Johann Joachim Eschenburg.

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1776 i.~Elfiics and Politics, by /. Gillies^ Lond. 1797. 4. with introductions and notes, repr. Lond. 1813. 2 vols. 8.— Meta^-Ai/-
sics, by Th. TUylGr, Lond. 1801. 4. with copious notes. — Virtue and Vice, by IV. Bridgemann. Lond. 1804. 8.—Etliia and
Rfitloric, by Tfi. Taylor. Lond. 1817. 4. 2 vols. 8.

5. Illustrative.— *./3. Stahr, Aristotelia (in German). Halle, 1632. 2 vols. 8. Vol. i. Life of Aristotle; vol. ii. writings and
followers of Aristotle.- jj. Stahr, ATistolelp.s bei den Romern. Lpz. 1834. 8.—F. N. Titze,Ue Aristotelis Operum serie et dislinc-
tione. Lips. 1S26. S.^F. A. Trendelenburg, De Arist. Calegoriis. Berl. 1834. S.—C. H. IVcisse, Cwmment. de Platonis et Aristotelis
in constituendis summis philosnphiae ditferentia. Lond. 1826. 8. — G. Pinzger, De lis quse Aristoteles in Platonis Polilia repre-
hen'lit. Lips. 1822. 8.— £. A. G Grdfcnhati, Aristoleles Poeta. Mulhus. 1831. 4.—K. L. Micheld, Die Elhik des Arist. in ihrem
Verhii-llnisse zum System der Moral. Berl. 1827. 8. — A. Kapp, Arisloteles Staatspadagngik als Erziehungslehre far den Staat und
die Eiiizelnen. B-rl. 1837. 8. pp 312.—/. tV. Blakesley, Life of Aristotle. Lond. 1838. 8. not very valuable.— A Lexicon of
Aristotle is a desideratum ; " until there is one," said Hermann in 1834, •' there cm be properly speaking no Thesaurus of the Greek
Language." A Lexicon Aristotelicum Grseco-Anglicum for the Ethics of A. was announced by J. IV. Moss. Lond. 1837. 8.
— 5ee references §§ 176, 115, 183, 274.

§ 193. Tkeophrastus, of Eresus in the island Lesbos, about B. C. 321, was
a scholar of Plato and Aristotle, and on the death of the latter became public
teacher to the Peripatetic school.

1 n. He possessed eminent powers both in eloquence and philosophy ; distinguished
for watchful observation, he placed more reliance on experience than on speculation.
We have treatises from him, which place him among the writers on natural history
(cf '^ 275). His ethical pieces, styled 'HdiKol xapaK-rnpeg, possess great worth, being
written with brevity and eloquence, and stamped with truth, and evincing much know-
ledge of human nature. They have the appearance, however, of being merely ex-
tracts from the moral M-ritings of Theophrastus, made subsequently to his times.

2. His original name was Tyrtemus, which was changed into Euplirastus, the good
speaJ^er, and Theophrasivs, the divine speaker, probably by his disciples. He was
attentive to the graces of elocution, and always appeared in elegant dress. — Besides
the works al)ove mentioned, we have also under the name of Theophrastus, a Book of
MefapJiysics, and a treatise Tl^pl alcOimoi;, On perception. Several works by him are ; of which the most regretted are three treatises on Laws. — Schdll, iii. 303.

3 Kd'tions.— W hole Work s.— R.— /. G. Schneider and H. F. Link, Gr. & Lat. Lpz. I81S-21. 5 vols. 8. T.—Princeps,

iy Aldw ; with Aristotle (§ 191. 3).—0porimis. Basil, 1541. fol.— Z). fletJinw, Gr. & Lat. Leyd. I6I3. 2 vols, fol.— Charac-
ters; Best, Fischer, Gr. & Lat. Coburg. 1763. S.—Schjuider, Gr. & Lat. Jen. 18''0. 8. "Perhaps, critically speaking, the
best." (Dihdin.) Metaphysics; C. ^i. Braiidis, (with Eihics of Aristotle). Berl. 1823. 8.

