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matiiematicians and asFronomers are recorded. The most important are Archytas of
Tarentum, inventor of various machines which astonished his contemporaries ; Meton
of Athens, author of the celebrated lunar cycle (cf P. I. § 194); and Autolycus of
Pitane, the most ancient mathematician whose works are preserved.

The works of Ajxlolycia were first published by C. Rauchfuss (Dasypodius). Strasb. 1572. 4. In Lat. transl. by /. Anna.

Rom. I5S7. 2 vols. 4. A fragment of a treatise by Archytas, on maXhematical science, is found in Porphyry ; it was published

by J. Gramm. Copenb. 1707. 4. — Cf. Plutarch, Sympos. vii. and Life of Marcellus.

§ 204. After the time of Alexander, mathematical studies became more prominent
than before. Mathematics were no longer merely a part of philosophy in general, but
held the place of a science by themselves. They were cultivated in all the schools
which flourished in this period. The mathematical school of Alexandria was rendered
illustrious by the reputation of Euclid, who had a numerous class of disciples, and
among them Ptolemy I., the king of Egypt. One of the most distinguished names in
this period, and indeed in all antiquity, is that of Archimedes of Syracuse, celebrated
not only for his successful research into abstract principles, but also for his curious and
wonderful mechanical applications and inventions. A third memorable name adorns
this period, Apollonius of Perga, whose work on Conic Sections formed an epoch in
the history of mathematics. Euchd, Archimedes, and Apollonius, with Diophantus,
who lived in the third and fourth century after Christ, may justly be regarded as the

great foimders of mathematical science. Other names belong to the period between

Alexander and the capture of Corinth ; as Heron of Alexandria, author of several trea-
tises on branches of mechanics ; Atheneeus and Biton, who wrote on mihtary engines
and missiles; and Philon of Byzantium, who wrote on the same subjects,. and to whom

is ascribed a work on the seven ivoiiders of the world. Astronomy was cultivated

with success in this period, and, according to some, an important influence was exerted
by the intercourse with the Babylonians in the expedition of Alexander. Aristarchus
of Samos, Eratosthenes of Cyrene, and Hipparchus of Niceea, are the principal authors
of whom we have remains.

Marcoz, Astronomie solaire d'Hipparque. Par. 182S. B.—Wanis, Aristarchus. Oxf. 1688. 8.

In the next period, i. e. between the fall of Corinth and the time of Constamine, we
find no eminent authors in the pure mathematics. Several writers on astronomical
subjects are mentioned ; Claudius Ptolemy, in the age of the Antonines, was celebrated
above all others. His system of astronomy, as is well known, was much in vogue,
and exerted a great influence. Several authors on music, of whom fragments are still
extant, are referred to this period; some of them were among the mathematicians of
the age.

The remains of these authors are found in the collection of Meihomiiu [cViei § 208 <. 1.)— Cf. SchUl, bk. vi. ch. xliv.

§ 205. Between the time of Constantine and the overthrow of Constantinople, the
list of Greek mathematicians is much larger, but contains few names of great eminence.
Diophantus. a contemporary of the emperor Julian, and already mentioned as one of
the four ancient fathers of mathematics, is the most important. Pappus and Theon of
Alexandria, at the close of the fourth century, may be mentioned next. Hypatia, a
daughter of Theon, inherited her father's love of mathematical science; she became
a public teacher, and wrote several works which perished in the destruction of the
Alexandrian library. Proclus the philosopher wrote on mathematics and astronomy.
Leon of Constantinople, in the latter half of the ninth century, is spoken of by the By
zantine historians wiih much admiration. He was solicited by the Arabian Caliph,
Al-mamoun, to remove to Bagdad; the emperor Theophilus, refusing to permit this,
opened a public place for Leon to give instruction, and bestowed many honors and pri-
vileges upon him. He has left nothing by which we can judge of his merits. We will
add only the name of Anthemius of Tralles, in the sixth century, employed by Justi-
uian to construct the church of St. Sophia, of which, however, he only laid the fouxi-



dation, not living to complete the work. There remains a curious fragment of his

work Ucpl napaooico'^ /^ifXai'/j/zdroj:/.
Cf. Schiill, bk vi. ch. xci.— The fragment of .Inthemitu was published inthe Mem. de TJlcad. Inicr. et Belles Lettres, vol. xlii. by

ZJujwy, and separately. Par. 1774. 4. R-.-spectiiig the celebrated tfypatto, see Menage, Hist. Mulier. Pbilosoph.— ZJcnngnoZef,

Pisserl. in Bibl. Gernjan. vol. iii. — ilbi Goujet, Lett, id Contin. des Memoires de Litt. by Dtamoleta, vol. v. \\.~Socratu, Hist.
Eccles. vii. 13.

