 96. On the bas-relief taken from it by Lord Elgin, cf. P. IV
5 190. On the works of Phidias, cf. P. IV. § 179.

Here also was the temple of Neptune, surnamed Erechtheus. This was a double
building, and, besides other curiosities, contained the salt spring called 'Epax^et^, which
was feigned to have sprung out of the earth from a stroke of Neptune's trident, when
he contended with Minerva for the possession of the country. This part of the temple
was consecrated to Neptune. The other part belonged to Minerva, surnamed IToAiaj,
the protectress of the city, and IldvSpoaos, from one of the daughters of Cecrops of that
name. Here, so late as the second century of the Christian a^ra, was the sacred olive-
tree, which was said to have been produced by Minerva, and to have been as old as
the foundation of the citadel. Here also was the image of the goddess, which was said
to have fallen from heaven in the reign of Erichthonius, and which was guarded by
dragons, called otKovpol o(p£ii, and had a lamp always burning with oil, and an owl be-
fore it. The whole structure was called 'Epex^eiov. Both these buildings still remain.
The smaller edifice, which is an entrance to the other, is 29 feet in length, and 21 feet

3 inches in breadth. The larger is 63^ feet in length, and 36 feet in breadth. The roof
is supported by channeled Ionic pillars. See Plate IV a.

Behind the temple of Minerva stood the public treasiiry, which from its situation was
called 'OTTtcr^dJo/iOf, and in which, besides other public money, a thousand talents were
deposited for any very great exigency of the state.

In the citadel were also several other edifices, as the chapel of Jupiter '^oiTr,p^ and oi
Minerva Swretpa; the temple of Agraulos, the daughter of Cecrops, or rather of Mi
nerva, who was worshiped under that name, in the front and steep side of the rock;
and the temple of Venus, 'lifrroXvreia, consecrated by Pheedra, when in love with Hyp-

^ 108. The lower city, which contained all the buildings that surrounded the citadel,
with ?;Iunychia, Phalerum, and Piraeus, was encompassed with walls of unequal
strength, built at different times and by different persons. The principal parts of the
walls were the "SlaKpa TeXxn, which joined the harbor of Piraeus to the city, and which
being about five miles in length, were sometimes called Ma^-oa aKiXn, long legs, anc^
Irachia loniza. long arms. They consisted of two sides. The wall on the north side
was built by Pericles at great expense, and continued forty stadia. That on the south

c 2

IV a.


side was called Nortov TeTxoi, or ^rapa fiicrov TtixT], to distinguish it from the eouth wall
of the citadel, and sometimes reixos (paXripiKov, because it included the port of Phalerum.
It was built by Themistocles, of huge square stones, not cemented together with mor-
tar, but fastened on the outside by iron and leaden cramps. The height of it was forty
cubits, but Themistocles wished to raise it to eighty cubits. Its length was thirty-five
stadia. Upon both of the walls was erected a great number of turrets, which, after
the Athenians became so numerous that the city could not contain them, were con-
verted into dweUing-houses. The ^lowvxiov, or wall that encompassed the Munychia,
and joined it to the Piraeus, contained sixty stadia; and the exterior wall on the other
side was forty-three stadia in length; and hence it appears, as has been before ob-
served, that the whole circumference of Athens was 178 stadia, or rather more than 22
Roman miles.

§ 109. Oi the buildings of the lower city, the principal and most remarkable were
the following. — UoukcTov was a stately edifice, in which were kept the sacred utensils
used at festivals, and in which were prepared all things necessary for solemn proces-
sions. — The temple of Vulcan, or of Vulcan and Miuerva, situaied not far from the
Ceramicus within the city, was a public prison. — Near to this building was the temple
of the Heavenly Venus ; for the Athenians had two deities of the name of Venus, of
which one was designated Oipan'a) and the other ndj'Jr///oj: the former presided over
chaste and pure love ; the latter was the patroness of lust and debauchery. — 'AvaKciov
was a temple of Castor and Pollux, who were called avaKcs. In this place slaves were
exposed to sale.

The temple of Theseus was erected by Cimon in the middle of the chy, near the
place where the youths employed themselves in wrestling and other bodily exercises.
This temple was a sanctuary for slaves, and for all persons of low conduion that fled
from the persecution of men in power, in commemoration of Theseus, who, when.
aUve, was the guardian and protector of the distressed.

