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of Cumse in iEolia.

The fragments of Philisivs published by G'lUr, in his De Situ et or. Syraaisarum. Lips. 1818. 8. Cf. Sevin, on Philetus, Mem.
Acad Inycr xiii. p \ .—0{ Ephorus, by M. Marx. Carlsr. 1815. 8.— Of rfeoponipiM, by H. H. E. Wicheri. Leyd. 1S29. 8. Cf.

Jl. J. E. Pflu§h. De Theop. vita et scriplis. Berl. 1S27. S.—F. Koch, Proleg. ad Theopomp. Chiurn. Stett. 1603. 4. Of Clesias,

in Wts^eHns,'') Herodotus, cited § 241. 3. Cf. K. L. Blum, Herodot und Ktesias, die frUhesten Geschichtsforscher des Orients.
Heilelb. 1S36. 12.— Cf. Scholl, vol. ii. p. 170.

§ 234. It may be proper to notice here a class of writers who confined themselves
to the hisTory and antiquities of Athens. Their works are cited under the common
name of 'Ar9:'Jjj, or Treatises on Attica. As the materials for these works were drawn
not merely from loose traditions, but from various authentic sources, their loss is to be
regretted, although they were no doubt abundantly charged with fable and full of im-
perfection. Works of this description were written in the period before Alexander, by
Cliiodemus and Phanodemus, of whom httle is known. Four others of the same class
belong to the period following the time of Alexander, viz. Demo, Androtion, Philo-
corus, and Ister.

The fragments of these authors were collecte;! and published by Lenz and Sibelis ; <Philochorus and Androtion), Lpz. 1811. 8.
(Phanodemus and Clitodemus, Demon and Ister), Lpz. 1S12. 8 — Scliijll, ii. IS3 ; iii. 224.

^ 235. The principal historian in the next period, from Alexander to the Rornan
supremacy in Greece, is Poli/hhis of Megalopolis. He published several historical
works, which are all lost with' the exception of a part of his Universal History. This
was without a rival in its kind. In style and eloquence it is inferior to the histories of
the great masters of the preceding era ; but it may be considered as the first successful
attempt to exhibit in a philosophical manner the principles of morals and poHtics as
developed in the changes of human society. Polybius may justly be ranked among

the most distinguished of ancient historians. In this period there were numerous

writers who composed hisiorical performances chiefly relating to the life and exploits
of Alexander, although including often much other matter. Almost every thing from


their pens, however, has perished. The following were some of the writers ; Cal-
hsthenes, Hieronymus or Jerome of Cardia, Diodotus of Erythae, Nearchus and
Nymphis of Heraclea.

SaiUe-Cruix Examen des Historiens d'AIexandre-Ie^rand. 2d ed. Far. IS05. S.— Clayton, Crit. Enq. into the life of Alexander the
Great. Lond. 1793. 4. Cf. Dibdin, vol. i. p. 330.— ./Siie Sevin, Recherch. sur la vie et sur les ouvr. de Callisthenea, in the Mem. dt
r.icad. des Inner. &c. torn vii.; de Jerom de Cardie, in vol. xiii. ; de Diodote, in vol. xix.— ./Jny. Mai, Julii Valerii res gestae Aleiandn
Macedonii, translalas ex .Ssopo Graeco. Mediolani, 1817. 8. — Fragments of \ymphis, in the collection of the remains of Memnoa
and other writers of Heraclea, by J. C. OreUius. Lpz. IS16. 8. — Respecting Nearchus, see under Arrian § 250. — StJidll, bk. iv. cb. 36.

§ 236. There were also in this period, between Alexander and the capture of Corinth
by the Romans, other historical authors, some of whom ought at least to be mentioned
here; as HecatjEus of Abdera, Berosus the Chaldean priest, Abydenus his disciple,
and Manetho of Diospolis in Egypt. We may name also Timaeus of Tauromenium,
who, on being banished from Sicily, resided at Athens, and is quoted by Cicero as a
model of the Asiatic style of eloquence {Brut. 95. De Orat. ii. 13); Aratus of Si-
cyon, already mentioned among the poets C^ 71) ; Phylarchus his contemporary ; and
Polemo Periegetes. Of only a part of these authors have we any remains. The most
important fragments are those of Berosus and Manetho.

