Johann Joachim Eschenburg.

Manual of classical literature : from the German of J.J. Eschenburg, with additions online

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1804. 4 vols. S.—Degeran/lo, Histoire Comparee de systemes de la Philosophie. 2d ed. Par. 1822. 4 vols, 8.— W. T. Kiug, Ge-
schichte der Philosophie alter Zeit, vornehmlich unter Griechen qnd Romern. Lpz. 1815. 8. The following abridgments may be
added : F. .M, Grun.iriss einer Geschichte der Phil. Landsh. IS07. 8.— 7. G. Gurlitt. Abriss der Gesch. d. Phil. Lpz. 1786. 8.—
G. Socher, History of the systems of Philosophy from the time of the Greeks down to Kan*. Mun. 1802 8. (in German).— fK .An-
derson, Philosophy of Ancient Greece. Lond. 1791. 4.— feneiofi. Abridged Lives of the Philosophers. Par. 1795. 8. Transl. into
English by Cormnck. Anew ed. of the French. Par. 1820.— P. IV. Van Heusdr, Versuche Philosophischer Forschungen in den
Sprachen. Utr. IS3S. 8.— P. IV. Tan flei/srfc, nie Socratische Schule Oder Philosophie far das neunzehnte Jahrhundert. Erlang.
1841. 8.-/7. Ritter & L. Preller, Historia Philosophise Grseco Romanje ex Fontium locis conteila. Hamb. 1838. 8.

8. We add here some references on the Philosophy of other nations.— E gy p tia n .-iJn/ieW, Ritter, &c., as above cited.—
Heeren's Ideen, &c. cited P. IV. § 171.— C. P Moritz, Symbolical Wisdom of Eej-ptians, &c. Berl. 1793. 8. (in Germ.)— PricAard'j

Analysis, &c., cited P. IL § 12. 2. (/). Persian & Childenn — 7". Hyrfc, Hist, relig. vet. Persarum Oxon. 1700. 4.—.aiiq.Du

Perron, Zend-Avesta, as cited § 16fc.— The Dessatir, or sacred writings of the ancient Persians. Bomb. I8IS. 8—/. G. Rhode,
System of the Religion of the Medes, Persians, &c. (in Germ.) Frankf. 1820. 8.—Fr . MUnter, Religion of the Babylonians.

Copenh. 1S27. 4. H i ndoo. W. Ward, History, Literature, and Religion of the Hindoos. Lond. 1820. 4 vols. S.— P. Schlc-

gel. Language, &c., of the Hindoos (in Germ.). Heidelb. ISOS. S.—N. Midler, Opinions, Science, &c., of ancient Hindoos. Mentz.
1S2. 8.—/. a. Rhode, as cited P. U. § 12. 2. (/). Cf. Tennemann's Manual, § 66-73.

§ 184. .^snp, a Phryprian, generally supposed to have lived B. C. at least
600, does not strictly belong to the class of Greek philosophers; yet he may
properly be named here, on account of the principles of moral and political phi-
losophy embodied in his Fables.

1 u. He was born a slave, and served different masters ; the last of whom, ladmon of SamoB,
a philosopher, gave him his freedom. The other circumstances of his life are biu imperfectly
known, although they are detailed with considerable fullness in the biography of him ascribed
to JiTaiimns Planudes, a monk of Constantinople in the 14ih century ; upon which, however, lit-
tle reliance can be placed.— The same Planudes also collected and enlarged the fablps of ^sop,
rever, probably, committed to writing by himself. They had been put into Choliambic verse by
llabi-Mis (improperly called Babrias, and Gabrias), who lived in the time of Augustus (cf. $ 31).


From this meter tijey were gradually reduced again to prose, and received their present form
from Planudes.
Cf. Sulzer'sAU?. Theorie, JEsop.—Char. vomehmst. Dicht. vol. v. p. 269.— T/i. Tyrwhitt, Diss. deBabrio. Lend. 1776. 8.

