Johann Joachim Eschenburg.

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'Scholl.. iii. 375, 385.

3. Editions.— The fragments of Eratosthenes were published by Anchor. Ghtt. 1770. 4.— T.Iore comple'e, G. C. F Seiiel. Gr. &

Lat. Gott. I7S9. 8.— Most full, and best, Bcrnhardy, Eratostheiiica. Berl. \Hi. 8. The Catasterismi were published first by

J. Fjl. Oxf. 1672. 8. Ci^. § 71. 3.— Gale, in his Opusc. Myth. Amst. I6S8. 8,— Best, /. C. Schauback. Gott. 1795. 8.

§ 216. Strabo was born at Amasea in Pontus, and lived about the time of
Christ, under Augustus and Tiberius. By his travels through Egypt, Asia,
Greece, and Italy, he was the belter qualified to write his great work on geo-

1 u. This is entitled Tecoypa'piKa, and consists of 17 books. It is not a mere register
of names and places, but a rich store of interesting facts and mature reflections, and is
of great utility in the study of ancient hterature and art. The first two books are a
sort of general introduction ; the rest are occupied in descriptions of particular countries,
their constitutions, manners, and religion, interwoven with notices of distinguished
persons and events.

2. The 3d book describes Spain and the neighbouring islands ; the 4th, Gaul, Britain,
and the islands adjacent, and the Alps with the tribes occupying them; the 5th and
6\h treat of Italy, concluding with a survey of the Roman power; the 7th gives an
a'^count of the northern countries, and the nations on the Danube ; the 8th, 9;h, and
lO'h are devoted to Greece; the next six, from the 11th to the 16th, contain an
nrcount of Asia; and the 17th describes the countries of Africa.— The 7th book has
come to us in an imperfect state ; the rest complete. There is an abridgment or Cfircslo-
7/ta;Iii/ of this work, made probably in the lOlh century by some unknown Greek.
There are also several collections of extracts from Strabo in manuscript. — Strabo wrote
a continuation of Polybius under the title of 'Y7ro;ii'!7,uaro 'lanpiKa.

.Scholl, V. -27?.— Lonrf. QiLart. Rev. vol. v.— .3. H. L. Heeren, De fontibus Geographicorum Strabonis. Gott. 1S23. S.—Gosselin,
Gengraphie des Grecs, cited § 208. 2.

8. Editions.— Prtnreps, (in sed. Aldi). Ven. 1516. fol.— ft. Casaubon (2d ed. by MoreT). Par. 1620. fol. Gr. & Lat. Considered
Sr>od.— .4/n.'i/otieen, Gr. & Lat. Aiii^t. 1707. fol. Repr. of Casaubon, with additional notes. — Siebeitkees (continued by Tzsr.hitche FHcdemaun), Gr. & Lat. Lpz. 1796-1819. 7 vols. S.—Th. Falconer, Gr. & Lat. Oxf. 1807. 2 vols. fol. The most ample ed.
(yet cen^nre.i). Cf. FdiDh. Rev. vol. xiv. — Class. Jour>i. vi. 45; vii. 152, 445. — Coray. Par. 1816-19. 4 vols. 8. Best text; pre-

f.icf ni.d nrles in Greek.— C. G. Groskurd, Iberia (the 3d book of the Geography). Strals. 1819. 8. The Chrestomathy is found

in Hurlsvn-s Geograph. Min. cited § 2081. 2.

4. Trans-latioiis.— Gernian.- fe/irei. Lemg. 1775-77. 4 vols. &.—K. Kdrcher, in the Collec. of New Transl. by Tafel, Osiander,

^■c. Trench.— La P^rte duThed and Coray, (under patronage of Fr. (Jov.). Far. 1805-14. 5 vols. 4. Cf. Land. Quart. Rev.

vol. V. 273.

§ 217. Dionysius, of Charax in Persia, was a contemporary of Strabo. He
was sent by Augustus into the East in order to prepare a description of those
regions for the use of his adopted son.

1 u. We have from him a geographical treatise in Hexameter verse, entitled Ucpiii-
yrjuii OUvjihr];, a (iescripiion uf ttte habilable world. From the title of this piece he has
received the surname oi Feriegetes. Cf. ^ 32.

2. We have a learned commentary on the Periegesis, written by Eustathitis. — The Periegesis is in the 4th vol. of Hudson, as cited
§ 208 1. 2. wilh the Conmuntary.—A\so in Matlhix^s Aratus, cited § 71. 3.— Separately, an improved edition, Hudion, Gr. & Lat.
Oxf. 1717. 8. wiih H. DodwdVs Di;s. de a;tate et patria Dionysii.— £. IVells, Gr. & Lat. Lond. 1726. 8.