Speaking of the temple of Theseus, Dr. Clarke observes, that this beautiful Doric temple more
resemblin?, in the style of its architeclure, the temples of PcEstum than of Minerva in the Acro-
polis, and the most entire of any of the remaining structures of ancient Greece, were it rot for
the damage which the sculptures have sustained, may be considered as still perfect. Tlie entire
edifice is of Pentelican marble ; it stands east and west, the principal front facing the east ; and
it has a portico of six columns in each front, and on each side a range of eleven columns, ex-
clusive of the columns on the angles.
A view of this temple is given in Plate XXI. fig. 3.

§ 110. 'OXvfiniov, or '0\v^tTT€iov, was a temp]e of Ionic architecture, erected in honor of
Jupiter the Olympian, and was the most magnificent structure in Athens. The area, or
peribolus, within which it stood, was four stadia in circumference. It was con-
structed with double rows of columns, 10 feet in front, and 21 in flank, amounting in
all to 124; the extent of the front being 171 feet, and the leng'h of the l^ank more
than 400. These pillars are the majestic ruin of this sumptuous and stately temple.
The foundation of this edifice was laid by Pisistratus, whose sons continued the work ;
but it was not completely finished till the time of Adrian, 700 years after the structure
had been commenced.

The temple oi Apollo and Pan stood on the north side at the bottom of the citadel,
in a cave or grotto, which was called Ma^pai niTpai, or KcKponiai nirpai. — The temple
o{ Diana, surnamed A.vaiZ,uivos, because in it women, after the birth of their first child,
dedicated their girdles to that goddess.

Uav^Eov was a temple consecrated to all the gods, who, as they were unhed in one
edifice, were honored with one common festival, which was callei Qeo^ivia. This was
also a very magnificent structure, and was supported by 120 pillars of marble. On
the outside were curiously engraved the deeds and story of all the gods ; and on one
great gate two horses were carved by Praxiteles.

The temple of the Eight Winds was a tower of eight squares, of marble, on every
side of which was carved the figure of a wind, according to the quarter whence it

The model of this building was furnished b/ Andronicus Cyrrhastcs, who placed upon the top of the tower a small pyramid of
marble, upon the summit of which he erected a brazen trjton, holding in his right hand a switch or wand. The triton was so placed

that he turned round with the wind, and pointed with the wand to the wind which blew. A view of this structure is given in our

Plate XXI. fig. 2.

^111. Sroal, porticos, were very numerous at Athens; but the most remarkable
was that called TIcioiavaKTios, and afterwards UuiKiXn, from its containing a variety
of curious pictures, drawn by those great masters, Polygnotus, Mycon. and Panaenus,
the brother of Phidias. At the'gate of the UoikiXt] was the statue of Solon. — To the
north of the Acropolis, not far from the temple of Theseus, are the ruins of a struc-
ture once evidently very splendid, supposed by Stuart to be the ruins of this celebrated
Stoa or Porch. Some travelers have mistaken them for the remains of the temple of
Jupiter Olympitrs already described, which was in the southern part of the chy, near
the fountain Calirrhoe.

HovacTov was a fort near the citadel, which received its name from the poet Musaeua


the scholar of Orpheus, who used to repeat his verses in this place, where he was also
buried. — 'SlSetov was a music theatre, built by Peri The inside of this building
was filled with seats and ranges of pillars ; and the outside roof or covering was gra-
dually bent downwards. The roof, which was constructed of the masts and yards of
the vessels taken from the Persians, and in its form resembled the tent of Xerxes,
was supported by columns of stone or marble. It was burnt by Sylla at the siege of
Athens, but afterwards rebuilt. This Odeum was situated on the south-east angle
of the citadel. 'I'he Odeum of Herodes Atticus has soiuetimes been confounded with
that of Pericles, but the Odeum of Herodes was situated at the south-west angle of
the citadel. This last was built by Herodes in memory of his wife, and was con-
sidered as far surpassing, in magnitude and in the costliness of its materials, every
other edifice of the kind in all Greece. The roof of this building was of cedar.

The Ceramicus iKepaiisiKos) received its denomination from Ceramus, the son of
Bacchus and Ariadne; or more properly dwo rfjs KefiapieXKris Tix^ris, from the potter's
art, which was invented here by Corsebus. This extensive space was divided into
two parts, one of which was situated within the city, and contained a great number
of temples, theatres, porticos, &c. ; the other was in the suburbs, was a public bury-
ing place, and contained the Academy, and several other buildings. — The Lyceum
and the Cynosarges were also in the suisurbs on the north-east.

