Johann Joachim Eschenburg.

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repr. Best, Camb. 1785. 8. vv-ith Person's addenda.— iiorj. GOtt. 1822. 2 vols. 8.—C. G. KrUger. Hal. 1826. 8. with excellent

notes in Latin.— E. H. Barker, with En^l. notes. Lond. IS3I. 8. C y r o p se d i a, Hutchinson, Gr. & Lat. Oxf. 1727. 4. often

repr. Latest, Oxf. 1812. 8. (1st Am. Phil. 1806. 9.)—Pr/ppo. Lpz. 1S21. 8.—JVeckherlin. Stuttg. 1822. 8.—Bomemann, in Sosfs
Bibliotheca.— £. H. Barker, with En?I. Notes and Questions. Lond. 1833. 12.

4. Translations.— Gernian.-Ci/nvpaBdia, by Meyer. Frankf. 1813. S.—^lnalasis, by Halbcart, 2d ed. Bresl. 1822. %.—Bdle-

■nica, by Borhcck. Frankf. 1783. 8. French.— Ct/rop. by Dacier. Par. Mll.—Anab. by Larcher. Par. 1778. 2 vols. 12

(Fuhrmarm, p. 218). English.— .4/inl. by E Spehnan. Lond. 1742. 8. By A^ S. Smith, Gr. & Angl. with notes. Lond.

1S24. i.—Hellmica, by W. Smitlu Loud. 1770. 4.—Cyrop. hv Ashley. (Am. ed. Pbil. 1810. 8),

5. Illustrative.— /^sfAt-r, Kon.mentar Uber die Cyrop. (ed. Kuinol). Lpz. 1800. S.—F. A. Bornemann, Der Epilog der Cyro
paedie erliutert. Lpz. 1819. 8.—C. H'ffmeistcr, De Cyro Xenophontis. Meurs. 1826. 4.— J. Klerk, De Vita Croesi, in Cyropaedia,
&c. Lugd. 1826. 8.—/. M. Hilzmann, Worterbuch zu Anabasis und Cyropaedie. Carlsr. 1818. 8.— CVewzer, de Xenophoute his-
forico. Lips. 1799. 8.—Rennell, Illustrations of the Expeditions of Cyrus and Retreat of the Ten Thousand. Loud. 1814. i.—Fra-
guier, also Banier, sur Cyropjedia, in Hist. Acad, des Inscr. ii. 45. vi. 400. — Freret, on Geogr. of Cyrop. in the Mem. Acad. iv. 588.
— IV. Atnswarth, On the Cilician and Syrian Gates (mentioned by Xenophon), in the Journal of Lond. Roy. Geog. Soc. vol. viii.
p. 185.— rf: Williams. E.':s3y on the Geography of the Anabasis. Lond. 1829.— Afapj and Plans illustrative of Xenophon and Foly-
bius. Oxf. 1829. 8.—K. W. KrUger, De authentia Anabaseos Xen. Hal. 1825. 8.

§ 244. Clesias lived in the same period, B. C. about 400. He was a native
of Cnidus in Caria, and a physician by profession.

1 u. He wrote a work on the Assyrian and Persian history (n^po-fx-wi'), in 23 books;
and also one book on India ('L'^ivwi'). He employed the Ionic dialect, and his style is
commended by the ancient grammarians. The credibility of his accounts has been
often questioned, yet there are many considerations that weigh in favor of it. The
loss of his works is much to be regretted. We have some fragments of both, however,
preserved in Photius.

2. Ctesins is at variance in many points with both Hprodotiis and Xenophon. His history of
India altoiinds with fahles, some oif wliich are supposed lo have arisen from nscrihinc; an actual
e.xisience to such hieroglyphical and emblematic figures as are still found on the ruins of Perse-
polis.

Scholl, ii. 174. vii. 436.— Gerfoyn, Mem. de I'Acad. des Inscr. torn. xiv.

3. The fragments of Ctesias are given in many editions of Herodotus.— Separately, H. Slephanus. Par. 1557.— .3. tion. Golt.
1S.J3. 8.—Bdhr. Frankf. 1S24.