See .Sclwll, bb. iv. ch. 37. The fngments of Hecatsus were published by P. Zorn. Altona, 1730 ; also in CreuzerU Hist. Gnec
cited § 232.— For those of Berosus, see Jos. Scaliger, De eniendatinne Teniporum ; also Fabricivs, Bibl. Gr. vol. xiv.— /. D. Richter
Chald. Historiae. Lips. lS2i. 8. with life of Berosus. A work on antiquities, under the name of Berosus, was published in Latin
by /. A'miits or Nanni, a Dnminican of Viterbo, who died 1502. This forgery, wilh other pieces, was printed by E. Silber. Rome,
!48?.— The remains of Manelho were also published by Scaliger in the treatise above cited. The discovery (in 1792) of the Anne-
Dian version of Eusebius has furnished the means of a more complete collection. Cf. Journal des Savans, 1S20. See § 2SS.— Sir
J. Marsltam endeavored to reconcile Manetho wilh the Scriptures in his Chronicun Canon. Loud. 1662. fol.— Cf. Shuchford, Sac
and Prof Hist. Connected, bk. xi. (2d vol. p. 133. ed. Phil. iS2i.)~The .Ancient Fragments, containing what remains of the
writings of Sanconiathon, Berosus, Abydenus, Megasthenes, and Manetho ; Translated by /. C. Cury. Loud. 1828. 8.

•^i 237. The period which comes next, the time of Roman supremacy, produced a
great number of historians, but all of secondary rank. We will name tirst those who
wrote before the Christian era. The two most important authors were Diodorus
S7ciilui< and Dio?it/sius Halicarnasseus, who flourishetd but shortly before the time of

Christ, and whose works are in part still extant. I'here were several authors whose

works are lost: as. Castor of Rhodes, a contemporary oi Julius Csesar; Theophanes
of Mi:ylene, friend and biographer of Pompey ; Timagenes of Alexandria, selected
by .Augustus as his historiographer, but discarded for ceriain imprudent sallies of wit;
Posidonius the Stoic ; and Juba, son of the king of Numidia, taken captive by Julius
Cacs^ir. and educated at Rome. Here may be mentioned also Nicolaus of Damascus,
and Meninon of Heraclea, who both hved in the time of Augustus, and of whom some
fragments remain.

/. Eake, Posidonii Rhodii Reliquis doctrinx, &c. Lugd. Bat. 1810. 8.— The fragments of Nicolaus, were published by Oreaitu,

Lpz. 1S04. with a Supplement, 181 1. — Those of Memnon, by H. Stephanus. Par. 1594; and by OreUius. Lpz. 1816. See

Sct.mi, bk. V. ch. 53.

% 238. Of the historians between the time of Augustus and Constantine, one of the
most interesting and important is Flavins Josephus the Jew. His history of the de-
strui-tion of Jerusalem, of which he was an eye-witness, is on many accounts of great
'value. It was written originally in Hebrew, or rather in the Syro-Chaldaic, and after-
wards by himself translated into Greek. It is a work full of tragic interest.

Plutarch, who flourished in the 1st century of the Christian era, must be included
among the historical writers, not only because his Lives partake so much of an historical
chaiacrer, but on account of several other works upon historical topics. After Plutarch,
the most important historians were Arrian, Appian, Dion Cassius, and Heiodian.
ilCIian is placed among the historians, but holds a low rank. Polyaenus ou£rht perhaps
also'o be mentioned here, as his work already noticed (i- 22!) is ^f an historical character.