§ 218. Claudius PtoJemseus, of Pelusium in Egypt, flourished in the middle
of the 2d century, at Alexandria. He acquired great distinction in the sciences
of geography, astronomy, and music.

1 u. Among the writings left by him, the two most important are the MeynXfj avvra^ig,
Great Con^iruction, and the TeixyypaipiKii v<pfiyr](ng, a System of Geography. The former,
cmisisiing of 13 books, now called the Almagest, is the earUest formal svstem of


astronomy. The latter, in 8 books, gives a geosraphical account of coun'ries and
places, with a designation of their Latitude a7td Longitvde, for which the labors of
Mariniis of Tyre had laid the foundation. Of the" other works of Piolemv now
extant we mention particularly his Ka.,<u:' Bamlhoi', Table of Kings, which is of' much
value in the department ot history and chronology.

2 Tlie astrnnomical observations of Ptolemy were probably made in the Serapeuw, or temple
of Serapi.<, al Ale.xnndria, and not in the Serapenni of Cano[)Us. The naii.e of jSlmo^est is de-
rived from the title which the Arabians gave to Ploleniv's astronomical work, to e.xpres.s their
admiration. It was translated into the Arabic in the 9th century, with the patronage and aid of
Caliph JIlmavioHn. From the Arabic it was translated into Spanish and into Latin, before the
Greek original was known in Europe. In the last hook of the Geography, Ptolemy states the
method of nreparing maps, and here are found the first principles of projection. The lasting re-
putation of liiis work has been mentioned (J 207).

SchOIl, tol. V. 240-260, 312-323 — Goudm, Ptoleniy, Strabo, and Eratosthenes compared, Ac in Geographie, kc. cited § 20S. 2.
— Bo-namy, Des Cartes geographiques des anciens. Sec. Mem, Jicad. Inscr. vol. xxv. p. JO.

3. Editions.— Almagest; 6'n,7iaH», Gr. & Lat. Pasil, 153?. 2 vols. fol. with the Comm. of Theon.— .9A1«! Haima, Gr. h

». far. IS13-15. 2 vols. 4. Geography; Princej>s, by Ercumw. Basil, 1.^33. fol. (There had previously been several

editions of llie I.alin. Of. Schmi, v. 319.)— 3/o/iIamu, Gr. & Lat. Frankf. (and Amst.) 16 5. fol. with maps by G. Mercalar,
after those o( Jgathudsernoti, an Alexandrine of the Dih century —Fetter, P. JBerlius, Tbeairum Geographiae Veleris. Aniit. ISIS-
19. 2 vols. fol. with maps, and containing Ptoleiiiy's Geogr. Gr. & Lat. in the 1st vol. and the Itinerary of Antonine, tbe Tabula
Peutir.geriar.a, ,tc. in the 2d.— //a/ma. Par. IS28. 4. containing on'y 1st book and part of 7lh, with a French version —F. G. fra-
bsrg, Ptolem. Geogr. libri octo, Gr. & Lat. Es«end. 1812. 4 —Canon ; Perizonius. Lcy.l. 1745 S.—Halma. Par. 1820. 4.— The

Hypolhesis of the Planets, by Halma, Gr. & Gall. Par. 1820. 4. For other works of Ptolemy and editions, see SchSU, vol. v.

p. 255, S3.

§ 219. Paiisam'as, accor(]in^ to some born at Caesarea in Cappadocia, per-
haps however a native of Lydia, flourished in the 2d century. He traveled over
Greece, Macedonia, Italy, and a great part of Asia.

1 u. In advanced life, at Rome, in the reigns of Hadrian and the Anfonines, he com-
posed his Itinerary of Greece, 'EXXaro? Trcfjii'tynffi;. It consists of 10 books, which are
frequently named from the provinces described in them. The work is full of instruc-
tive details lor the antiquary, especially in reference to the history of art, as the
author makes a point of describing the principal temples, edifices, statues, and the
like. This gives his work an interest it would not otherwise possess.

2. The style of Pausanias is rather negligent ; sometimes his descriptions are ob-
scure ; but he displays much judgment and knowledge, and casts light on very many
topics of history and mythology. — Scholl, v. 307.