§ -245. Polybhis, of Megalopolis in Arcadia, flourished between 200 and 150
B. C. distinguished as a statesman and a warrior. He lived many years at
Rome, where he became an intimate friend of the younger Scipio; the last six
years of his life were passed in his native land.

1 u. His work, entitled 'laropla Ka%\iKh, General History, consists of 40 books ; and
is a universal history for the period of 53 years, from the beginning of the second Punic
war to the the reduction of Macedonia under Perseus, B. C. 167. We have only the
first 5 books entire, and &ome fragments of the rest as far as the 17th. Polybius was
the author of a new method of treating history, expressed by the term pragmatic. His
details of military operations are more particular and interesting from his personal ex-
perience in the military art. His style is not pure and classical, yet it is vigorous and
maniy, and evinces both learning and reflection.

2. "Polybius," says Scholl, "gave a new character to history, and created a new
kind. Vhistoire raiionnee, or pragmatique {rrpayyiariKfi',. Not content with merely relat-
ing events, he unfolds their causes, and explains their consequences. He paints cha-
racters and passes sentence upon actions. Thus he forms the judgment of his reader,
and prompts the reflections which may prepare him for the administration of public
affairs {jrpaynara).'' — Cf. Cicero de Or.'ii. 5. — Of the books after the 17th we have no
lemains, except what is found in two meager abridgments, which the emperor Con-
stantine Porphyroeenitus caused to be made. — Polybius was born B. C. 205; and died
B C. \2'i.— Scholl. iii. 226—230.

X Editions. — B.— Scftii/eigiCuier, Gr. & Lat. Lpz. 1789-95. 9 vols. 8. with a copious Lexicon Pclyhianum. Repr. Oxf. 1823.



I



p. V. HISTORIANS. DIODORUS. DIONYSIUS. JOSEPHUS. 531

6 vols. 8. F.—Princeps. by Obscpisus, Gr. & Lat. Hagan. 1530. (ol—jirlenius, Gr. & IM. Bas. 1549. fol.— CfuauJon, Or. &

Lat. Par. 1609. fol. highfy commtnded. —Grmovius. Gr. & Lat. Amst. 1670. 3 vols. 8.—Ernetti, Gr. & Lat. Lpi. 1764. 3 vols. 8,

4. Translations — German.— f. IV. Beniheti. VVeim. 1820. 8. Freuch.— K. Thuillitr, with comment of Chev. Folard. Par

1727. 6 vols. 4. and with Suppl. Auist. 1733. 7 vols. 4. English.— £fam;yjOTi. Lend. 1772. 4 vols. 8. 1809. 3 vols. 8. Ct

Moii,\\. 630.

6. Illustrative.— LipjiM, Comment, ad Polybium, cited P. IIL § 275.— flei.Jc, Animadversiones ad Polybium. Lips. 1763. 8.—
/. Moor, Criticisms on Polybius, &c. Glasg. 1759. \2.—Drydcn'a Character of Polybius, &c.— See references, § 531. 4.

§ 246. Dlodorus Siculus, of Argyrium, lived under Julius Caesar and Augus-
tus. By his travels over a great portion of Europe and Asia, and also in Egypt,
and by a diligent perusal of the earlier Greek and Latin historians, he prepared
materials for his great historical work.

1 u. This is composed of 40 books, under the title of Bi/3\io9iiKri [aropiKh, extendino-
from the earliest times down to Caesar's Gallic war, B. C. about 60. A large part o?
the work is lost; we have only 15 books (viz. l-o and 11-20), with fragments of the
rest. It is marked by a careful indication of the order of time, but has'less merit in
point of style, or accuracy in other respects.

2. Diodorus employed 30 years in completing his Historical Library. For a view of the plan
and contents, we refer to Scholl, vol. iv. 81, and Rollin, Polite Learning, ch. ii. art. 1. sect. 6.

3. Editions.— B.—Z, Dindorf. Lips. 1S28-3I. 5 vols. S. "the most cri:ical and valuable."— /feync fy Eyring, Gr. & Lat. Bi-

pr)Dt, 1793-1807. 11 vols. S.—n'ttseUns, Gr. & Lat. Amst. 1746. 2 vols. fol. F.—Princeps, by Obsupseus. Bas. 1539. 4. (bkfc.