4. Translations of the C/iarac(crs.— German.— /. 1. Hottinger. Munch. 1821. 8. French.— The most celebrated is Bruyere.

Par. 1696. 12. Ed. by Schweighiluser. Par. 1816. 12.— Corov- Par. 1799. 8. With Gr. text and notes. English.— S. Bud-

ddl. Lond. 1715.- ff. Gaily. Lond. 1725. 8.—F. Howell, (Gr. & Eng.) Lond. Iffi4. & with notes, and plates containing 50

5. Illustrative.— S: E. Fa's, De Theophrasti notationibus morum. Halle, 1833. 5.— C. Zdl, De Theophrasfeorum Characterum
indole. Frib. 1825. 4.

§ 193. Epidetm, of Hieropolis in Phrygia, lived about the beorinning of the
Christian era. He vt^as orisfinally a slave of Epaphroditus, the freedman and
chamberlain of Nero. Havins" obtained his freedom, he resided at Rome until
he was banished with the other philosophers by Domitian, and then he retired
to Nicopolis in Epirus.

1 ??. He M-^as a Stoic*, of the severest principles and most undisturbed equanimity.
His views are exhibited in the Manual, 'E^'Xftpi'fJioi/, which is ascribed to him. I'his was
not written by hirn. but collected by Arrian from his lectures and conversation ; it is
disfinsuished more for its contents than for its style and manner.

2. The ISIanual was much read by Christians as well as pagans^ There are two
paraphrases of it, which were designed for use among the former.

SJi'oll, V. 184 — Ganitcr, On Epiclelus, Mem. de VAcad. des Tnscr. vol. xlvili. p. 408.— C. .5. Hcumann. De Philosopbia Epicteti.
Jen. 1703. 4.—/. F. Beyer, Ueber Epiktet, und sein Handbuch. Marb. 1795. 8.—/. A. Brieglieb, Sehule der Weisheit nach
Epiktet. Cob 1805. 8.

3. Editions. — B. — /. Schwcigh'diiser, Gr. & Lat. with the comment, of Simplicius, and the paraphrases, under the title, Epictetex

philosophic Mo7iumenta. Lpz. 1799. 5 vols. 8. V.—Princepi, hy Ant. de Sabio. Ven. 1528. 4.— Upton, Gr. k Lat. Lond.

1739. 4.— Heyiu, Gr. & Lat. Lpz. 1776. 8. R.—A. Corny. Par. 1826. 8. with the Table of Ccbes nnd the Hymn of de-

unthes ; and a modern Greek and a French version.— J. Simpson, Gr. & Lat. Oxf. 1804. 8. with the Table of Cebes, the Hercules
of Prolicus, and the Characters of Theophras'us.

4 Translations.— German.— r/itcZe. Frankf. 1790. a— Best, J. A. Brieglieb. Lpz. 1803. 8. Italian.— In the ed. of 5o<fo'»ii

Gr. & Lat. Parm. 1793. 8. French.— v4. G. Camus. Par. 1799. 2 vols. 13. English.— £ZiMi. Carter. Lond. 1759. 4

1807. 2 vols. 8.


§ 194. Flavins Jrriajius, of Nicomedia in Bithynia, under the emperor Ha-
drian and the Antonines, in the 2d century, was a Stoic, and a disciple of Epic-
tetus. On account of his merit, he was presented with citizenship both at
Athens and at Rome, and at the latter place advanced even to Senatorial and
Consular honors. The emperor Hadrian conferred on him the government of
the province of Cappadocia.

1 u. Besides the Manual above mentioned {% 193), and the historical works to be
noticed on a subsequent page (§ 250), he wrote a philosophical worii, entitled AiaTpiSal
'E~iKn'i on, ciied by Fhotius as consisting of 8 books. The four books, commonly called
Visse nations of Epictttus, are supposed to have been a part of the work.