Respecting the Academy and other Gymnasia at Athens, see P. IV. §§ 64, 74.

"^ 112. 'Ayo/iai, forums, were very numerous; but the most remarkable were the
old and the new forum. The new forum was in a place called 'Eperpia, which it is
probable was near to the portico of Zeno. The old forum was situated in the Cera-
micus within the city, and was called 'Apx«'« dyopa. It was extremely spacious, and
was decorated with buildings dedicated to the worship of the gods, or to the service
of the state ; with others which sometimes afforded an asylum to the wretched, but
which were often a sheUer for the wicked ; and wkh statues decreed to kings and in-
dividuals, who had merited well of the republic. In it were held the public assem-
bhes of the people ; but every trade had a different place assigned as a market, and
the forum was divided into different parts, according to the wares exposed for sale.
Thus KvKXng denotes the place where slaves were sold; 'AX^trdn-wXif dyopa, the bakers'
market; Ix^t^oTrwXty dyopa, the fish-monger's market; TwaiKcia dj-opa, the market for wo-
men's apparel. The time when goods were exposed to sale was called irM^ovaa dyopa, full
market, from the great number of persons assembled ; and different hours of the day
seem to have been appointed for the sale of different commodities. To this place the
inhabitants resorted every day. The Scythians, kept in pay by the republic to main-
tain order, were encamped in the middle of the forum. Collectors also attended to
receive the duties imposed on every thing that was sold, and magistrates to superin-
tend what passed.

BovXev-rfipia were public halls, in which each company of tradesmen met, and deli-
berated on matters relating to their trades. At Athens trade was very much encou-
raged ; and if any one reproached another, even the lowest citizen, with living by the
profit of his traffic, he was liable to an action of slander.

§ 113. Aqueducts were not common at Athens before the time of the Romans ; al-
though one is said to have been built by Pisistratus. The want of them was supphed
by wells ((ppeara), some of which were dug by private persons, and others at the pub-
lic expense ; but as good water at Athens was extremely scarce, frequent quarrels
arose among the chizens. Adrian laid the foundation of a stately aqueduct, which
was finished by his successor Antoninus, and which was supported by Ionic pillars.

The stadium was an oblong area, semicircular at one end, designed originally for
the foot-race, but used for other games and exercises ; and for the accommodation ot
spectators, v/ho resorted thither in great numbers, it was built with steps above each
other, in order that the higher ranks might look over the heads of those placed below
them. The most remarkable at Athens, and indeed in all Greece, was the stadium
("EraSiov Uavadnva'tKov), erected near the river Ilissus by Lycurgus, and afterwards en-
larged by Herodes Atticus, one of the richest of the Athenians. It was built of Pen
tehc marble, with such magnificence that Pausanias did not expect to be credited,
even in his brief description of this work, and says that it was a wonder to be taken
for a mountain of white marble upon the banks of the Ihssus. It was about 125 geo-
metrical paces in length, and 26 or 27 in breadth, and was therefore called a stadium,
a measure in ordinary use among the Greeks, being the eighth part of a Roman mile.

§ 114. The Areopagus was a small eminence a little to the north-west of the Acro-
pohs. On this, the court or senate of the Areopagus usually held its meetings. (Cf.
P. III. § lOS). A space was leveled for the purpose on the summit of the rock ; and
the steps which conducted to it, were cut out of the natural solid stone. There was
originally neither enclosure nor roof; but merely an altar to Minerva, and two stone
seats for the accuser and defendant. The court was occasionally protected by
temporary erection. — The P?iyx, Uvv^, was another eminence, opposite the Areo-
pagus, not far from the citadel, celebrated as the place where the Athenians
ae.d their assembhes. Almost the whole of the structure, as appears from a


recent removal of the earth in this place, was an excavation of the rock. The PniJia,
on which the orators stood to address the people, was carved from the stone, and yet
remains. Before this was a semicircular area, of which the part most distant from
the orator's stone consists of masonry. In the perpendicular surface of the rock,
facing this area, are niches for votive tablets. North-east from the Acropohs, on the
street of the tripods (cf. § 115), was the Upvravelov, where was a public hall, and where
the laws of Solon were deposited. Near it was the BovXeTov or senate-house.