16-20.)— a SIcphanw. Par. 1659. fol. (10 bks. 1-5 & \\-l5.)—Rfwdomann, Gr. & Lat. Han. 1604. fol.

4. Translations.- German.— .S7ro(A ^- Kallwasser. Frankf. 17S2-S7. 6 vols. 8. French.— ./Siic Ttraason. Par. 1777. 7 vols.

12. English. -G. Booth. Lond. 1721. fol.

§ 247. Dionystus Ilah'carnasseus has been mentioned among the rhetoricians
(§ 117). He lived 22 years at Rome, and there collected the materials for his
Roman Archaeology .

1 u. This work, Wpxo-ioXoyia ''PutfiaiKrj , comprised 20 books, and was designed to
make known to the Greeks the origin, history, and constitution of the Romans. It
extends from the building of the city to the beginning of the first Punic war. There
are now extant only the first 11 books, and some fragments of the rest, in part recently
discovered by 3Iai. The extant books bring the history to the year of Rome 312,
B. C 442. His narrative is not wholly impartial, being often too favorable to the Romans,
and his style is not unexceptionable. Yet we may obtain from this work the best
insight of the Roman system and constitution, because the author was led, in explaining
to the Greeks a novel and strange subject, to enter into particulars much more than
the Roman writers needed to do.

2. We learn from Photius, that Dionysins made an abridgment of his work in 5 books. Mai
supposed he had discovered this abridgment in a maniiscript'in the Ambrosian Library at Milan ;
but the specimen published by him does not justify the opinion.

Scholl, vol. iv. p. 100.— A'. L. Struve, Ueber die von A. Maius bekannt geniachten Bruchstacke des PioDysius, &c. Konigsb.
18:0. S.

3. There have been three editions of the W h o 1 e W o r k s.— Pnnccpj, that of SyVmrs:, Gr. & Lat. Frankf. 1586. 2 vols. fol.
(there were editions in Latin earlier) — Hudson, Gr. & Lat. Oxf. 1704. 2 vols. iiA.—Reiske, Gr. & Lat 1774-77. 6 vols. 8.— A
bet'er e lition wanteJ.- The Archaeology, /i. Stephanies. Par. 1546. fol. (with other works).— Gnrnm. Lpz. 17S6. 8. (but
containing only a part).— The frngment discovered in the Amb. Libr. was published by Mai. Mil. 1816. 4. Repr. Frankf. 1817. 8.

4. Translations of \he .^rchxology —German.— BmzLr. Lemg. 1771-72. 2 vols. 8. Freacb.— Jay ^ Sellajiger. Par. 1723.

2 vols. 4. 1SC6. 6 vols. 8. English.— £d. Spelman. Lond. 1758. 4 vols. 4.

5. Il'ustrati \e.—PttitRadel, and Raoul-Rochctle, on the authenticity of Dionysius, &c. in the Mem. de VInstilut, C 1 a s s e d^Hist,
et Litt. Anc. vol. v. p. 143.— A/ooie, Observat. on Rom. Senate, Dionysius Halve. &c. Lond. 1758. i.—E. Stanley, Review o(
ffookes Observations, &c. Lond. 1758. 8.— P. F. Schulin, De Dionys. Hal. historico, &c Heidelb. 1821. i.—JV. Busse, De Dio-
rysii HhI. vita et iugenio. Berl. 1841. 4.

§ 248. Flavins Josephus, the Jew, was born at Jerusalem A. D. 37. He pos-
sessed a larsje knowledge of the world, united to much familiarity with Greek
learning. Belonging to the sect of the Pharisees, and being a descendant from
the royal Asmonaean family, he held the prefecture of Galileea with much repu-
tation. He became a prisoner to Vespasian, but obtained his freedom and ac-
companied Titus during the siege of Jerusalem. Afterwards he lived at Rome.