There were some other historical writers in the times of which we are speaking, to
whom it may be suitable barely to allude. Herennius Philo of Biblus, in the 2d cen-
tury, is said to have written several historical works, particularly to have translated
into Greek from Phcenician the antiquities of Sanconiathon. Praxis or Eupraxidas,
the author of the work ascribed to Dictys Cretensis, lived in this period, probably in
the time of Nero. Phlegon of "^rralles in Lydia wrote, besides other pieres, a sort
of universal chronologv, most of which is lost ; in a fragment of this is mentioned an
eclipse of the sun in the 18ih year of Tiberius, which has by some been supposed to
refer to the darkness that took place at the crucifixion of Christ.

Rcfpectini" Sanconiathon, see R. Ciimberland, Sanconiathou's Phcenician history, translated from the ist bo^k of Kuseblus de
Piaepar. Evang. &c. Loud. 1720. — Christ. Meiners, Hist. Doct. de vero Deo, vol. \.—H. Dodwcll, Disc on the Phcenician History
of Saiicoriathon. Lnnd. 16S0. 8. also in his Warlm. Lond. 1723. — Cory's Ancient Fragments, cited § 236. — A wnrk entitled f/ie.
nix or a Col'ectinn of Frajmen's, &c N. Vorb. \h33. 12. containing Sanconiathon, Zoroaster, Hanno, hc—F. Wageyyfidd, Sancon.
Hist. Phoeo. Gr. & Lat. Brem. 1837. 8. Cf. Bibl. Repns. July, 1837. p. 249. April, 1838. p. 440.

The remains of Phlegon were published by Fra>iz. Halle, 1822. — Several publications appeared in England early the last cen-
tury,on the eclipse mentioned by him : e. g. .Sykes, Dissertation upon the Eclipse, &c Lond. 1732. S.—Whiston, Testimony of Fhle-
«,on, &c. Lond. 1732. S.— Chapman, Phlegon examined, &c. Lond. 1734 8.— Cf. Lit. 4- Thcol. Rev. No. v. p. 53, 57.

<i 239 a. In entering upon the long period from Constantine to the capture of his


favorite city by the Turks, the first historian we meet is Eusehius, a Christian and
bishop of Caesarea, one of the most distinguished men of the age, and particularly pa-
tronized by the Emperor Constantine. The only work of this author which belongs
strictly to classical literature is his Chronicle or Universal History, UavToha-r) laropia.
(Cf. '^ 288.) After Eusebius, we find a long list of historical authors. There are,
however, only two names of much importance, viz. Zosimus and Procopius (cf § 256,
§ 257), until we come to the mass of writers still less celebrated, and commonly grouped
under the name of Byzantine historiajis. This series of authors, beginning with the
7th century, extends to the final overthrow of Constantinople. "They have little
merit, except that they are the only sources whence we can derive the history of the
middle ages. A few among them exhibit a degree of purity and elegance in style ;
but most of their works are desthute of taste and of method, and degraded by super-
stition and abject flattery."

The Byzantine writers have been divided into four classps. The frst included Zovaras, Nice-
tas Aconiinatiis, Nicephorus Oregoras, and Laonicus Chalcondylas, which four aiuhors form
what is termed the Corpus or Body of Byzantine historians, properly speaking. Taken together,
they give a complete history of the period from Conslantitie to the capture of Constantinople by
the Turks. A second class includes the writers that have been termed Chroniclers, who at-
tempted to give general histories, or annals extending from the beginning of the world to their
own times. Scholl mentions 15 or 16 names belonging to (his class.— The third consists of such
as confined themselves to the history of a short period, a particular event, or of certain individu-
als, and may rather be called bing^raphers. Above 20 names are given in this class; Jifralhias
was one of the more eminent auiong them. — The fourth class is composed of authors who occu-
jiiL'd themselves rather with antiquities and statistics. Of 10 or 12 included in this numlier, Con-
stantine Porphyrogenitus was one of the principal. Of this class also was Lydus, whose treatise
on the Roman magistrates, discovered in 1784, is considered by Niebuhr as a valuable source of