2. The editions of .Esop have been drawn from several dift'erent manuscript collections, containing different numbers of Fables,

an account of which is given by SchSll, vol. i. p. 252, ss. B.— /. M. Hewinger, Gr. & Lat. Lips. 1741, 1799. S.—F. D. Puna,

Gr. & Lat. Flor. 1809. 2 vols. 8. from an ancient MS. at Florence in the library of the Cassini monks, and supposed to present
the Fables as they were before the changes made by Planudes. Repr. Lpz. 1810. with additions ; Dibditi says, " this appears lo be,

opon the whole, the very best." K.—Coray Par. 1810. 8. with scholia, and plates; good.— J. G. Schneider. Bresl. 1812. 8.

after the Augsburg MS., and containing 231 Fables of ^Esop, with 50 of Babrius.— G H Schajer. Lpz. 1821. 8.

3. Translations. — The most ancient was probably that of Hildeberl, of Tours, 12lh century, in Latin verse ; published Rome,

1743. 4. German.-y. C. Sremen. Quedl. 1788. 8.—/. F. W. MoU. Lpz. 1794. 8. French.-v3. U Grand. Par. ISOI. 8.

English.— S. Croxail. Lond. 1722. 8. 1788. 12. Sanscrit.— Published at Calcutta, 1803. 8. entitled Polyglot translation

of .Esop j in Persian, Arabic, Hindoslanee, Sanscrit, &c.

4. There is another collection of Fables in Greek, bein? a version of those Oriental tales com-
monly ascribed to an ancient brahmin of India, named Pilpay. This version was made by Simeon
Sethus of Constantinople, in the Uth century, under the title XrectiaviTris xai 'Ixvn^^drris {Jte Vain-
qveur et V Investigateur).

The Greek text was published, by Starke. Berl. 1697. 8.— There are translations of these Fables in the modern languages.—
Schmi, vii. \Si.—Sulzer, Allg. Theorie, Fabel.

§ 185. Ocellus Lucanus, a pupil of Pythagoras, lived B. C. about 490. To
him is ascribed an extant treatise, ITfpi r^j toy navtbi <|)vafwj, On (he nature of
things. If genuine, it must have been written in the Doric dialect, and been
changed into the common by some grammarian of subsequent times. Notwith-
standing all its errors, it evinces much acumen, and contains some very valuable
precepts upon education. Yet it is quite probably the work of a later author.

1. The question of the genuineness of this work has been much agitated. The conflicting opinions are examined by Rudolphi, in
a Dissertation in his edition of the work. He ascribes it to Ocellus. — Scholl, vol. ii. p. 311.

2. Editions. Best; AbU Batteiix, Gr. & Fr. Par. 1768. 3 vols. 12.— .4. F. W. Rudolphi. Lpz. 1801. 8. Gr. only, but with "a

good cnninientary.'' Early ; Prinaps. Par. 1539. 8 — Z,. Nogarola. Yen. 1559. 4. with version and notes. Repr. by Comme-

lin, Heid. I '^gS. S.—Th. Gale, in his Opu^cula Mythologica. Canibr. 1571. 8. Later ; Marquis d'Argms (Dargensius). BerU

17t)2. with French version and Commentary.

§ 18G. Xennphon, an Athenian, was born B. C. 450, and died B. C. 356. Be-
sides his great merit as a military commander, and as an historian, he is worthy
of speci-al notice as a philosoplier, and one of the most excellent among the
pupils of Socrates. The discrimination, solidity, precision, and mildness of
manner so remarkable in his master, he acquired himself, and transfused into
his writings. From the writings of Xenophon especially, we may learn the
true spirit of the Socratic philosophy (cf. § 171).

1. He was born at the borough Ercheia. While a youth his personal comeliness attracted the
attention of J^ncrates, who one day accidentally met him in the street, and invited him to his
lectures. He accompanied Socrates in the Peloponnesian war, and was saved by his master in
the battle of Delium (cf P. IV. $ 90. 6). At the ase of 43, he ensa^ed in the service of Cyrus
the younsfer. and after the disastrous battle of Cuna.xa, conducted the famous retreat of the Ten
Thousand. Four or five years i^fter his return lo Greece, he entered into the service of As-esi-
laus, k'lvs of Sparta, as a warrior. Incurring by this the displeasure of the Athenians, he wag
accused for his former connection with Cyrus, and banished. He was received into protection
by the Spartans, and enjoyed a pleasant retreat at Scillus, where he composed most of his works,
and died at the age of 90.