1 u. His JevusJi Wars, in 7 books, he wrote originally in Hebrew or Syro-Chaldaic,
afterwards in Greek (loiKa'iKh luTopia vrpl (iXc'jo-fWs) in orcler to present the work to the
emperor. Subsequently he composed his Jewish Anticjuities (lovidiKn 'Apxa.oKoyia), in
20 books, containing the history of the Jews and their ancestors from the creation to
the 12th year of the emperor Nero. The genuineness of a passage of the 18th book
respecting Christ, is very questionable, and is by many considered as an interpolation.
We have also from Josephus a work in two books on the antiquity of the Jewish
nation, and an autobiography. With all their defects the writings of this author are
of great value in illustrating the Bible and the history of religion.

2. The work on the antiquity of the nation is in reply to Apion, a grammarian of
Alexandria. — A work styled Ei'j Ma/f/ca/?arouj \6yos (found in some editions of the apn



532 HISTORY OF GREEK LITERATURE.

cryphal scriptures as the fourth, book of Maccahees) has been erroneously ascribed to
Josephus.

An account of the discussion respectin? the disputed passage above mentioned, is given in SchUl (vol. iv. p, 116).— Of. N. Forster,
Dissertation upon the account supposed to have been given of Christ by Josephus. Oxf. 1749. 8.

3. Editions.— W hole Works, best, Budsm, Gr. & Lat. Oxf. 1 720. 2 vols, {oh— Havercamp, Gr. & Lat Amsf. 1726. 2 vols.
M.—Obcrthilr, Gr. & Lat. Lpz. 1782. 3 vols. 8. (promising to be the best, but not completed on account of the editor's death.)—
A u t o-B i g r a p h y, Gr. & Lat. Henke. Bruns. 1786. 8.— D eBelloJudaico. E. Cardwell, Gr. & Lat. Oxf. 1837. 2 vols. 8.

4. Translations.— Latin.— fluyintij (or Cassiodonu). 1470. German.— Hedion. Strasb. I53I. fol.— 0«. ZQr. 1736. 6 vols. 8.

Spanish.— .41. de Paleiicia. Sev. 1492. fol. French— Ferajd (printer). Par. 1492. M.—Gillet. Par. 1736. 4 vols. 4.

Italian.- Florence, 1493. fol. English.— fFAuion. Lond. 1737. fol. often reprinted. Lond. 1841. 8. with Introduction by H.

Stebbing, and plates.

§ 249. Plutarch was named among the philosophers (§ 195), but also de-
serves a place with the historians.

1. In his Parallel Lives, Bioi TropaXX/yXoi, he exhibits and compares, in a very full and
instructive manner, the characters of the most distinguished Greeks and Romans.
There are 22 parallels, giving the lives and characters of 44 persons ; with which is
connected the biography of 5 individuals taken singly. The lives of several others,
said to have been written by him, are now lost.

The Lives of Plutarch have been universally considered as a rich treasure for the antiquary, the statesman, and the scholar. They

contain citations of a vast number of ancient authors, many of whom are wholly lost Beeren, de fonlibus et auctoritate vit. parol.

Plut. Commentationes. GOtt. 1820. S.—A. Lion, De ordine quo Plutarchus vitas scripserit. GOtt. 1819. 4.

2. We have several other works of an historical character from him ; among them,
Poman Questions {AiTiai 'Pw/^aiVai) and Grecian Questions {Airiai 'EWriviKai), in which
he discusses various points of Greek and Roman antiquities ; Comparison of a?ialogous
events in Greek and Roman history; On the fortune of Alexander, &c. I'he Lives of
the ten orators, ascribed to him (§ 99), is not considered as genuine. — A son of Plutarch,
named Lamprias, formed a catalogue of his father's works, styled nXv-dpxov BiPXiav
niva^, which is preserved in part, and given in Fabricius. — Scholl, vol. iv. llS-163.

3. The Lives are published in the editions of the whole works, cited § 1 95.— Separately, Princeps, by Junta. Florence, 1517. fol.
—Best, Bri;an S,- Du Sold, Gr. & Lat. Lond. 1729. 5 vols. i.—Coray. Par. 1809. 6 vols. 8. with notes in modern Greek.— § G. H.