§ 206. On the subject of Geography, the knowledge of the Greeks w'as very limited
and iniperi'ect ; yet they had writers on the subject of much value in illustrating the

condition of ancient countries. The Periplus of Hanno is the earliest work extant.

HicatcBus of IMiletus, in his lIfpi>?yr;,T(s )/rjj, described the countries known at the time he
wrote, in the reign of Darius, about 500 B. C. The Periplus of Scylax has been com-
monly referred to nearly the same period. The Anabasis of Xenophon may properly
be mentioned among the geographical works anterior to the time of Alexander, being
of great value in relation to upper Asia. Fythcas, of IMassilia, a voyager and geo°
grapher, probably belonging to the same period, before Alexander, was the autho'r of
two works, a description of (he ocean and a Periplus. The little now known of them

is derived from Strabo and Pliny. It was not until the period between Alexander

and the Roman supremacy, that geography was elevated to the rank of a science.
The honor of effecting this is ascribed to Eratosthenes, a very eminent mathematician
and scliolar, who flourished at Alexandria, B. C. about 230.

Cf. Schhll, bk. iii. ch. xviii. ; bk. iv. ch. xlv.

^ 207. After the supremacy of Rome, greater advances were made in geographical
knowledge. The first distinguished geographer of this period is Strabo, born about
60 B. C, whose work sryled rsioypa(piKa is a thesaurus comprising nearly the whole
history of geography from Homer to Augustus, with all then known upon the subject,
'Phe geographical poem of Dionysius of Charax belongs to the age of Augustus. We
have a Iragment of a work on Parthia, by Isidorus of Charax ; published in the reign
of Caligula. There are also some geographical pieces under the name of Arrian, who
flourished in the reign of Hadrian and the Antonines. But a more important work is
that of Pausanias belonging to the same age, and entitled, Itinerary of Greece. The
most celebrated of all the ancient writers on geography was Claudius Ftolemy, already
mentioned as a mathematician and astronomer about the middle of the second century
after Christ. His system of geography remained the only manual in vogue for fourteen

centuries. After Ptolemy, the history of Greek letters presents no author of much

importance in this department of study. Before the time of Constantine, Agathar-
cides of Cnidus, in the latter half of the 2d century, is said by Photius to have written
several geographical works ; and some extracts are preserved by Photius. We have
also a fragment of Dionysius of Byzantium in the second century, and a sort of geo-
graphical epitome by a certain Agathemerus, probably of the third century. Of the
Byzantine geographers, or those subsequent to Constantine, we may mention as the
principal, Marcianus of Heraclea in Pontus, Stephanus of Byzantium, and Cosmas the
Egyptian monk.

Cf. Scholl, vol. V. p. 275 ; vii. p. 33.— S. F. IV. Hoffman, Periplus of Marcianus, Menippns, &c. Lips. 1841. 8.

"S 208. There are some Greek writers on Tactics, who may be mentioned in this
place. The most eminent is Onosander, or Onesander, who lived probably about the
middle of the 1st century. He left a work on the military art, in a style remarkably
pure for the age ; it was a source whence all the later writers on the subject drew
materials. Polyasnus, a native of Macedonia, a rhetorician or advocate of the 2d cen-
tury, should probably be mentioned as next in rank, although his work is rather
an historical collection of stratagems than a treatise on tactics. Apollodorus, an archi-
tect in the time of Trajan, left a work entitled UoXiopKTjTiKa., on military engines. The
emperor Adrian is said to have composed a military treatise called 'Emr/jrn'fia, a frag-
ment of which is still extant. Arrian and .^Elian also left works on the subject of Tac-
tics. The emperor Mauritius, of the 6th century, wrote a treatise on the miUtary art.
There are also some treatises written at a later period, which it is not important to

Cf. Sdiai, vol. V. p. 261. vii. 67.— flaoje, in Jahn's Jahrl. far Philol. 1835.

§ 208/. We will now introduce some jgrpneral references, and then speak of a
few distinguished individuals, nanriing first the mathematicians and after them
the geographers.