The treatise of Lydus was published by fliise. Par. 1S12. 8. Tlie works of the By2aDtine authors were first published at

Paris, with the patronage of Louis I4th, under the title of Corps de VHistnire Byzantine, 1648-1711. 36 vols, fol.— They were
reprinted Ven. 1729, ss. 35. in 23 vols. fiil. the 23d vol. consisting of works not in the 1st edit.— Cf. Sch'CU, vi. 415.— A new and
more comple'e edition was commenced by Niebuhr, and continued after his dea'h by J. Behker and others, under the auspices of tha

Academy nf Sciences at Berlin, 26 vols. S. published, 1828-38. Cf. Bibl. Repos. ii 408. Much use of the Byzantine writers was

made by Gibboii, in his Decline aiid Fall of the Roman Empire.— A\so by L. Cousin, in his Histoire de Constantinople depuis le
regne de Tancien Justin jusqu'a la fin de I'enjpire traduite sur les originaux grecs. Par. 16S5. 11 vols 12.

'5> 239 b. In relation to Biography, we may remark that, as a department of compo-
sition, it seems to have been almost wholly overlooked by the earlier Greeks. In the
period between Augustus and Constantine it received more attention. The Lives of
Flutarch, already alluded to (§ 238), are the most valuable productions in Grecian
biograpliy. In the 3d century we find two biographical works, the Lives of Diogenes
Laertius and the Lives of Fhilostratus, which are important sources of information
respecting the ancient philo.<^ophy. We may also mention here the Lives of Moses and
some of the Patriarchs, by Philo the Jew. of Alexandria ; and likewise the biographical
pieces of Porphyry (cf. § 199). — After Cons'antine, we have the Lives of Eiinopius,
and the works of 'a large number of the Byzantine writers, one class of them being,
as we have just remarked, denominated biographers.

§ 240. We now proceed to notice separately the most distinguished Greek
Historians, giving first some general references.

On the Greek historians generally.- G. /. Vo>sius, De Historicis Grscis. Lugd. Bat. 1651. 4. ed. by Westemmnn. Lips. 1838.8.
L. E. Du Pin, Universal Library of Historians. Transl. from French. Lond. 1709. 2 vols. 12.—./. G. Maisd. Bibliotheca Kisto-
rici. Lpz. n82-lS02. 11 vols. 8. This work contains a notice of the authors ancient or modern who have wri'ten on the history

of Grecian or Roman affairs, or on the history of any people ; wiih some account of their productions. The following is a valua-

ble collection. /. G. Eichhcm. Antiqua Historia ex ipsis vet. Scriptorum Grasc. narrationibus contexta. Lips. 1811. 4 vols. 8. It
forms a complete body of ancient history, composed of extracts from Greek authors, arranged in systematic order. On the margin
are indicated the argument, the bonk and chapter of the author whence each passaze is taken, and the dale. The 1st vol. is devoted
to the empires and states of Asia ; the 2d to Greece ; the 3d and 4!h to Italy. Eichhorn also published a similar Collsclion, drawn
from La'in authors, j^nh^ua Historia in ipsis vet. Scriptorum Lat. narratjonibus. Lips. 1811. 2 vols. 8.— A plan for reading the
ancient historians, is given in PriesVenfs lectures on History (lect. xx.-x.f iv); also in Tyller's Elements of History (pt. i. sect. 49).

We may mention here J. B.Gail, Le Philologue, ou Recherches historiques, militaires, gengraphiques, grammaticales, &C.

d'apres Herodole, Thucydide, Xenophon, Polybe, &c. Par. 1814-28. 21 vols. 8. with an Atlas of 107 plates, 4to.

§ 241. Herodotus, of Halicarnassus in Caria, flourished B. C. about 450. He
is the oldest Greek historian whose whole works are preserved.