Mitford's Greece, ch. xxiii. xxviii. sect. 9, (p. 273, vol. v. ed. Bost. 1823) J. S. Gail, La vie de Xenophon. Par. 1795. 2 vols.

8.— C. G. Krilgtr, De Xenophontis vita qujestioues criticae. Halle, 1K2. i.—F. Ddln-Uch, Xenophon; zur Rettung seiner durch
B. G. Niebuhr gefihrdeten Ehre. Bonn, 1829. 8.

2. The works strictly belonging to the department of philosophy are five; viz.
ATroiivrjuoi'EVjxaTa YioKparovg, JMemoirs of Socrates ," SojK-pdrotif 'A-oXoyia Trpdi; too; ciKaarag,

Apology of Socrates, not so much a defence from the charges laid against him as a justi-
fication of the motives which induced him to choose death ; OiVoi/o^i/coj \6yo;, Discourse
oil economy, a treatise on morals applied to rural life ; the last two have been considered
by some to have formed originally parts of the 3Iemoirs; Yv^Trdaiov (piKoavipuv. The
Banquet of Pfiilosophers. of peculiar excellence as to style, and designed to illustrate
the purity of Socrates; 'Icpcjv i) Tvpawog, Hiero or The Prince, comparing public and

private life, with remarks on the art of governing. There are six other pieces, which

may be mentioned here, although less strictly of a philosophical character ; Ylepl 'Irnri^ri;? ;
'liTTTapxiKo; ; K-'i/r/yErt^cdj ; Ildpot }) Tlspi npoaoScJu {Qti the Revenues of Attica) ; AaKdainoviuv
noXiTEia; and 'AOnvawv TroXirEia. The last two, however, may not be the productions of
Xenophon ; although the former of them seems to be a grateful return for the asvluni
furnished to him on his banishment from Athens. His intercourse with the king of
Sparta was the occasion of a eulogy styled, Adyoj elg 'AyriaiXaou.

3. Editions.— WHOLE WORKS —B.—*/. G. Schneider, Gr. & Lat. Lpz. 1815. 6 vols. 8. Repr. Oxf. 1820-28. 6 vols. S.—B.
Weishe. Lpz. I79S-1S0 1. 6 vols. «.— Gai7, Gr. Lat. & Fr. Par. 1814-16. II vols, small 4. lo which must be added a 12ih vol. styled

Recherchez historiques, &c. Par. 1821. 4. — §* F. A. Bomemann. Goth. 1828. (commenced) in Rosfs Bibliotheca F.— The

Prtnceps was Junta, Flor. 1516. fol. Next, Atdat, Yen. 1525. fol. Then Brubachiw (with pref by Ph. Melancthmi), Hsl. Sbb7.



1540. 3 vols. 8. the first which actually contained all.— ff Stephanus, Gr. & Lat. Par. 1581. fol. Leundavius, Gr. & Laf. Par,

1635. {o\.—Wd!s, Or. & Lat. Oxf. 1703. 5 vols. 8.— i C. .1. Thiemc, Gr. & Lat. Lips. 1804. 4 vols. 8. M e m o ra b i 1 i a ; Best,

Schneider, (ed. by B^nwell). Gr. & Lat. Oxf. 1S04. 2 vols 9.—R. KUhner, Xenoph. de Socr. Commentarii. Goih^: 1841. 8.
"exce\lent."-Schutz. Halle, 1822. 8.— X Greenwood, Gr. & Lat. Lond. 1823. S.—^A. Herbst. Halle, 1827. 8.—^A.S. Packard,

Audov. & N. Yb. 2d ed. 1841. 12. with English notes. Cf. A^. Amer. Rev. vol. 51. p. 242. A p o I o g y, Zeune {Zeunius). Lpz.

1782. 8. with The Banquet, Hitro, Eccmomy, and Agestlaui—) T. A. Bomemann, Gr. & Lat. Lips. 1824. wiih the Convivium

or Banquet. Banquet, Dindorf, Lpz. 1823. 8. Polity of the Athenians and of the Lacedasmonians, Zciine. Lpz.

1778. 8. with the Revenues and the treatises on horses and the chase. — Of the Lacedaemonians, F. Hnaae. Berl. 1S33 8. with
figures (rerum taclicarum figurx). — G. A. Sauppe, Xenoph. Opusc. politica, f quesirJa, venatica. Lips. 1S3S. 8. pp. 592.