Sdiiifer (in Teubner's Coll.) Repr. Lond. 1829. 6 vols. 12.— 5 F. Jacobs, in the Bibliotheca, 1836. Of editions of Particular Lives,

we mention the following. /. C. Held, a:milius Paulus and Timoleon. Solisb. 1832. 8.—/. C. F. Bdhr, Alcibiades. Heidelb. 1822.
8.— .4. S. Vogel, Brutus. Turic. 1833. 8.— C. Sintenis, Themistocles. Lips. 1832. 8. Pericles. Lips. 1835. 8.— Lives of the Tm
orat'rs, A. Walermann, Quedlinb. 1833. 8. with notes and an essay respecting the author.

4. Translations.— Latin.— Campanuj. Rom. 1640. 2 vols. fol. The Lives were published in Latin versions several times before

the first edit, in Greek. GermTi-a.—Kaltwasser. Magd. 1799-1806. 10 vols. ?.—Klaiber, in the Collection of Tafel. &c. ^French.

—Amyot, Whole Works of P. (rec. ed.) Par. 1784. 18 vols. 4. (cf. Fuhrmann, p. 394.)— Oacier. (rec. ed.) Par. 1S12. 15 vols. :

English. — /. 1^ JV. Langhome. Lond. 1770. 6 vols. 8. with notes and a Life of Plutarch. Several times reprinted. Lond. 1841.

large 8. with 50 portraits.

§ 250. Flavins Arrianus, of Nicomedia, in the 2d century, has already been
mentioned among the philosophers (§ 194). He was not without celebrity as
a writer of history, in which department he was a very successful imitator of
Xenophon.

1 u. He composed an account of the Expedition of Alexander in 7 books, 'laropiwt
dvaSaatiji; 'AXfJ.ir^pou /Ji/JXia ?, and a work on the Affairs of India, 'lv6iKa, which con-
tinues the history of Alexander. The latter has been considered as the 8th book of
the former, but without grounds, although there is indeed a connection by the subject.
The former is written in the Attic dialect ; the latter, in the Ionic. In the latter work,
he borrowed much from the Periplus of Nearchus.

The Periplus of Nearchus, here mentioned, is found in Hudson, Geogr Miu. as cited § 208. 2. — See also JV. Vincent, Voyage of
Nearchus, &c. cited below.— Cf. P. IV, § 27.

2. Arrian wrote also several other historical works, which are lost ; among them a
history of Parthia, UapdiKCL, in 17 books; of Bithxjnia, BtOwiaKa, in 8 books; of the
times subsequent to Alexander, To nera 'AXep^av^pov. — There are still extant, besides what
has here been named and his philosophical writings (cf § 194), a treatise on Tactics,
Texi'i raKTiKh ; another on the Chase, KwriyertKo; ; and a Periplus of the Black Sea,
Ucpi-Xovs Ev^dvo'j. A Periplus of the Bed Sea, 'Epv9pas daXaccrris, also bears his name.—
Scholl, iv. 166. V. 266, 306.

3. Editions.— Whole Works. The only edition, A. C. Borheck. Lemg. 1792. 1811. 3 vols. 8. not highly commended.—
Exped. ofAlex. Best, Schmieder, Gr. & Lat. Lpz. 1798. 8.—/. E. Ellendl. KOnigsb. 1S32. 2 vols. 8. Gr. only ; best text,

with explanatory notes. 1 n d i a, Schmieder. Hal. 1788. 8. A good edition of both these together, Raphel (by Schmid), Gr. &

Lat. Amst. 1757. 2 vols. 8.— Ta c t i cs.— Best, Blancard, Gr. & Lat. Amst. 16S3. containing also the Peripli and Chase. The
Peripli are also in Hudson, Geog. Min. cited \ 208. 2.— The Periplus of the Erythr. Sea, in W. Vincent, Voyage of Nearchus from
the Indus, and Perip' is of the Erythraean Sea. Gr. & Eng. Lond. 1797. 1810. 3 vols. 4.— The Chase, in Zeuiu's Polit. of Xenophon,
cited 5 IS6. 3.

4. Translations Alexander's Expedition German.— BorAec*. Frankf. 1790-92. 2 vols. 8. French.— CAatwMri. Par.

1S02. 3 vols. 8. Italian.- iaunw. Veron. 1730. 4. English.-^. Rook. Lond. 1729. rec ed. 1814. 2 vols. 8.— Periplus of S.