1 u. His History, in 9 books, which have been named after the nine muse.f, was
originally rehearsed in part at the Olympic games, and at the Panathenaean festivals
of Athens, and ultimately improved and finished at Thurium in Lower Italy. Its main
subject is the history of the Greeks, whose conflicts with the Persians he details down
to the battle of Mycale ; but he also introduces much that pertains to the Egyptians
and Lydians. That he wrote in his 44th year, is a circumstance of some importance
in reference to his chronology. His style is characterized by dignity and simplicity
united, and presents a striking resemblance to the poetical drapery of Homer, the more
obvious perhaps from being in the Ionic dialect. The contents of the work are also
highly instructive and useful ; although some things in it have no sufficient evidence to


support them. ,IIe too readily adopted as matter of fact whatever the Egyptian priests
related to him, either from traditionary reports, or possibly from their own arbitrary
inveniion. It must be remembered, that he offers many things merely as popular
traditions and rumors.

The names of the muses are said to have been given to the different books of Herodotus by the hearers, who admired their styla
-and mamet when rehearsed at the g:ime«. It was at one of these rehearsals that Thucydidtt was alfected to tears.— ScAftH, ii. 140, as.
RoUin, Hist, of Polite Learniog, ch. ii. art. I. sect. i.

2. Plutarch holdly assailed the veracity of Herodotus, in his piece styled rTtpt r/Jf 'llpo66rov
KaKUT]deiai. Tile Father of History is ably defended by a modern, the Abbe Oeinoz.

See Mem. .icad. histr. vol. six. p. U5. xxi. p. 120. xxiii. p. 101.— ZarcAo-, as cited below.— Gii/i«, Hist. Greece.— ScASa, iv.
162.— ff. Bstioine (H. Slephanus), Apoiojie pour Herodote. La Have, 1735. 3 vols. 12.

3. Editions.— B.—.SrAu'eijAatucr, Gr. & Lat. Strasb. IS16. 6 vols. 8. repr. Lond. 1817. 6 vols. 8. To this belongs 'be Lexicon
Berodoleum, by the same editor, published 1824. 2 vols. 8.—T. Gaisford. Oxf. 1824. Lpz. 1S26. 4 vols. 8. Gr. only; but "rich

in explanatory note^." The Notes may be purchased separately. F — Priiiceps, by Aldus. Ven. 15C-2. (nl—Gale, Gr. & Lat.

XiOnd. 1679. (nl.—fj'esseling, Gr. & Lat. Anist. 1765. fol. much celebrated. R.— Lai'jig-, Gr. & Lat. Ediob. I8C6. 7 vols. 8.

—Borlieck, Gr. Lemg. 1808. 3 vols. 8. "defiled with typographical errors."— ScAjrffi (the parts relating to the war with the
Persians). Halle, 1S09. 2 vols.— G. B. Sd.djer, Gr. & Lat. Lips. 1825. 3 vols. 8.—/. C. F. Bdhr. Lpz. 1835. 4 vols. 8. Gr. only ;
Gaisford's text ; with dissertation, &c., and maps — 5 G.Lons, with English Notes. Loud. 1832. 8. with a Summary of Herod, and
copious Inde«, published 1839. 9.—C. IV. Stacker, with Engl. Notes. Lond. 1832. 2 vols. 8.— § Struve, in \ite £Mioth. of Jacobs
and Rost.— ^ C. S. Ifheeler, Bost. 1842. 2 vols, text of Schweighauser, with Engl. Notes.

4. Translations.- German.— /)egen. Frai.kf. 17S4-9I. 6 vols. S. /. Latige. Berl. 1812. 1824. 2 vols. 8. "best fora philolo-

fian." French —Larcher. Par. 17S6. 7 vols. 8. 1802. 9 vols. 8.— In Gail's ei. Gr. & Fr. Par. 1821. 4 vols. 8. English.—

Beloe. Lond. 1791. 1812. 4 vols. 8. enriched with valuable notes. >^—/'. £. Lai/rmt. Oxf. 1837. 2 vols. 8.