4. Translations.— German.— rr/io/cujorfo, by A. Ch. ^ K. BorheA. Lc-me. 17S8-1808. 6Th. S.—MemaraUlia, by I. I. Hottinger.

Zar. 1819. 8. French.— IWioZe works, by Gail, cited above. Enfflish.— MemoraWZia, by S. Fieldmg— Banquet, hy IVell-

wood—Hiero, by R. Greaves. Lond. nS3.— Memorabilia ; with the Minor works, Banquet, Hiero, &c., trans, by several hands.
Lond. IS13. 12.

5. Illustrative.— i'. W. Sturz, Lexicon Xenophonteura. Lpz. 1801-4. 4 vols. 8. " Defective." {Hermann.)— Rost, WOrlerbuch
Ober Xenophons Memorabilien. Gotha, 1819. 8. — L. Dissen, De philosophia morali in Xenophonlis de Socrate comnienlariis, &c.
Gott. 1812. 8. — Schweighauser, on the Theology and Morals of Socrates, &c , translated by F. M. Hubbard, in the Bibl. Repos. vol.
xii. 47, and vol. i. sec. series, p. 161. — C. A. Boltiger, Hercules in Bivio, e Prodici fabula el monumentis priscse artis illustralus.
Lips. IS29. 8.

§ 187. JEschines., the philosopher, is not to be confounded with the orator of
that name (cf. § 107). He was born at Athens, and became a pupil of Socrates.

1 u. We have under his name three philosophical dialogues, which are probably the
work of another. They are characterized by their clearness of style, ease of manner,
and instructive contents. The titles are, Uspl 'ApErijf, on virtue; 'E/jtJ^taj n nepl ~\ovtov,
on riches ; and 'Afw.xoj 17 mpl S-avdrov, on death.

Cf. Ch. Fr. Meiners, Judicium de quibusdam Socraticorum reliquiis, imprimis de aischinis dialogis, in Comment Soc. Gott. 1782.

2. These dialogues are found in many of the editions of Plato. They were published separately /irst by X Le Clerc. Anist

1711. 8.— The best edition is J. F. Fischer, Gr. & Lat. Lpz. 1796. 8. The Eryxias and Axiochus are given by Aug. Bdckh, in

the work entitled, Simonis Socratici dialog! iv. &c. Heidelb. 1810. 8.

§ 188. Cebes, of Thebes, also a pupil of Socrates, B. C. 435, was the author
of ihree dialoorues. The third only is extant, entitled lliml, the Table, nor
is it certain that this is g-enuine. It treats of the state of souls before their
union with bodies, of the character and destiny of men durinor life, and of their
exit from the world. The plan is ingenious, and it is executed in an instruc-
tive and useful manner.

Scholl, M.'QiG.—Sevin ir C. de Caylus, on the Table, in the Mem. Acad. Inscr. iii. 137 ; xxix. 149.— Also Gamier, in the Mem.
&c. xlviii. 455.— f. G. Klopfer, De Cebelis Tabula. Zivick. ISIS. 4.

1. Editions. — The Picture or Table is commonly published along with Epictetus (cf. § 193). — The more important editions are,
Grcrnovius. Amst. 1689. \2.~Johitson, Gr. & Lat. Lond. 1720. S.~Messerschmid. Lpz. 1773. 8. Especially, Schweighauser.
Argent. (SIrasb.) 1806. 12 first published in his Epictetus.— And G. F. W. Grosse. Meiss. 1813. 8.— On MSS. of Cebes, cf. Harris,
fas cited § 133), vol. iv. p. 557.

2. Translations.— German.— -V. H TMemt. Berl. I8I0. 8. with original text. French.— De VUlebrune. Par. 2 vols. 12.

with text and Epictetus. Cf. Fuhrmann, Klein. Handb. p. 243.

§ 189. P/a/o lived from 430 to 347 B. C. He was the son of Arlston of
Athens, a disciple of Socrates, and founder of the x\cademy. He threw hap-
pily into a written form the oral discourses of that prreat master. Plato laid the
first foundation for a scientific treatment of philosophy. Antiquity bestowed on
him the epithet divine, and all in modern times have acknowledged his merit
and admired his writings. His w^orks consist of numerous dialogues, on differ-
ent subjects, metaphysical, political, moral, and dialectic. They are exceed-
ingly valuable for both style and matter, rich in thought, and adorned with
beautiful and poetical images. Cf. § 175.