1. On the h story of .Mathematics amone: the Greeks, see references P. IV. \\ 24, 25.-7;. LUders, Pythagoras und Hypatia, oder
die Mathemalik der Alten. Lpz. 1809 S.—nelambre on the Arithmetic of the Greeks in Pt.yrard's Archimedes, cited § 210. 5.— G.
Costaid, Letter on the Rise and Prneress of Astronomy among the Ancients. Lond. 1746. 8.— G. Costard, History of Astronomy.

Lend. 1767. 4. The principal Mathematical Cullections are, that of Thevenot, Vet. Mathemat. Opera. P^r. 1693. foL

and that of Jfallis, in 3d vol. of his Opera Math. Oxf. 16S9. fol.— Cf. E. Bi-mard, Vet. Mathematicorum, Gr. & Lat. & Anb.

Synopsis. Lond. I "04. 8. The following coUec'ions of writers on subjects connected with maihematics may be cited.— As t ro-

nomical, by .ildus. Ven. 1429. fcil.- By Pcfai'i'uj, Uranologinn, &c. Par. 1630. Amst 1T03. fol.— Mus i cal, by Mei;r««*,

Lugd. Bat. I6I6. 4. — By Meibomius, Aniiq. Musicae auctores, Gr. & Lat. Amst. 1652. 2 vols. 4. On Tactics, by Meurnui.

Gr. & Lat. Lugd. Bat. 1613. i.—P. Scriverius, Scriptores rei militaris. Vesal. 1U70. S.—Jl. H. Eaumg'drtner, Samml. allef
Ej-iegsschriftfteller der Griecb. Qbertetzt, &c Manoh. 1779. 2 vols. 4.


2. On the history of Geography among the Greeks, Gossclin, Geographic des Grecs. Par. 1793. 3 vols, i.— Stair, cited P IV
i 27.— We may also refer to Matte- JiiMii, aiid lo Mannert and Uletl, cited § 7. 7 {l).—H. Murray, The Encyclopedia of Geo

graphy, ed. by T. G. Bradford. Phil. 183S. 3 vols, large 8. Part I. is the History of Geography. Geographical CoiZefr

iiofii.— The first collection of Minor Greek Geographers was that of [JSschd. Augsb. 1600. 8.— The second, Groncvitts. I^cyd.
1627. 4. — The third, more complete, Hudson. Oxf. 1698-1712. 4 vols. 8. — Much preparation for a new edition was made by £re»
dcrw, before 1S!2. On his death his apparatus passed into the hands of Spohn and Priedemann, from whom is expected an edition
containing all the Greek Geographical remains, excepting those of the four authors sometimes denominated Major, viz. Strabo,
Pausanias, Ptoterny, and Stephen of Byzantium.— G. Bemhardy, Geographi Graeci Minores, Gr. & Lat. Lpz. 182S. 8. not
finished ; but very good.

§ 209. Euclid lived at Alexandria B. C. about 300, in the time of the Egyp-
tian kinor Ptolemy Soter. His native place is not known. He was a teacher
of mathematics, particularly oi geometry , in which branch he was the most dis-
tinguished scholar among the Greeks.

1 u. His Eleine7ds (SroiVEia), in 15 books, were drawn up with great ability, and in
a very perspicuous manner. There are two Greek commentaries upon this work, by
Proclus and Theon. The latter flourished at Alexandria, in the 4th century (cf. "^ 205),
and it is only according to his revision of the woriv that we now possess the Elements
of Euclid. The 14th and 15th books are ascribed, and with great probability, to Hyp-
sicles, who lived about tlie middle of the 2d century. Besides the Elements, we have
also several other mathematical pieces ascribed to Euclid.

2. The principal works allowed to be genuine are the Data (Asf^o/isi'a), containing geo*
metrical theorems, and the Phenomena (<l>aii/o/ii:i/a), relating to astronomy.

ScMlt, iii. 352.—Fuhnnami, Kl. Handb. p. 33D.

3. There have been five editions of the Works of Euclid.— Prtncepj, by 5. Grynsna. Bas. 1533. fol.— Bas. 1559. fol.— C. Da-
typodius iRauchfuss), Gr. & Lat. Strasb. 1571.— D. Gregory, Gr. & Lat. Oxf. 1703. fol.— Best of all, PeyrarJ, Gr. Lat. & Gall.
Par. 1814. 3 vols. 4.— Of the E 1 e m e n ts, .4. Calino, Gr. & Lat. Rom. 1545. 2 vols. 8.— C/i. Melden. Leyd. 1673. 12.— TA. Ha-
telden, (with the Data). Lond. 1732. 8.— Best, Camerer, Gr. & Lat. Berl. 1824. 8. (Isf vol. containing 6 books of the Elements,
with Excurs. and Plates.) 2d vol. continued by C. F. Hauler. 1726.—/. C. Neide. Hal. 1825. 8. good, containing first 6 books, with
.0th and 12th.— S. F. August. Berl. 1826-30. 2 vols. 8. critical text.