2. In these books he professes to preserve, as far as possible, the very language of
his master. Two other works of Arrian pertaining to philosophy, have wholly perished,
viz. 'OpiiXiai 'EiriKriiTOi), Familiar discourses of Epictelus, and n^P' ^"^ Z^'O" ~o'j 'Etukti'itoii
Kul rrii avTov Te\r.i)Tfjg, Of the life aud death of Epictelus. Two astronomical pieces men-
tioned by Photius, on comets aud on meteors, were probably Irom this philosopher. —
SchoU, vol. V. 185, 239.

3. The best edition of the Dissertations is in Schweighauser, cited § 193. 3 —That of Upton, Load. 1741. 2 rols. 4. is good.—
Princeps, that of F. Tmuavelli. Ven. 1735. 8.

4. Translalions.— German —Best, by J. M Schultz. Alton. 1801-3. 2 vols. 8. English.— A/iJS Carter, as cited § 193. 1.

French.— .4. Coray, Gr. & Gall. Par. 1827. 2 vols. 8.

§ 195. Plutarch, of Chseronea in Bceotia, flourished at the close of the 1st and
beginning of the 2d century. His instructor at Athens was Ammonius. After-
wards he himself taught philosophy at Rome, by public lectures, yet without
attaching himself to any sect exclusively.

1. Plutarch returned from Rome to his own country while young, and appears to
have discharged with fidelity difi'erent offices in his native city. He is said also to have
served as a priest of Apollo. As a philosopher, he rather favored the disciples of Pla-
tonism, and may be ranked among the New-Platonists. — SchoU, iv. 118; v. 76.—
Cf S^ 249.

2 u. He was a warm opposer of the Stoics and especially the Epicureans. In his
numerous philosophical pieces we find an eloquent diction, and a rich iierlility of thought,
together with various knowledge and real prudence. They are important sources for
learning the history of philosophy and of the human mind. Yet they are often sur-
charged with erudition and mysticisms, unequal in point of style, and sometimes even
obscure. Although upon very various topics, they are usually all included under the
common name of moral writings {moralia), under which are comprised 84 small trea-
tises. Some of the more distinguished among them are those on education {lUpl -ai^wv
dyoiyrii), on reading the poets (n.'^>s ret tod vtov Troirnxdrcov dKovetv), and on distinguishing the
friend from the flatterer, and the Table Questions {Y"ixT:o(TiaKa TrpoSXiinaTa).

3. Among them is usually ranked a treatise, o?i the opinions of philosophers (Uspi tmv
'ApeaKouTMv roTf <pi\oa6(pois), in five books ; but there is doubt, whether it is the treatise
written by Plutarch under that title ; yet it is an important help in studying the history
of ancient philosophy.

For an analysis of the philosophical pieces, see ScfiSU, Hist. Litt. Gr. vol. v. p. 76, ss.— Cf. G. Fachse, Observ. Crit. in Plut. Mo-
nlia. Lips. 1820. 4. and, Animadv. in Plut. Opera. Lips. 1825. 8.

4. Editions.- Whole W orks.—B.—Reiske, Gr. & Lat. Lips. 1774-79. 12 vols. S —Hiitten, Gr. only. Tabing. 179I-1S05.

14 vols. 8. Best text ; with valuable selection of notes by various editors. F.—Priiiceps, by H. Stcpfianus, Gr. & Lat. Par.

1572. 13 vols. S—Crusiriiis. Gr. & Lat. Francof. 1599. 2 vols. {o\.—Xylander, Gr. & Lat. Franc. 1620. 2 vols. fol. Mo-
ra 11 a. Be-t, D. iVytlenbach, Gr. & Lat. Oxf. 1795-1800. 6 vols. 4. and 10 vols. 8. followed by Animadversimes, &c. 2 vols. 8.
Cf. Edinb. Rev. April, IS03. Dibdin, ii. 343.— .4. G. JVinchelniann, Plut. mnralia selecta. Turici, 1836. 8. (vol. 1st.) Supple-
ment to Wyltenbach.— 7)irfo< (printer; editor F. DUlnur), Gr. & Lat. Par. 1S39, ss. "correct reprint of Wyttenbach's recension,

with a few emendation?." The Princeps or first, by Aldm (ed. Dcmet. Ducai), Flutarchi Opuscula Ixxxii. Ven. 1509. fol.