1. We have 35 dialogues of Plato (or 56 taking his Bepiihlic and his work on Laws
by the number of books in them), besides the letters ascribed to him (cf. % 156). Several
of the dialogues have been pronounced spurious by some critics, while others have
strongly defended their genuineness. On this subject, and on the difl'erent schemes
of classifying the dialogues, and also for an analysis of their contents, we must refer to

Schdll^. Many commentaries; on Plato have perished ; yet many still remain. There

are also excellent scholia"^.

iSee Scholl, Hist. Litt. Gr. vol. ii. p. 364, ss. — Cf. D. Tiedemann, Dialogorum Phtonis Argumenta exposita. Bipont, 1786. 8.

— Sydenham, Dobson, &c., cited below (6). 2 The Scholia were collected in the most complete form by D. Ruhnken, and were

published after his death, under the title, Schol. in Platon. Amst. 1800. 8.

2. There are six ancient iiog-raphies of Plato ; the earliest by Apuleius in Latin ; ttie other five
in Greek, including that of Diogenes Laertius, one by Olympiodorus, another by Hesychius of Mi-
letus, and two anonymous.

Cf. W. G. Tennemann's Life of Plato in the Selections, &c, by B. B. Edwards, and E. Park. Andov. 1839. S.—Stallbaum.
Ast, &c., cited below (6).

3. It has been made a subject of inquiry, whether Plato did not derive some of his notions from
the Hebrews.

Cf. Enfield, Hist. Phil. bk. ii. ch. %.— Ramsay, Disc, on Theology of the Pagans.- /aft?i's Bitl. Archaeology, § 313 — Frideaux



bk. vi. p. \.—Kidd, on the Trinity, p. 526, ss.—ChaUattbrianrl, Beauties of Christianity, bk. i. ch. S.—EuseMiu, Prseparatio Evan-
gel ica, bk. I.— The work styM, Plato's D'Vitu Dialo^ua, 3u<i the Apolosy of Socrates ; transl. from the Orig. Greek; with in-
troductory dissertations and notes, discovering the source of the Platonic philosophy, and tracing it to the inspired word of Gcd,

translated from the French of M. Dacier. We may here refer to C. Achermann, Das Cbristliche in Plato und in der Platonischen

Philosophle. Hamb. 1835. 8.— also ^\ Vk. Review, for Oct. 1841, on the Relation of Platonism to Christianity.

4. Editions.— W hole Work s.— B — ^. Sckker, Gr. & Lat. Berl. I816-1S. 10 vols. 8. Repr. (Priestley) Lond. IS27. II vols. 8.
with notes of various editors.— The Sipont ed. 1781-87. 12 vols. S.—F. Ast, Gr. 4: Lat. Lpz. 1819-32. 11 vols. 8. and 2 vols of

annotations.— G. Slalllaum. Lpz. 1821-26. 12 vols. 8. very good. F.—Princeps, Aldus, Ven. 1513. 2 vols (n].—Grynsntt, Bas.

1534. fol— fl; Stephanies, (ed. Sirranus). Par. 1578. 3 vols. Gr. ft Lat. R.— C. E. C. Schneider. Lpz. 1830-33. S.— 5* Stall-

haunt, in Rvst's Bibliolheca. Gotha, 182S-.36 6 vols. 8.— Many of the dialogues have often been printed separately ; only a few of
the editions can be named; Symposium if Alcilnades, by Ast, I.jndsh. IS09. 8.—Crito ^ Phsedo, by Fischer, 1783. 8. ."Several
ethers also by Fischer at ditferent [imes.—Phxdrus with 3 other dial, by Heindcrrff, Berl. 1802. 8. others also by Heindmff since.—
Gor^ias, by Rr,uth. Oxf. I7S4.— 5 T. D. [Voolsey, with Er,gl. J^otes.—Phxdo by irytte:7tbach. Lugd. Bat. 1810. 8. Lpz. 825. 8.—
Phxdo (Crito & Apologia Socratis), by C. S. Stanford, with English notes. Lond. 1835. S.—Hippias, Alabiades (and others), by
G. Burgess, with English notes. Lond. IS33. 8 — Cf. Won, Man. of Bibliography, vol. i. a supplement, &c.