4. Translations.— There have been many editions of the Elements in Latin; among the best, B'ormayjn, Lpz. 1769. 8 — S. Bon-
,ey. (12 bks). Oxf. 1802. 8. also the Data. Oxf. 1803. 8. English.— fl. Simpson (bk. 1-6, II, 12). Glasg. I7i6. 4. and often re-
printed.—/, mitiamson (whole 15). Lond. 1731-88. 2 vols. 4. German.—/. F. Lorcnz. Hal. 1818. 8. Fieach.—Peyrard,

above cited.

§ 210. Jrchimedes was born at Syracuse B. C. about 287, and was put to
death by a soldier during the storming and capture of that city by the Roman
general Marcellus, B. C. 212. He was celebrated especially for his skill in
mechanics ; but his inventive genius enriched almost every branch of mathe-
matical science.

1. The sepulcher of Archimedes was near one of the gales of Syracuse, but was forgotten and
almost overgrown with briars in the time of Cicero. It was discovered by ihe exertions of the
latter, while Quaestor in Sicily, marked by a small pillar bearing an Iambic inscription and the
figures of a cylinder and sphere.

Melot, Vie d'Archimede, and Fraguier, Du tombeau d'Archimede, in the Mem. Acad. Inscr. ii. 321. xiv. 128.

2 u. He acquired his greatest celebrity by discovering the relation between the Cy-
hnder and Sphere, and by contriving several military engines, by the aid of which the
Syracusans defended themselves for three years against the Romans. We have several
works from him; Utpl rfjg T.ipaipai koI Kv\[v6pon^ On the Sphere and CyVnider; KvkXov
fi€Tpr]ci;, The Measuring of ihe Circle; Tlepl tcoi> 'Oxov^ihiov, Of floating bodies; 'ifaufi'iTrj;,
Are7iarius, and others. In general it may be remarked, however, that we possess the
works of Archimedes only according to the recensions o\ Isidorus and his pupil Euto-
cius in the 6th century.

3. Polybius, Livy, and PliUarch, speak of the engines invented by Archimedes to harass the
Romans, but say nothing of his destroying their fleet by means of re'flecting-mirrors, or burning-
glasses, contrived for setting fire to the vessels. Lucian is the first author who mentions the
burning of the fleet, biU he does not tell the means. Tzetzes and the writers of the Bas-Empire,
state that it was by the aid of mirrors. The story has been treated as a mere fable, although the
possibility of the thing has been proved by J5(//o7ii.— Archimedes is said to have invented an
instrument for representing the movements of the heavenly bodies^; noticed by Claudian in an
episram.— A magnificent vessel is described as having beenconstructed for the king of Syracuse,
under the care of Archimedess.

1 Scfi'oU, iii. 360. vii. 57.— Cf. Foreign Rev. No. i. p. 305.—Edinb. Rev. vol. xviii.— iond. Quart. Rev. iii. 89, 108.— Giifcon,

Rom. Emp. iv. p. 74. ed. N. York, 1822. a Cf. D. Stewart, Elem. of Philos. of Mind, vol. ii. j. '.06. ed. N. York, 1814, 3 CC

Scholl, vii. p. 446. cf. P. IV. § 167. 2.

4. There have been four editions of the W o r k s of Archimedes.— ft-tnceps, by T. Gechauff (printer Hervag). Gr. & Lat Bas.
1344. {nl.—Rivaidt (printer Morel), Gr. & Lat. Par. 1615. fol. repr. 1646. ed. Richard.— Borelli. Messina, 1572. fr.l. repr. Palerm.
1685. fol.— Best entirely, jji/r. Robertson (begun by Torelli), Gr. & Lat Oxf. 1792. fol. with the commentary of Eutocius.— Of the
Dimensio drcuti (with the Arenarivs), IVallis. Oxf. 1676. 8.— S. Horsley, Lat version, with Euclid's Data, as cited § 209. 4.-
Are^iarius, with Engl, transl. by G. Andcrsoru Lond. 1784. 8.