Sinerle Pieces. On Educatim ; Schneider. Sirasb. 1765. 8.— On reading poetry: Krebs. Lips. 1779. 8 —On distinguish-
ing the flatterer and friend ; Krigel. Lips. 1775. 8.— On opinions of the philosophers; C. D. Seek, Lips. 17S7. S.~Consolatio
ad Apollonivm, by £ Usler, and ./. C. Orclli. Turic 1830. 8.

5. Translations.— Gernnan.—.'Vforoiia, by Kaltwnsser. Frankf. 1783-1800. 9 vols. 9.— J. Ch. F. Bdhr, in Ihe Coll. o( Tafel,

Otinnder, kc. French.— H7io/c wtrhs. by J. Amyot. Par. 17S7. 22 vols. 8. Augna. par C. Clavier. Par. 1SC6. 25 vols. 8

Miyrnlia. by Ricnrd (with notes). Par. 1783-95. 17 vols. 12. English.— Moralia, by Th. Creech, M. Morgan, and others. Lend.

1681. 5 vols. 8. 5^h ed. Lon!. 1718.

§ 196. Marcus Jureh'us Antoninus, surnamed the Philosopher, and known as
a Roman emperor in the 2d century, is also worthy of remembrance as a writer.
His 12 books of Meditations, TCjv h^ Jarrov j3i}3%La t|3', consist of instructive
philosophical maxims and observations, relating to morals and the conduct of
life, and exhibiting the practical principles of the Stoics.

1. Hp was senerally a mild and excellent prince, but throush a blind devotion to paganism he
allowed The pprpecnlion of Christians diirine his reisn. He died of a pestilential disease at Vin-
dobona (now F7>7?77n\in Pannonia, while eneased in war with the revolting tribes in that region,
A. D. 180. — A remarkable deliverance of Aurelius and his army in a previous war is recorded by


Eusebius, and ascribed to the prayers of Christian soldiers constituting one of his leeions (12th),
to which, as a marl? of distinction, he is said to have given the name of the '■'Thundering Le-
gion.'' Whiston, in the last century, strenuously defended the story ; it was as strongly contro-
verted by Moijle.

Scholl, V. 193. Cf. Gibbon, Hist. R. Emp. i. 83; ii. 42. (ed. N. T. 1822).— afirocZe of the Thundering Legion, &c., the Letters
between Mr. Movie and Mr. King. Lond. I72S. 8. contained also in /. L. Mosfieim, Dissertationum ad Sanctiores Disciplinas perti-
uentium Syntagma. Lips. 1733. i.—H. IVitsius, Diatribe de Legione Fulminatrice, in his Egyptiaca. 3d ed. Herb. Nass. 1717. 4.
^Thomas, Eloge de Marc-Aurelius. Par. 1773. 12.

2. Editions.— The Princept edition was by Xylander, Gr. t Laf. Tigur. I55S. 8.— One of the best is Gaiaker't, Gr. & Lat.
Canib. 1632. i.— Stanhope's, Gr. & Lat Lond. 1707. 8, and Wolf's, Gr. & Lat Lips. 1729. 8. are good.— Better, Schulz, Gr. &
Lat. Schlesw. 1B02. 8.

3. Translation?.— German.— Best, Schuliz. Schlesw. 1799. 8. French.— T. P. de My. Par. 1803. 13. English.— B.

Graves. Bath, 1792. 8. Lond. 1811. 12.—/. Collier. Lond. 1702. 8.

§ 197. Sexius Empiricus ('E/^Ttftptxoj, so called from his profession as a
physician) was a Skeptic or Pyrrhonic philosopher, under Cornmodus, about
A. D. 190.