5. Translations.— German.— Best, Fr., Berl. 1804-17 2d ed. improved, 1835. Cf. Bibl. Repo.s. vol. v. p. 266.

French— By And. Dacier, (10 dial.) Par. 1799. 2 vols. ]2.—Jerin le Grou (7 dial.>. Amst. 1770. 2 vols. 8. By Victor Cousin.

Par. 1840. 13 vols. 8. English.— SyrfciiAnm ^ Taylor, Lond. 1804. 5 vols. 4. (50 dialogues and 12 epistles, with copious notes.)

On T.iylor, cf. Ed. Rev. vol. xiv. — H. Spcns, Republic of Plato. Glasg. 1763. 4. with a Discourse concerning the Philosophy of
the Ancients.

6. Illustrative.— The Platonic Lexicon ofTirmeus, already mentioned § 137. 4. Cf. SchSll, ii. 416.— F. Ast, Lexicon Platonicum.
Lpz. 1835-38. 3 vols. 8.— r. Mitchell, Index Graecitalis Platonicse. Oxf. 1832. 2 vols. S.—J. J. mjg>-er, Worterbuch der Plato-
nischen Philrsnphie. Gott. 1799. 12.— * G. Stallbaum, De Platonis Vita, Ingenio, et Scriptis; prefixed to his ed. of the Apologia
Socratis, in the Bitlioth. of Jacobs S/- Rost.—F. .iit, Platon's Leben und Schrifien. Lpz. 1816. S.—I.Socher, Uber Platcm't
Schriften. MUnch. 1S20. 8.— On the R<pubhc o( P. cf. Southern Rev. No. 7 — PUto and Arislotle compared. North Am. Rev.
vol, 18.— Cf. Fuhrmann, Kl. Handb. p. 246.— Philosophy of Plalo, Brit. Critic ^ Quart. Theolog. Rtv. Jul. ISa8. No. il.—Mai-
tieu, Parallele d'Honiere et de Plato, in Hist. Acad, d^s Inscr. vol. ii. p. I. Cf. vol. xlii. \\.— Sydenham, Sjiiopsis or General
Views of the works of Plato. Lond. 1759. 4.— IV. Dobscn, Translation of Schlciermacher's Introductions to the Dialogues. Lond.
1836. S.—A. Arnold, Plat. Werke, eii.zeln erkl.lrt und in ihrem Zusammenhange dargestellt. Hamb. 183,5.—/. Geddes, Essay on
the Manner of wriiing of the Ancients, particularly Plalo. Glasg. 1748. 8.— G. Stallbaum, Diatribe in Platonis Polilicum. Lips.
1841. S.—R'arl F. Hermann, Geschichte und System der Platonischen Philosophie. Heidelb. (1st vol.) 1S39. 8.— See reference!
given §§ 175, 183.

§ 190. Timxus of Loeri, a Pythagorean philosopher, especially devoted to
physical inquiries, was one of the instructors of Plato. From him Plato de-
rived the name of one of his dialogues.

1 u. The treatise Hzpl xpvxSg Koajicj koI (pijaiog, On ike soul of the world and on nature,
which is ascribed to him, was probably from a later author, and seems to have been
drawn from the dialogue of Plato just alluded to, named Timaeus.

Cf. Meiner's Gesch. der Wiss. in Griechenland und Rom. vol. i.— SchSll, ii. 313.

2. This treatise is given in Behhcr's Plato (vol. viii.) and in other editions.— Separately, by Marquis d'Argens, Gr. & Fr. Berl.
1763. 8.— Also in Batteux, cited § 185.

§ 191. Jrisfufle has already been named as a rhetorician (§ 115). His father
Nicomachus, was a physician and awakened in him in early life a fondness for
the study of nature. But his intellectual powers were more fully developed by
the instructions of Plato, whose lectures he attended for about twenty years.