5. Translations.— German.— Stttnn (of the whole Works). Nlrnb. 1670. io\.—Bauber, the Sphere and Cylinder. Tub. I79S. 8

—KiUger, the Arenarius. Quedl. 1820. 8. French.— Petard, of whole Works. Par. 1807. 4. 1808. 2 vols. S. English.

Anderson, as above cited.



§ 211. Jlpolhnius, surnamed Pergseus from his birthplace Perga in Pampliy-
lia, lived at Alexandria about B. C. 250, under Ptolemy Euergetes. He studied
mathematics under those who had been pupils of Euclid.

1 M. As a writer he is known by his work on Conic Sections, KcjviKa "ErotXiTa, in 8
books. Only the first 4 books, however, are in the Greek ; the 3 next are in a Latin
translation horn an Arabian version, and the 8th exists only as restored by Halley from
hints found in Pappus.

2. The 4th, 6th and 7th books of the Conic Sections were translated from the Ara-
bian ab' ut the middle of the 18th century, by /. ^. Borelli. — The other works of
Apollonius were lleyl 'E-raipoii', De Tactionibus, or Contacts of hues and circles, and
'F.nim^i TijTTOt, Plftnes, which have come to us in a very mutilated state ; TUpl ISaiaeMv,
De IncUnationihus, of which scarcely anything remains; lUpl xwpiov 'ATrorofirjg, De
Sectione Spatii, of which we have nothing ; and Ilepl Aoyov 'AnoToiujs, De Sectione
rationis, which is preserved in Arabic.

3. The only e<litioD of the Coiiics is that of E. Halley (begun by Gregory), Gr. & Lat. Oxf. 1710. fol.— Aftenipis have been made
to restore some of the other treatises.— Cc TacliomLus ; by Camerer. Goih. 1795. 8.— By Haumann. Bresl. 1817. S.— /. Lawson,
(he two books of A. concerning Tayi^encies, &c. Load. 1795. 4.— On Planes, by R. Simpson. Glasg. 17-19. 4. — On hiclinaticms,
by S. Horsley, Gr. & Lat. Oxf. 1770. 4.— By R. Barrow. Lond. 1799. i.—De Seclioiu Spatii; by E. Halley. Oif. 1706. 8. with
a Latin Iransla ion, from the Arabic, of the treatise De Sect, rationis. — By A. Richler, Des Apollonius zvvei Bacher von Verhiltuiss-
Schnilt (from the Latin of Halley). Elb. 1836. 8.

§ 212. Pappus, an Alexandrine philosopher and mathematician, flourished in
the 4th century. His principal work, known to us, is entitled MaOr^/xatLxal,
(Svvayi^yai, Mathematical Collections, in 8 books.

1. This work is chiefly interesting on account of the extracts it contains from mathematical
writings, which are lost. Other works are ascribed to him ; as, a treatise on military engines,
a commentary on Aristarchus of Samos, a work on geography, &c.

Cf Scholl, vii. 49.— .am. Quart. Rev. No. xxi.

2. Only fragments of the Greek text have yet been published. — A frafment of the 2d book was published by J. JTalHs, in his ed.
<if.3ristarLfius of Samos. Oxf. 16S8. 8.— The second part of tlie sih book, by Eisenmann. Par. 1824. fol.— The preface to the 7th
book, by Halley. Oxf. 1706. 8. (with a treatise of Apollonius, as cited § 211. 3). — Some lemmas from the 7th book, in Mtibomius,

Dialoe. de Proporlionibus. Hafo. 1655. fol. A Latin version of 6 books (3-S), by Fr. Commandini, an Italian mathematician

of the 16th ccntur>-, printed, Pesaro, 1583. fol. and (ed. Manolessiiui). Bolog. 1660. fol.— A fragment of the 4th book, not in this ver-
sioji, is given by Ertdow, Epistolae Farisienses. Lpz. 1812. 8.

§213. Dinphantus or Diophantes, of Alexandria, lived probably in the 4th
century, under Julian. He composed an Arithmetic, 'ApLOixr^ttxri, in 13 books,
of which 6 are now extant. A work styled Hipl TtoKvyJ^vi^v apiOfxiZp is also as-
cribed to him.

1. The Arithmetic of Diophantus is not only important as contributing to the history of Mathe-
matics, by making known the state of the science in the 4ih century, but it is also interesting to
the maiheinaiician himself, as it furnishes luminous methods for resolving various problems. It
presents also the first traces of that branch of the science which was called .Algebra, in honor of
the Arabian Gtbtr, to whom its invention is ascribed. — Scholl, vii. p. 43.