1. He was a native of Mitylene, as Visconti has inferred from a medal of that city. Very little
is Itnown of his life.

Visconti, IcoDographie, cited P. IV. § ]S7 .—Johnson's Tennemann, sect 189. SchSll, vol. v. p. 202.— Cf. St'dudlin, Geschichte
nnd Geist des Skepticismus. Lpz. 1794. 2 vols. 8.

2 u. He left a work in three books, comprising the theory and principles of the
Skeptic sect, entitled llvppcoi'Eiat 'XTrorviiwasig, J/ cke-tlko. 'Yiroixvfi^ara ; and another in eleven
books against the Mathematicians, IIp'?? roii; MaOripLa-LKovi dvTippr,riKo\, or rather against
those teachers who professed positive knowledge ; the last five being particularly op-
posed to the logicians and other philosophers. These works are very valuable in
illustrating the history of philosophy, especially that of the Skeptical school.

3. Editions.- The first was printed at Paris, 1621. fol. — Latin versions of both works hal been previously published. The next ed.
was by Fabricius. Lips. 1718. fol. Another commenced by /. G. Mund. Ha.". 1796. 4.— Best, Strove. Begiomont 1823.
2 vols. 8.

4. Translations.— German.-BuHc. Lemgo, 1801. 8. French.— Of the Hypotyposes {anonymous). Par. 1725. 12.

§ 198. Plottnus, of Lycopolis in Egypt, in the 3d century, was one of the
most celebrated among the New-Platonists, and taught at Rome in the latter
part of his life.

1. He was very enthusiastic and eccentric; yet was much admired at Rome, and patronized
by the emperor Gallienus. The latter even meditated the scheme of establishing for him, in
Campania, a colony of philosophers, to be named Piitonopolis, where the imaginary republic of
Plato should be realized. Plolinus died in Campania, at the age of 66. We have his life written
by Porphyry.

y Schijll, V. 121.—/. Steinhardt, Quaestiones Plotineae. Lips. 1830. 4.— Johnson's Tennemann, § 203.

2 71. His writings are deficient in method, solidity, and purity of style, yet exhibit
many signs of acumen and research. They consist of 54 books. These books one
of his pupils. Porphyry, distributed into 6 Enneads or divisions, containing 9 books
each. Porphyry endeavored also to improve the style, and indulged himself in inter-
polations and additions.

3. Ediiinns.— Best, F. Creuzer, Gr. & Lat. Oxf. 1835. 3 vols. 4. with prolegomena and notes.— The only edition of the com'
plete works h \hn\ printed at Basle (Bale), 15S0. and 1615. fol. with the Lat version of M. Ficiniis, which was first published
without the original. Flor. 1492. fol.— The treatise on Beauty, separately by Creuzer, Gr. & Lat Heidelb. ISU. 8.— The Liber
ad Gnosticos, by G. A Heigel. Ratisb. 1832. 12.

4. Translations.— A German translation commenced by Engelhardt. Erlang. 1820. 8. (I vol. containing 1st Ennead.)

§ 199. Porphyry was born A. D. 233, at Batanea, a Syrian village near Tyre,
and from this circumstance he was often called the Tyrian. His Syrian name
was Malchus (Melek).

1 u. At Rome he became a scholar of Plotinus and an advocate of his philosophy.
His writings were very various and numerous. Besides the Life of Plolinus and of
Pythagoras, some of the more important are the pieces styled as follows: O71 absti-
nence ^rom animal food; (Hrpl aTroxrjg rcov i^-4nxM-')^ ; Introduction to the categories of
Aristotle {Ehayioyri, fi mpl rwi/ TrfiTf ^wvw -) ; Homeric Investigations ('0/.irpix-a i^rirfiixara) ;
and On the Cave of the Nymphs {TlepX tov h 'Okvcreia riov Nu/x'/iw;/ avrpo").

2. Porphyry was instructed by Origen the Christian Father, probably at Cesarea ; afterwards
oy Lonainus at Athens. He was a violent opposer of Christianity, and wrote against it several
treatise's which are lost. His wife Marcella is said to have been a Christian. A letter from him
to her was found and published by Mai, in 1816 ; it exhibits his practical philosophy^.