5. Illustrative. — Parli Diction. lonicum Grseco-Lat. &c new edit. Oxf. 1821. 8. Slruve, of Konigsberz, has been preparing a
new Lexicon of Herodotus. Cf. § 7. 4. (/). — Bcrhech, Apparatus ad Herodotum iutelligeiidum. Lemg. 1795-99. 5 vols. 8. —
Creuzcr, Con)ment. Herodotex. Lpz. 1819. if.— Const. Fr. dc Volney. Supplement a I'Hcrodote de Larcher, &c. 1809.
2 vols. '^.—Rennell, Geographical System of Herodotus, &c. 2d ei. Lond. IS30. 2 vols. 8 with maps.— J5 G. yielnijtr, Dissertation
on the Geography of Herodotus, with Researches into the History of the Scythians, Gets, and Sarmatians; transl. from German.
Oxf. 1830. S.— £. IVaardenburg. Dissert de nativa siniplicitate Herodoti. Lugd. Bat. 1S30. S.—G. £. i/cr/se, de vita Herodoti.
Berl. 1827. S — F. HUzig, De Cadyti urbe Herodotea. Gott. 1829. 4.— P. H. Larcher, Notes on Herodotus, transl. from the French.
Lond. 1827. 2 vols. 8.

§ 242. Thucydides, an Athenian, flourished a little after Herodotus, B. C.
about 420. His master in rhetoric was Aniiphon. In the Peloponnesian war
he was a commander of the Athenian allies.

1 u. During his banishment from his native city, he prepared the materials for his
History, of which that war forms the subject. His work does not, however, contain
an account of the whole war, but terminates with the beginning of the 21st year. It
is characterized by an impartial love of truth, and a style noble and highly cultivated,
yet sometimes obscure from its very closeness and fullness of thought. The ancients
viewed him as a model of good Attic ; and Demosthenes formed his style upon Thu-
cydides. The History is usually divided into 8 books, sometimes 13. Of most of the
incidents related, he was himself an eye-whness ; the rest he collected wuh great di-
ligence and careful scrutiny.

2. On his banishment he retired to Scapte.syle in Thrace, where his wife owned a
valuable mine, and spent there 20 years, returning, it is said, near the time when
Athens fell into the hands of the Spartans under Lysander, B. C. 404.

SchStt, iL 15'.— Smith, Discourse on Ihe Life of Thucydides, in his Transl. cited below.— iSoHiJi, Polite Learning, ch. ii. art. I.
sect 2.

3. Editions.- n— £ciAer, Gr. & Lat. Oxf. 1824. 4 vols. 8. with Greek scholia and notes of Wasse and Duker.— Jfi. F. Pojrpo,
Or. Lips. 1821-38. 10 vols. 8. said to be very learned and complete.— Gottieier and Baxter, Gr. & Lat. Lpz. 1790-t>;04. 2 vols. 4.
Better as repr. (by Prieslky) Lond. 1819. 5 vols. S.—F. Goiter, 2J ed. Lpz. 1836. 2 vols. 8. with Latin notes ; considered as one

of the best for common use. f.—Prt-nce-ps, by Aldus. Ven. 15(S. foh— Junta. Flor. 1526. fol.— H. Step>ianus, Gr. & Lat.

Par. 1564. tol.—Hudsmh, Gr. & Lat. Oxf. 1696. fol. celebrated.— Z>uAcr, Gr. & Lat. Amst. 1731. 2 vols, fol.— The Bipont, Gr.

& Lat. 1788.. 6 vols. 8. R.—P. Elnuley, Gr. & Lat. Edinb. 1804. 8 vols. 12. accurate and very good.—/. B. Gail, Gr. Lat. &

Gall. Par. 1S07. 12 vols. 8. with maps and plates.— C. F. F. Haack. Lpz. 1820. 2 vols. 8. text, with brief notes.— Same, Gr. *
Lat. with scholia. Lond. 1823. 4 vols. S.—S. T Bloomfield. Lond. 1830. 3 vols. 12. a good school ed. with Engl, notes.— T. Ar-
ndd. Oxf. 1835. 3 vols. 8. with maps from actual survey; considered good.