3. Editions —PriJicf;)!, by .ildus (ed. M. Munirus). Ven. 1516. fol—Xylander. Frankf. 1583. {o\.—KUhn, Or. & Lat. Lpz.
1696. fol.— Befer, Facius, Gr. & Lat. Lpz. 1791-97. 4 vols. 8.—/. Bekker. Berl. 1826. 2 vols. 8— Best, C. G. Siebeiu, Or. &
Lat. Lpz. 1822-28. 5 wis. 8.—/. H. C. Schubtrt^C. fVah, Gr. & Lat. Lips. 1839. 3 vols. 8. "> critical text."

4. Translations.— German — J. E. Goldhagen. Berl. 1798. 5 vols. 8. French —E. Clavier (and others). Par. 1814-20. 6 vols.

with original Greek and notes. English. — Th. Taylor. Lond. 17S3. 3 vols. 8. Illustrated by maps and views.

5. Illuslntive.— f. .5. C. KCnig, De Paus. fide et auctoritate in historia, mythologia, artibusque Graecorum tradendis. Berl. 1832,
S.—Heyne, Ueber den Kasten des Cypselus, &c. nach dem Pausanias. Gott. 1770. 8.

$220?/. Stephanus of Byzantium was a grammarian and geographer, who lived
towards the close of the 5th century. He wrote a copious grammatical and geogra-
phical Diciionary, called 'EdviKa. Of the original work we have merely a frao-ment.
There is an abridgment, however, 'EOfiKtZi' imrofitj, styled also Uepl T:6\eo)v, madefy the
grammarian Ilermolaus in the time of Justinian.

The best editions of the Epitome; that of .4. Berhel (completed by Gronovius). Leyd. 1688. fol. Amst. 1725. fol. and that
by H^. DindurJ, Gr. & Lat. Lpz. 1825. 4 vols. 8.

'{> 220. Cosmos Indicopleustes was a native of Alexandria, who died about A. D. 550.
He traveled in Ethiopia and India. His geographical work, in 12 books, is entitled
yipicTtaviKr, To-oypafia. He supposed the earth to be of a plane surface, and in the form
of a parallelogram ; and thought this to be the only view consistent with the repre-
sentations of the Bible.

His Topography is given in B. de Mmtfaxicon, Collect. Nov. Patrum Grac. Par. 1706. 2 vols. fol. Gr. & Lat.— A Description
of Plants and Animals of India is given in Tlitvenol, Relations de Voyages Curieux (Par. 1666), as the work of Ckamas.— Cf. Gib'
ton, Rom. Enip.j.iv. 67, 42S.

§ 221. Onesander and Polycenus have been named as prominent writers on military
subjects. I'he work of the former is entitled Srpar;?yiwf \6yoi, in 42 chapters. That
of the latter is entitled 'ETpa-nyri^iaTiKa, in 8 books ; it is highly recommended by HaV'
wood, for beginners in Greek, on account of its easy style and entertaining matter.

1. Editions of Onesander,— F.Vj/, by A'. /J.gau ', Gr. & Lat. Par. 1599. 4.—X. Schwebel. Nuremb. 1761. fol. with the FrencU
version of Zurlauien, and engravings of ancient military engines.- Coray. Par.1822. 8. with Zurlauberi's version, forming the 5th
vol. of his Parerga Bibltothecs Grsecsc.

2. Editions of Polysuus.- /"irif, by /. Cataubon, Gr. & Lat Lyons, 1589. 12 Best, by Coray. Par. 1807. as the Itt voL of hM

Sibltollitca Graca.— There is an Engl, transl. by R. Sheplierd. Lond. 1793. 4.


VIII. — Mythographers.

§ 221 u. The principal existing sources, whence the traditions and fables of the
Greeks may be learned, are three; the jpoets, who bring forward mythical ideas and
fabrications, either incidentally, or as the subjects of particular songs; the historians,
who weave into their narratives the popular faith and tales, and make known historical
circumstances which serve to illustraie the same ; and finally the mythographers, who
have made it their particular business to treat of mythological subjects and to present
connected views or specific details of the ancient fables. — Some of the principal writers
of the latter class will be named in the following sections.

The following Colleclions pertain to this subject.— .4Wi« (Fabulists). Ven. 1505. fol. — 7?!. Gale, Historiae pneticae scriptores an
tiqui. Par. 1675. 8.— By satne, Opuscula Mythologica, et Pbysica, et Ethica, Gr. & Lat. Camb. 1671. S.— Amst. 1688. 8,

§ 222. Palsephatus, an Athenian, probably lived about B. C. 320; some place
him in the time of Homer, but without sufficient grounds.