1 71. After the death of Plato, he opened his own school in the Lyceum (of P. IV.
§ 74). It was the great merit of this philosopher, that he classified the objects of human
knowledge in a methodical manner, and gave them more of that scientific form, which
has since been preserved in treating upon them. He reduced logic to a system, and
laid the first foundation of metaphysics. His works contain a great mass of clear
thought, and solid matter, although his insatiable love of inquiry was often betrayed
into abstruse subtilties, as idle as they were dark. He wrote upon a vast variety of
subjects; especially on themes of logic, physics, metaphysics, politics and morals.

2. The works of Aristotle may be classed under the heads of Logic, Physics, Meta-
physics, Mathematics. Ethics, Politics, Rhetoric, and Poetry. In The last department
we have a Pfean or Hymu to virtue, and a collection of epitaphs and epigrams under
the title of IlfrrXof. 'J hose belonging to rhetoric have been mentioned under that head
(cf ^ 115). — The works on logic are all included in the collection usually called the
''Opyai/oi', Organum; they are particularly the following ; Kar/jyopiaj, U.spl ']V€lag,
Ava\vTtKa, ToTTiKa, and n£p( (Toi)t(jTiKO)i' 'EXeyxoM'. It was in reference to the title of this
collection, that the celebrated work of Lord Bacon was called Novum Organum.

For an account of the metaphysical and other writings of Aristotle, see Sch'oll, iii. p. 266. — /. Gilliet, Hist, of Greece. Also/.
Gilliis, in the Translation below cited (4). — F. Biese, Die Philosoph e des Arisloleles in ihrem inneren Zusammenhange. &c. Berl.

1835-42. 2 vols. " highly commended." Siahr, Titz, &c., as cited below (o).—Buhle, in the Encytd. of Erich fy Gruber. Cf.

§§274, \'S.— Classical Journal, vols. 16, 17, 18. 19.

3. Editions.- Whole W orks.— B.— * /. Bekher, Berl. 1831-37. 5 vols. 4. vol. i.-ii. Gk. Text ; vol. iii. Lat. version ; iv.-r
Commentary -Cuua;, Gr. & Lat. Par. 1639. 4 vols. fo\.—Buhle, Gr. & Lat. Bipont. 1791. 5 vols. 8. but not completed.-^
F. — Princeps, by Aldus. Ven. I495-9S. 6 vols. fri. containing also Theophras'us. " One of the mos' splen-lid and lastir)g monir
ments of the Aldine press."— Sci£?H«s. Bas. 1531. (o).—P Manu'ius. Ven, 1551. 6 vols. S—Sylburgius. Franckf. 1584-87

5 vols. 4. — Ts. Cusauio7i, Gr. & La". Lugd. 1590. 2 vols. fol. Best editions of separate parts ; r g a n o n, y. Pacius, Gr. &

lAt. Genev. 1605. 4.— M e t a p h y s i c s, C. A. Brandis. Berl. 1823. 2 vols. 8— E t h i c s, Wilkinson, Gr. 4 Lat. Oxf. 17W



Repr. I81S. 8.—* C. Zdl, Gr. & Laf. Heidelb. 1820. 2 vols. S.—C. L. MicheUt. Berol. 1835. 2 vols. 8.— ?o Iff i cs, X G. Srhnei.
der, Gr. & Lat. Traj. ad Viad. (Franckf. on Od.) 1809. 2 vols. 8.—;^. Stafir, Lpz. 1840. 4. a neat text, with criliral notes on the-
readings, a German translation and exegetical commentary.— Z)e Anima, * F. Trenddenburg, Jen. 1838. 8. pp. 1-109, text;
110-560, commentary; "very learned and valuable aid for understanding Aristotle's metaphysical writings." — Categoris, E.
A. Lewald, Gr. & Lat. Heidelb. 1824. 8.

4. There were numerous Latin TVansfah'orw of different treatises of Aristotle {SchSIl, iii. 299), and also many Commenfan'e*
{Dibdin, i. 327. Mosi, i. 150-173). We will only mention here some of the later translations.— German.— £(Aics ^ Politics by C.
Garue. Bresl. 1801 , 1802. 8.—Organon, &c., by K. Zdl. Stuttg. 1836. 8.—De Anima, C. H. JVeisse, Lips. 1829. 8. " with learned

notes, but Hegelian in spirit." French.— Politics, by C. Millon. Par. 1803. 3 vols. 8. English.— /"oJtfics, JV. Ellis, Lond.

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