4. Translations.— German.— fleii77ia7i7i. Lemg. 1760. 8. edit, by Bredow. Lemg. 1823. S.—Max. Jacohi, Dasseld. 1803.

4 vols. 8. Trench.— Levesque. Par. 1795. 4 vols. S.-Gai7, as above cited.— .5. F. Didut, Par. 1833. 4 vols. 8. with the Gr.

text. English.— SnuM. Lond. 1753. 4th ed. 1805. 2 vols. 8. Phil. 1818.— S. T. .B/o<mi,^£Z<t Lond. 1819. 3 vols. 8. Mo

dem Greek, by A^. Ihikas (Dcuha), with orig. text. Vienn. 1806. 10 vols. 8.

5. Illustrative.— r. F. Benedict, Comment. Critic! in Thuc Lips. 1815. 8.—E.F. Poppo, Obs. Crit. in Thuc. Lips. «15. 8.—
Creuzer, Herodot und Thucyd. Versuch einer nihern WOrdigung ihrer historischen Grundsatze. Lpz. 1798.— i. P. Bupeden, de
Periclis laudatione funebri Thuc. ii. 35. Lips. 1831. 8.—D. H. Meyer, Periclis ap. Thuc. oratio fun. expl. Osn. 1832. i.— Smith,
Discourses on Thucydides and his History, pref. to Transl. above cited.— ifl. Thucydidxtim, a Gr. and Engl. Diet. Lond. 1824. ?
—Maps and Plans illustrative of Thucydides and Herodotus. Oxf. 1829. 2 vols. %—F. GoUer, De situ et origine Syracusarum ad
explicandam Thucydidis hi.storiam. Lips. 1818. 8.

§ 243. Xenophon has already been named among the philosophers (§ 186),
He is also distinguished as an historian.

1 71. His style is peculiarly excellent in narrative, being uniformly simple, tasteful,
and agreeable. The work entitled 'EXX/jvtva comprises 7 books, and may be considered
as a coniinuation of Thucydides. It relates the closing scenes of the Peloponnesian
67 3Y


war, and carries on the history of the Greeks and Persians down to the battle of Man-
tinea. The Expedition of Cyrus, Kvpov 'Avaiiaaiq, is also in seven books, and gives an
account of the attempts of the younger Cyrus, and the celebrated retreat of the 10,000

2. The Cyropcedia, Kvpov iraikia, is usually ranked as an historical work, although
some place it among the philosophical writings of Xenophon. It consists of 8 books,
unfolding the education and hfe of the elder Cyrus. Many, both ancients and moderns,
have considered it as a sort of historical and political romance. Cicero remarks (lib.
1. Ep. 1. ad Q.)that Xenophon's design was not so much to follow truth as to give a
model of a just government. There are several points of discrepancy between Xeno-
phon and Herodotus in giving the history of Cyrus, especially in reference to the cir-
cumstances of his birth, the manner of his umting the Median and Persian thrones,
and tlie occasion of his death.

Cf. Gillies, Hist. Greece, ch. vii. xixii. (vol. i. p. 315. and iii. p. 501. Lond. 1801.)— Mi7/ord, ch. xliii. sect. 1 (vol. vii. p. 150.
Bost. 1823).— Sc/ioiZ, ii. p. 172, and references there given.

3. Editions.— W hole W o r k s , see § IS6. H e 1 1 e n i c a. Best, /. G. Schneider. Lpz. 1821. 8.—Mona, Gr. & Lat

Lpz. 177S. 6.—£othe. Lpz. 1S23. S.—L. Dindorf. Oxf. 1831. 8. A n a b a s i s , Hutchinson, Gr. & Lat. Oxf. 1735. 8. often

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