'S 115. Athens had theatres besides those termed Odea. One of the most celebrated
was the theatre of Bacchus, capable of accommodating 30,000 spectators. (Cf. P. IV.
^ 235.) This contained statues of many of the tragic and comic writers, and was the
place where the dramatic contests were decided : it was near the Acropohs, at its
south-east angle. Nothing of it is now seen except the circular sweep scooped in
the rock for the seats. Above it, in the rock of the Acropolis, still appears a cavern
or grotto, formerly termed the Cave of Bacchus, but now converted into a sort of
chapel. — Close by this cavern stands a building, called the Choragic monument of
Thrasyllus ; having on its front three inscriptions recording dramatic victories obtained
in the theatre.. Over this building, and higher up the rock, are the two Columns of
the tripods, or Choragic pillars. There were several other edifices in Athens, erected
for the same purpose; one, exquisitely wrought, is near the eastern end of the Acro-
polis, commonly called the Lantern of Demosthenes, but proved by its inscription to
be a choragic monument erected by Lysicrates. This edifice stood" in the street of the
tripods, so called from the circumstance that in it were erected (on choragic monu-
ments or pillars, or otherwise located) numerous tripods, which had been oTjtained as
prizes in the musical or theatrical contests.

Respecting the dramatic and musical contests above alluJed to, see P. IV. § 66.— A view cf the Monument of Thrasvllus is given
in Plate XLIX. fig. C ; and of that of Lysicrates, in the same Plate, fig. A ; the designation Lantern of DemosI henea is said to have
been applied by the modern Greeks, under the groundless supposition that it was the study of that illustrious orator.

^ 116. Athens had three harbors for ships: — 1. Uetpaieiig, Pirceus, which belonged
to the tribe of Hippothoontis, and was about 35 or 40 stadia distant from the city,
before the building of the iiaKph. Tcixi or long walls. After that time, the Athenians,
by the direction of Themistocles, rendered this their principal harbor. It contained
three opi^oi or docks. In this harbor were five porticoes, which being joined together
formed a very large one, called on that account Max-pa aToa. The Piraeus also con-
tained two forums. Here the productions of all countries were accumulated ; and
this was the market not of Athens only, but of all Greece. In this harbor three hun-
dred galhes have sometimes been collected at once ; and it was sufficientlv capacious
to contain four hundred. The advantages of this place were first observe'd by The-
rnistocles when he devised the plan of giving a navy to Athens. Markets and maga-
zines were presently erected, and an arsenal capable of furnishing every thing neces-
sary for the equipment of a great number of vessels. — 2. ^lovwxin, Mi'niychia, which
was a promontory not far distant from Piraeus, and extended not unhke'a peninsula,
and was well fortified both by nature and art. It received its name from a person
called Munychus, who dedicated in this place a temple to Diana, surnamed ^lovvvxi».
— 3. ^aKrip6v, Phaleruvi, which belonged to the tribe Antiochis, and was distant from
the chy 35 stadia, or as some say, only 20 stadia. This was the most ancient of the
three harbors ; and from it Theseus is said to have sailed for Crete, and Mnestheus
for Troy.

For further details respecting the interesting objects in this renowned city, we refer to the works cited P. W. § 243. 1. ; P. V
§ 7 (b).— We may add fVaddington's Visit to Greece.— Hughes, Travels in Greece, &c. Lond. 1S20. 2 vols. i.—Kruse^ Hellas, ode'
Darstellung des alten Griechenlandes, &c. Leipz. 1825. 3 vols. 8. In this work may be found an account of Lord Elgin's pro
ceedings (cf. P. IV. § 190. 4) ; also of the various modern works illustrating the remains of Grecian art in general.— Cf. Stuart't
Diet, of Architect, under Athenian Architecture; cf. also Chateaubriand's Travels, in Introduction.— E. D. Clarke, Travels in
various countries, &c. Part II. sect. 2.—Barthelemy's Anacharsis, ch. xii., a beautiful description.— fF. M. Leake, Topography ol
Athens. Lond. 1821. with an Atl. fol. Cf. Transactions of the Royal Society of Literature of the United Kingdom, vol. iii. p. 183.
—Wcrrdsworth, Athens and Attica.— Biejiacto", Topographie von Athen (a German translation of Leake). Halle, 1S29; vrith

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