.Sea, by fincent, as alrave cited.

5 IMnstriti"?.- -P. 0. Chys, Comment, geograph. in Arr. de Expedit. Aleiandri. Lugd. 1828. 4. with maps.



p. V. HISTORIANS. APPIANUS. CASSIUS, ETC. 533

§ 251. Appianus of Alexandria flourished at Rome as a lawyer, in the 2d cen-
tury, in the reigns of Trajan, Hadrian, and Antoninus Pius, and finally acquired
the office of imperial procurator.

1 u. He wrote a Roman History, 'laropia 'Pcojiaticn, in 24 books, of which we have
only 11, with some fragments. It extends from the destruction of Troy to the time of
Augustus. The order of narration is not chronological, but the events are arranged
with reference to the countries or the nations particularly concerned; thus in different
divisions he treats of different wars, in which the Romans were engaged, as e. g. the
Punic, Parthian, Iberian or Spanish, Syrian, Mithridatic, &c. In this work much is
borrowed from others, especially from Polybius and Plutarch. It is particularly ser
viceable in giving an idea of the Roman system of war and mihtary afiairs.

2. In his preface, Appian states the reason of his renouncins synchronism as a principle of
historical arrangement; viz. the weariness occasioned by beiiijj obliged to turn the attention
from province to province as the scene of events is changed; to hurry, for example, from Car-
thage to Spain, from Spain to Sicily, from Sicily to Macedonia, and thence again to Carthage.
The style of Appian is formed on that of Polybius, but is inferior to it. He is' charged with par-
tiality "in favor of the Romans.

Schijll, iv. p. 173-176 /. Schweigliiiuser, On Appian, in his Opuscula Academica. Argent. 1806. 8.

3. Editions.— The best, Sc'iioeislUiuser, Gr. & Lat. Lpz. 1785. 3 vols. 8. F.—Princeps, by C. Stephanus. F..r. 1551. fol

ff. Stephanus, Gr. & Lat. Gen. 1592. {oh— TolUus, Or. & Lat. Amst. 1670. 2 vols. 8. R.—Schafcr, in the Coll. of Tauchnitz.

4 vols. 18.

4. Translations.— German.— /)t7teni«i. Frankf. 1793, 1800. 2 vols. 8. French.-/. /. Combes-Daimous. Par. 1808. 3 vols. 8.

Italian.— £raocio e Dolce. Veron. 1730. 2 vols. 4. English.— Came*. Lond. 1679. 1703. fol.

§ 252. Bion Cassius, surnamed Cocceianus, of Nicaea in Bithynia, lived at the
close of the 2d and beginning of the 3d century, and was twice Roman Consul.

1 u. During a long residence at Rome he made himself familiar with the history of
the Eoma7is, on which he wrote a work in 8 Decades, or 80 books, extending from
^neas to his own time, A. D. 229. The first 35 books, however, are lost, excepting
some fragments; we have the succeeding books, from the 36th to the 54th, almost
entire, and the 55th in parts ; of the following, to the 60th, we have an abridgment by
an unknown hand ; and the remaining 20 books are in the abridgment made by Xiphi-
hnus in the 11th century. Dion details with much exactness, but his style is often too
much labored, and he is sometimes unnecessarily minute.

2. His name was properly Cassius, and he is said to have assumed the other as descended, by
his mother, from Dion Chrysostornus (cf. $ 118). JIuch of his life was spent in public official
employments. The remains of his work enable us to fill up many chasms in Roman history,
and form our njost important guide for the events of his own times. The abridgment by Xiphi-
linus, alluded to above, was drawn up by order of the emperor Michael Ducas, and extends from
the 35tli book to the end of the original.— ScAoZZ, iv. 160-187.

3. Edilicns.— Best, Reimar (beguQ by Fabricim), Gr. & Lat. Hamb. 1750. 2 vols. fol. Some fragments published by Mardlt

(1798. S.) .vere repr. (ed. Chardon la Rochet te). Par. ISOO. in folio, in order to be joined with this edition. F. G. Sturz, Gr. &

Lrit. Lips. I834-3S. 9 vols. 8. with notes of Reimar and others. T.—Pnnceps, by R. Stephania. Par. 1548. (ol.—H. Slep/ianus.