» An analysis of the four books of this treatise is given by Ricard in his Transl. of Plutarch, as cited § 195. 4. a This was

published by A. Mai, Mil. 1816. 8. with the piece respecting the philosophy from oradet. Cf. SchSll, vol. v. p. 129, ss.— Hitter,

as cited § 183.

?. Editions.— Tliere is none of his whole works; and many of the pieces of Porphyry are as yet unpublished. Fnhrmann, Kl.
Handb. p. 434.— The best ed. of the treatise on Abstinence is that of /. de Rhnr. Utrecht, 1767. 3. repr. Leyd. 1792. 4. containing
also the Cave of the Nymphs, as eJ. by Van Gofns. Utr. 1765. 4.— The Life of Plotiniis is found in the eJ. of Plot cited § 193. 3.
—The Life of Pythagoras by T. Kiessling, Gr. & Lat. Lips. 1816. 2 vols. 8.


§ 200. lamMkhus, of Chalcis in Coelo-Syria, in the beginning of the 4th
century, was a New-Platonist, a scholar of Porphyry. He had the reputation
of working miracles. We have a part only of his many writings. Notwith-
standing the extravagance, mysticism, and fable with which his works abound,
they are yet a valuable help in getting an idea of the philosophy of the later

1. While Plotinus and Porphyry must both be called enthvsiasts, lamblichus may be stigma-
tized as an impnstor. He was a warm advocate of paganism. A treatise by him, frequently
cited un(ier the title of Etryptian jVystfries, professes to he an answer from one Ahgammon Ma-
gister to a letter which Porphyry had addressed to an Egyptian named Anebo, and which con-
tained inquiries respecting the gods of the land.

Scholl, V. \ii.— Cousin's Tenneniann, § 2\-.—Ritttr, as cited § 1S3.

2. There has been no edition of his e7i(ire works. Of separate parts, we notice the following: Mysteries of the Egyptians, by Gale.
OxS. 1678. lo\.—LiJe of Pythagoras (with that by Porphyry), in Kiessling, cited § 199. 3 — The Adhirtatio ad Philofophiam, by T.
Kiessling, Gr. & Lat. Lips. 1813. i.— Theology of Arithmetic (Ta fltoXoyov/ttva Tj); 'Apie^TjTtK^S), d'echel. Lpz. 1817. 8.

3. Translations.— English.— rAoj. Taylor, English Translation of Janiblichus on Mysteries. Riswick, 1821. 8. Cf. Class.
Journ. xvii. 213.— See also Thos. Taylor, Theoretic Arithmetic, containing the substance of all that has been written on the subject
by Theo of Smyrna, Nicomachus, Janiblichus, Boethius, &c. liOnd. 1816. S.

§ 200 b. Proclus, a philosopher of the school of New-Platonists, was born at Con-
stantinople, A. D. 412; he lived at Xantiuis in Lycia, at Alexandria, and at Athens,
and died A. D. 485. Several v/orks by him are extant ; of which the most important
is the Commentary on the TimcEus of Plato, written at the age of 28. At Alexandria
he attended the lectures of Olympiodorus the Peripatetic, who is to be distinguished
from Olympiodorus the New-Platonist, belonging to the close of the 6th century. The
latter was the author of commentaries on four of Plato's dialogues.

See Schctl, vol. vii. p. 102, 106.— Cousin, Nouv. Fragm. Phil, (cited § 171) p. 264, ss.—£iarigny. La Vie du Philos. Proclus, in the
Mem. Acad. Inscr. xxxi. 139. — A. Berger, Proclus ; exposition de sa Doctrine. Par. 1840. 4. pp. 127. " the system of Proclus me-
thodically exhibited and supported step by step by references to his writings."

1. Editions.— f. CrtiLZer, Proclus & Olympiodorus, Gr. & Lat Francof. 1S20-25. 5 vols. 8.— K. Cousin, Procli Opera, Gr. & Lat.
Par. 1820-27. 6 vols. 8. with Notes.