1 u. His book rirpl amarMv, On things incredihle, contains 50 Muthi, or fables, with
an explanation of them. It is probably but a corrupted abridgment of the first part of
the larger work, in 5 books, ascribed to this author, but now lost. The style is very
simple and easy, and the contents amusing and instructive ; it is often used as a reading-
book in teaching the elements of the Greek language.

2. Editions.— It is found in Mdus, and Gale, Opusc. cited § 221 u.— Separately, best, J /. F. Fischer. Lpz. 1789. 8.-11. N. Emesti.
Lpz. 1816. S. with a Lexicon; for schools.

3. Translations.— German.— j; D. BUchling. Hal. 1821. S. French.— PoZscr. Lausanne, 1771. 12.

4. Euhemerus, supposed to have been a native of IMessene, lived about the same
time with Palaephatus. He wrote a work entitled 'Ispa dvaypa(p^, the object of which
was to show that the mythological deities were mortals, who had conferred benefits
upon their fellow-men, and on that account were deified. This was translated by
Ennius into Latin. Both the original and the version are lost, with the exception of
some passages in Eusebius and Lactantius.

Of. Schijll, Litt. Gr. vol. iii. p. 2i9.—Dunlop, Hist. Rom. Lit. vol. i. 94. ed. Phil. 1827.— Seuin, and Foucher, in the Mem. de
VAcud. des Inscr. vol. viii. 107. xxxiv. 417.

§ 223. Heraclitus was a grammarian, whose epoch and history are wholly
unknown. He is to be distinguished from the philosopher of Ephesus bearing
the same name (cf. § 177).

1 u. He is mentioned as the author of two mythographical works ; one entitled Iltpl
d-rrianov, Of things incredihle ; the other, 'AXX?)yopta( 'O^r/ptK'ttt, Homeric Allegories. The
former seems to be a mere abridgment. The latter is a more considerable work, but
gives the most forced and unnatural explanations to the fictions of the poet. It derives
value from containing poetical fragments of Archilochus, Alcaeus, Eratosthenes,
and others.

2. The first work is given in Gale, Opusc. cited § 221 u. — Separately, by L. H. Teucher. Lemg. 1796. 8. school ed. — The other,
m Gale also — Separately, by C. Gessner, Gr. & Lat. Bas. 1544. 8. as the work of Heradides of Pontus.— Better, by A^. Sckow,
Gotl. 1782. 8. A German translation by /. G. Schulthess. Zar. 1779. 8.

3. There is another work extant with the title Tlepl dntarMv. It is from an unkvown author,
who is supposed to have lived much later, about the time of the emperor Leo the Thracian. It
contains 22 sections, and appears to be an abstract of a larger work.

Published by L. M'lalius. Rome, 1641. 8. — Gale, in Opusc. cited above. — Teacher, with Heraclitus cited above.

§ 224. Apollodorus, a son of Asclepiades, was a grammarian, who lived at
Athens, B. C. about 145. He was a pupil of Aristarchus and embraced the
Stoic philosophy.

1 M. According to Photius he wrote a History of the gods (Tlepi S'eoiv), in 24 books.
We have, however, only 3 books under the title of B'.p\io9fiKri, or Library, which may
be an abridgment of the forementioned, but perhaps is a wholly different work. It
contains a brief account of the gods and heroes before the Trojan war.

2. It is given in Gale, Hist Poet, cited § 221 u.— Separately, best, Htyne. Gott. 1802. 2 vols. 8. with excellent commentary.- £.
Clavier, Gr. & Fr. 1805. i vols 8.— For schools, C. L. Soinmer. Rudolst. 1823. 8.— German Translation, by F. Beyer. Herborn,
1802. 8.— Cf. SchiiU, V. 36. iv. 57.

§ 225. Canon, also known as a grammarian, lived at Athens in the time of
Caesar and Augustus, B. C. about 40.

1 u. He wrote 50 mythical Narratives, Airiyficeig, which are now extant only in the
abstracts given by Photius in his Bihliotheca (cf. § 142). They are addressed to
Archelaus, king of Cappadocia. Although containing little that is pecuHarly interest-
ing, ihey are yet of some value in illustrating ancient history, relating particularly 'o
Jie origin of colonies.

2. They are jiveti in Gale, Hist. Poet, cited § 221 u.— Separately, /. A. Kanne. Gott 1798. 8. — -French translation by Abit
Gedot/ne, in the Hem, de VAcad. des Inscr. torn. xiv. p. 170. — Cf. Scholl, v. 41.