Gr. & Lat. Gen. 1592. [ol.—Leundaviiu, Gr. & Lat. Han. 1606. fol.

4. Translations.— German.— /. A. fVagner. Frankf. 1783-86. 5 vols. 8. Italian.— iV. Leonuxno. Ven. I54S. 12. English. —

Manning. Lond. 1704. 2 vols. 8.

§ 253. Claudius .^lianus, of Praeneste in Italy, was a sophist of the 3d cen-
tury; but he is usually ranked among the historians.

1 u. He is thus ranked on account of his work entitled IlotVtXr; laropta. Various history,
in 14 books. It is a mere compilation of miscellaneous incidents, made without much
close scrutiny or discrimination ; yet the narratives are very entertaining, although the
style is unequal and sometimes affected. iElian also wrote a history of animals (cf
1> 277\ The work on Tactics, which some have ascribed to him, was probably from
an earlier writer of the same name.

2. Although he was descended from Latin parents, and according to his own testi-
mony never went beyond the borders of Italy, he acquired such a knowledge of the
Greek language, that he was, according to Philostratus, considered worthy of a rank
among the purest Atticists, and according to Suidas, obtained the surname of IM^Xr./i-
Boyyo; {honey -voiced). — Besides the works above named, there are also ascribed to him
20 Letters on rural topics (AypoiKoX liriaroXaCj, of but little value.

Schm, iv. 195 Stollius, Int. in Hist. Lit. (Jena), 1728.

3. Editions Of the Variou s History B.— Gronomui, Gr. & Lat Amst. 1731. 2 vols. 4.— J". /acoij, Gr. only. Jena, 1S30.

8. with notes. Principal earlier; Scheffer, Gr. & Lat. Argent. 1685. S.—Perizonius, Gr. & Lat. Lug. Bat. 1701. 2 vols. S.

R.~Coray. Par 1805. a with notes in ancient Greek.— Lfinonann. Gott. 1811. 8. The Letters are found in the collections

of Aldus and Cvjas, cited 5 152. 1. Of the work on T a c t i c s (by the elder JEWao, A. D. !20), the best edition is that of S. Arct-

nns ( Elzevir- printer). Leyd. 1613. 4. The WholeWorksof both the ^Elians were published by Gessner, Gr. & Lat. Tiguri

(Zirich), 1556. fol.

4. Translations.— Fanoiu flu(orv.— German, by Meineche. Quedl. 1787. 8.— French, by/. Dacier. Par. 1772. 8.— English, b»
T. Stanley. Lond. 1665. 8. Tactics.— GeTm^o, by Saumgdrtner. Mannh. 1786. 4.— English, yiscaunt Dillon, Lond. I8I4. 4.

§ 254. Eerodianus the historian, not the same as .WJius Herodianus named

2 v2



534 HISTORY OF GREEK LITERATURE.

among the grammarians (§ 136), lived at Rome towards the middle of the 3d
century.

] u. lie wrote the history of those emperors whose reigns he had seen, from the
death of Marcus Aur. Antoninus to the accession of the younger Gordian, A. D. 180 — •
238, T'7f f.iETa IsiapKov fSaaiKeiag wnpiai, in 8 books. It is executed with much frankness
and love of truth, but with too httle precision in respect to chronology. His style is
pure, and in the discourses or addresses, which he has introduced, there is a great de-
gree of nobleness and dignity, without excess of labored ornament.

2. The best editinn of Herodian is that of G. W. Irmisch, Gr. & Lat. Lpz. 17S9-1805. 5 vols. 8. with a vast mass of notes.— A
better text is found in Wolf (Gr. only). Ha). 1792. 8.— A good ed. for common use is Weber (Gr. only). Lpz. 1816. 8.— Abo G.
Lans:e. Hal 1S24. 8.-7. BeUer, Berl. 1826. 8.

3. Translations. — iMm.—Ang. Politian. Rom. 1493. fol. This was made by order of Innocent 8th, and was greatly admired



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