2. Editions. — A Latin version of all his remains was published by Xylander {Holzmann). Bis. 1575. fol. — The first edilion of the
text was by C. G. Eachet {de Meziriac). Gr. & Lat. Par. 1621. fol. repr. Tolosm (Toulouse), 1670. fol. with notes of P. de Fermat.

3. Translations.— A German translation of the treatise Uif,l noX. igi9. (von den Polygonal-Zahlen) by Poselger. Lpz. 1810. 8.
—Of the Arithmetic, by Schultz. Berl. 1822. 8. (containing also Posdger's).

§ 214. Hanno, the first name we mention among the geographers, probably
lived B. C. about 500. He was a Carthaginian general.

1 u. He is supposed to have written in the Punic language the Voyage, which,
either during his life or shortly after, was translated into Greek, under the title ii€p'n:\oog.
What we possess is considered by some as only an abstract of a greater work.

2. The full title is "Awuivdi; KapXricoificjv PaaiXicos wpt'-Xoof tu)1> vrrsp roj 'HpavAro-'j (rnj\as
Ai(i"Ku).' ras y(ji fizpt^v ov Koi dveOriKev iv no tov K-pofov rtiizvu 6r]\ovi'Ta tulSc. Haiino is repre-
sented as sent with a fleet of 60 vessels and 30,000 colonists to explore the western
coast of Africa, and as having continued his voyage until his store of provisions failed.
How far he proceeded' has been a theme of much discussion. — The age and authen-
ticity of the Periplus have also been a subject^ of dispute.

1 Rennell, Geogr. of tterodotus, § 26.— Cf. Vierthaler, on the Peripl. of Hanno. Salzb. 1798. 8. 2 Dodwell, Diss, in Hudson'*

Geogr. ftlin. cited § 208 1. 2.— Bougainville, Sur les Decouvertes fails par Hanuon, in the Mem. de Pjlcad. des Iiucr. xivL anJ

3. Editions.— Ge/CTift« (with .^nan). Bas. 1533. i.—Berhel, (with Stephanus Byzant). Leyd. 1674. 12.— In Si/^Jon, Geog.
Min.— Separately, /. H. Bohler. Strasb. 1661. i.—Th. Falcontr, with an Engl, transl. Oxf. 1797. 8.—/. /„ Hug. 1808. 4. with
t list of authors on the subject — An Engl, transl. is gi\en in Anthon''s Lempriere, Hanno.

4. There is extant another Peri>?us of an early date, that of SryZaiof Caryanda', placed by

some B. C. about 500. Pytheas, of Massilia, at a later period^, also wrote a Periplus. — That

of Marcianuss belongs to a still later period.

« Cf. Scholl, Hist. Lilt. Gr. vol. ii. p. 193.— It is contained in Hudson's Collection, cited § 208 f. 2.— Separately, by /. Vo^sixis, Gr
k. Lat Am?t. 1632. 4. 2 See Murray, as cited \ 208. 2.—Eoitgamville, La vie et les ouvrages de Fytheas de .Marseille, in the

Q6 2x3


Mem. Acad. Inscr. xix. p. HG.—D'Anville, Navig^ition de Pytheas a Thule, &c. in same Man, Sfc. xxxvii. 436. 3 cf. Eoff'

matin, ciled § 207.

§ 215. Eratosthenes, of Cyrene, flourished B. C. about 230. He was a pupil
of Callimachus and the philosopher Ariston, and distinguished as a mathema-
tician and the first founder of scientific geography.

1 71. He was also known as a poet, interpreter of the old comic writers, a chrono-
logist, and author of popular philosophical writings. In youth he lived at Athens ;
afterwards at Alexandria, having the charge of its famous hbrary. Of his numerous
writings, pertaining to the mathematical sciences, we have only some imperfect frag-
ments, 'i'hese belong chiefly to the work entitled Ta yzbiypa^^ovntia, which consisted
of 3 books, and contained the first attempt at the measurement of the earth. The loss
of this work is much regretted.

2. In the 1st book, Eratosthenes treated of phi/sical geography; in the 2d, ofmaltie-
niotical; and in the 3d, of political. Vv'hat remains is preserved chiefly by extracts
made by Strabo. — A treatise called Ka-anrepiai.101, explaining the constettations, has
p:ipsed under his name, but on various grounds it is considered as not genuine. —

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