§ 226, Parthcnius, born at Nicea, lived under the emperoi Augustus, and is
said to have been one of the preceptors of Virgil.

1 u. He wrote a work dedicated to Cornelius GaJlus, and entitled Uepi ipwriKuiv Tradr]-
fiaroiv. On amorous affections, designed to furnish that poet with materials for song.
The narratives contained in it were drawn from the old poets, and clothed in an easy
and prosaic style. He seems to have written other works, both in prose and verse,
although the elegiac poet of this name mentioned by Suidas was perhaps another person.

2. The work is found in Gale, as last cited.— Separately, Comariu3. Gr. & Lat. ((irinler Frcben). Bas. 1531. S.— Teuclier. Lpz.
1802 8. with Conon.— Best, Legrand and Heyne. GolL 1798. 8. with Corum.—F. Passow, Lpz. 1S24. 8.— For the account of
Parthenius by Suidas, see SchSU, v. 42.

§ 227. Phurnutus, or more correctly Annaeus Curnufus, born at Leptis in
Africa, probably lived in the last half of the 1st century. He seems to have
been the teacher of Persius, and a disciple of the Stoic sect in philosophy.

1 u. We have from him a Theory of the nature of the gods, 6c(of,ia -epi rrj,- roiv ecojv
^weo);, in 35 sections. It is an attempt to solve the common fables by the help of
allegories, mostly of a forced and extravagant character.

2. Given in Gale, Opusc. Myth, cited § 221 ii.—Villoiton left the Apparatiia for a new edition ; now in the Royal Library of
France. (Schotl, v. 179.)— On Ccimutus see Enfield's Hist Phil. bk. iii. ch. ii. 5 1.—D. Martini Dispulatio de L. Ann. Cornulo.
Lugd. Bat. 1825. 8.

§ 228. Heplisestion (cf. § 134), often called Plokmeeus son of Hephaestion, was
a native of Alexandria, and lived in the 2d century under Trajan.

] 11. His mythological work bore the title nepl t??; el; ToXvjiaOeiav Kawrii [crropia^, Of new
history pertaining to erudition; it consisted of 7 books, but we have only the brief
extracts tbund in Photius.

2. Published by Gale, Hist. Poet, cited § 221 u.— By L. H Teucher, with Conon and Parthenius. Lpz. 18C2. 8.— Cf. SchSll, v. 43.

§ 229. Antoninus Liberalise of whom little is known with certainty, most pro-
bably lived in the 2d century under the Antonines.

1 u. His Collection of metamorphoses, Mera/jop^wfftwj' o-ui'aytoyr;, is a compilation ga-
thered from various writers, in 41 sections. The style is very unequal, and shows
that the author drew his materials from poetical sources.

On Antoninus and other mythr;raphers, see Bast, Letire Critique ; in Lat. transl. by Schafer. Lpz. 18C9. 8.

2. Editions.— Contained in GaU, Hist. Poet.— Given by /. G. n'aleli, in his Ph^drus. Lpz. 1713. 12.— Separately, Princeps by
Xylander (^Holzmann). Basil, 1568. S.—Munker, Gr. & Lat. 1676. 12.— Better, Verheyk, Gr. & Lat. Leyd. 1774. 8.— A school ed
by Teucher. Lpz. 1806. 8. with the Fables of Gahrias. Cf- § 184. l.-G. A. Koch, Gr. & Lat Lips. Is32. 8.

§ 230. Sallusiius, who was a Platonic philosopher in the time of Julian and
Jovian, and was Consul A. D. 363, may be mentioned here.

1 u. He must not be confounded with Sallust the Latin historian, nor with the Cynic
of the same name in later times. He lived at Athens and Alexandria, and acquired
much celebrity as a speaker. He has left a work entitled Ilcpl ieuv km Koapov, On the
gods and the world, in 21 chapters. It is perhaps a philosophical rather than mytho-
logical treatise, and seems to be directed specially against the system of Epicurus.
The author maintains the eternity of the world and the immortality of the soul.

2. Editions — Published first by Nawbeus, Gr. A Lat Rom. 1638. \2.~Gale, Opusc. Myth, above cited.— fbrniey, Or. 4 Fr
Berl. 1748. 8.-7. C. Orelli, Gr. & Lat. Zlr. 1821. 8.— The titles of the chapters are given in SchSll, vii. 80.
S. Translations. German, by SdiuUhess. Zarich, 1779. 8.