2. Translations —English —7/^01. Taylor, Commentaries of Proclus on the Timaeus of Plato, in five books. Lfjud. IS20. 2 vols. 4.

§ 201. StobaEus {Johannes) a native of Stobi in Macedonia, probably flourished
about A. D. 500.

1 u. He collected from a multitude of writers in prose and verse a mass of philoso-
phical extracts, which he arranged according to their subjects, in a work entitled
'AvdoXoyiov EKXoyCiv, d.-ocpdeyi^ircji' , v-oOriKdv, in 4 books. They are perhaps more correctly
considered as tiro works : one, Eclogcs pliysiccB et etliiccp, in 2 books ; the other, Ser-
mones, also in 2 books. The whole collection is valuable, both on account of the con-
tents in themselves and also of the numerous passages rescued from destruction only
by being inserted therein.

2. John of Stobi cultivated the habit of reading with a pen in his hand. The selec-
tions which we have, were arranged, it is said, for the use of his son. Each chapter
of the Eclogce and oi^ the Sermones, has its title, under which the extracts are placed,
the sourceswhence they are drawn being noted in the luargin. More than five hun-
dred authors are quoted, whose works have mostly perished. — Scnoll, vii. 133.

3. The lest edition of the Edogx is Hecren's, Gr. & Lat. Gott. 1792-1801. 4 vols. 8. with dissertations and notes.— Of the Dm-
courses, Gaisford's J. Stobsi Florilegium. Oxf. 1822. 4 vols. 8. 2d ed. 1823-25. with the Lat. vers, of H. Grotius, prolegomena
and notes.— The Eclogx and the Serinvnes were published by Fr. Fabrus (Favre, books, of Lyons), Gr. & Lat. Genev. 1609.
fol.— The poetical extracts were collected and edited by H. Groltus. Par. 1623. 4. with a translation in Latin verse. Cf. SchStt,
»ii. 159.

VII. — Mathematicians and Geographers.

§ 202 ti. The very name of Mathematics {ixaBnuara, naennariKa) is an evidence that their
scientific form originated among the Greeks, although the Egyptians and various
eastern nations, in earlier times, possessed arithmetical, geometrical, and particularly
astronomical knowledge. Arithmetic was in a very incomplete state in Greece before
the time of Pythagoras. He was the first who considerably cultivated it ; but it was
left especially to Euclid to treat the subject scientifically and unite with it the study of
geometry. The elements of geometry the Greeks seem to have derived from the
rhopnicians; although the knowledge which Thales acquired in Egypt is not to be
overlooked. The science was afterwards considered as a special means of improving
the intellect, and an essential preparatory study for every philosopher. (Cf § 175.)
Hence its great estimation and high cultivation among the Greeks. There are many
indications of the use and encouragement which the practical mathematics found amonjj



them, especially in connection with mechanical sciences, as Statics, Hydrostatics, and
Hydraulics. I'hat the Greeks applied mathematics to architecture, and with the
most happy success, uniting the rigid principles of science with the rules of tasce, we
have sufficient proof in the descriptions of their temples, palaces, porticos, and other
edifices, and in the still remaining monuments of that art. Astronomy was introduced
by Inhales from Egypt. Pythagoras established several principles of this science.
Other philosophers exhibited them in a written form.

*5> 203. It is obvious, from what has been said, that mathematical studies in Greece
can be traced back only to the two primary schools of philosophy, the Ionian founded
by Thales, and the Iialic by Pythagoras (cf § 168).

From tile time of Pythagoras, mathematics, as has been suggested, formed an
essential part of philosophy. In the Academy they were specially cultivated ; this
may be inferred from the inscription (cf $ 175) placed by Plato himself over the door
of his school. To the philosophers of this sect the science is much indebted. But in
the want of historical evidence, it is impossible to give a definite account of the state of
mathematical knowledge during the time preceding Alexander. The names of several

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