IX. — Historians and Biographers.

% 231 u. In very early times the Greeks, like other nations of antiquity, had few, if
any, regular historical records. The art of writing was not brought into that fre-
quent and general use which is requisite for such purposes. Oral traditions, visible
monuments, and commemorative festivals were the principal means of transmitting a
knowledge of important and interesting facts. The oral accounts were commonly
thrown into the form of verse and song ; and thus the poets were the first historians.
Their poems, in epic, lyric, and dramatic forms, presented the story of the fabulous
and heroic ages, and were impressed on the memory in youthful education ; were sung
at the festivals of the gods and the funeral celebrations of heroes, and afterwards cir-
culated by means of written copies. When afterwards the use of writing became
more common, and prose composition began to be cultivated, historical narrative was

the first and principal application of it. -Pherecydes. of the island Leros, and the

three Milesians, Dionysius, Cadmus, and HecatcEUS, who lived between 550 and 500


B. C, are named as the earliest authors of history in prose. At this period truth

and fable were more carefully distinguished; the former was selected as the proper
material for prose and history, and the latter was left to the sole use of the poet. After-
wards writers began to record the history of their owq times and connect it with the
traduionary accounts of former ages. I'he art of writing was more sedulously culti-
vated. The theory of historical composition was investigated and fixed on philoso_-
phical principles. Ere long, Greece possessed historians who are even to the present
day viewed as masters in the art, in respect both of matter and manner.

G. F. Creuzer, Historische Kunst der Griechen. Leipz. 1803. 8.— G. J. Vossius, De Hist. Graecis, as cited § 240.— On early me-
thods 01 preserving knowledge, Du Pin, (as cited § 240), bk. i. sect. 2.— G. Hermann, De Hist. Gr. Primordiis, cited § 1. 2.

§ 232. It was in the earliest part of the period between Solon and Alexander, that
historical compositions in prose began to be produced. Some of the earliest writers
were natives of Asia Minor. Such authors were termed \oyoypa(poi, and their per-
formances \oyoypa'piai. These authors, besides drawing from traditionary accounts and
the works of poets, consulted all the monuments of antiquity ; inscriptions, altars, sta-
tues and edifices erected or consecrated in connection with particular events. The
lososmphies were the first fruit of this spirit of investigation. They were a kind of
writing holding an intermediate place between epic poetry and veritable history. We
have no entire specimen of them ; but there are many fragments, for which we are in-
debted to quotations made by historians and writers on mythology in later periods, by
the scholiasts and some of the Christian Fathers. The works of the prose writers
named in the preceding section belonged to this class. Cadmus is mentioned by
Pliny (Nat. Hist. vii. 56) as the most ancient author of the kind. There are extant
fragments of Pherccydes of Leros, Acusilaus of Argos, Hecataeus of Miletus, Charon
of Lampsacus, Xanthus of Sardis, and Hellanicus of Mitylene.

G. F. Creuzer, Hist. Gif c. an'iquiss. Fra?menta. Heidetb. 1806. i.—Ahhi Sevin, respecting Hecataeus and Charon, in the Mem.
de Vjlcad. des Inscr. et Belles Lett. vol. ri. p. 472 ; xiv. p. 56.— The fragments of Hellanicus collected and published by F. IV. Sturz.
Lpz. 1787. 8.— Those of Pherecydes and Acusilaus hy the Same. Ijjz. 17S9. 8. id ed. Lpz. 1824. 4.— C. D. Hullmann, Aufinge
d. Gr. Geschichte. libnigsb. 1SI4. 8.— fl. H. Kcausen, Hecatei Fragmenla. Berl. 1831. 8.

§ 233. The writers just mentioned are, however, scarcely entitled to the name of
historians. Herodotus is the earliest Greek author who gave a finished and connected
form to the narration of interesting events, and was with much justice styled by Cicero,
the father of history. After him, and partly contemporary, were Thucyd'ules and
Xe?iopho?i. These three are the most eminent of all the Greek historians, and their
works are among the most valuable remains of Greek prose composition. They all
belong to the most brilliant period of Grecian hterature. Their histories were chiefly
occupied with Grecian affairs, and are the grand source of our knowledge respecting

the Grecian states, in the periods to which they relate. There were several other

historians before the time of Alexander, known to us only by a few fragments of their
v.'orks, or by the judgment passed on them by ancient writers. The most important
of these were Ctesias, a contemporary of Xenophon, and Theopompus, who lived a
little later. We have shght fragments, likewise, of Fhihstus of Syracuse, and Ephorus

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