Johann Joachim Eschenburg.

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anJ often reprinted. German.—/. G. Cunradi. Frankf. 1784. 8. English.—/. Hart. Lond. 1749. 8. French.— H. de

Monlgault. Par. 1712. 12.

^ 255 a. Diogenes Laertius flourished probably in the beginning of the 3d century.
Little is known respecting his life. He left a work entitled Ylepi /5iw^ koX SoyixaTiov riov iv
ipt\o(To-yia dioKifir]aavTu>v, in 10 books, which contains the biography of the principal philo-
sophers of the various sects, and their most remarkable apothegms. The whole of
the last book is devoted to Epicurus.

The contents are staled by Scholl, vol. v. p. 226.— Cf. G. TJ. Klippd, De Dicgenis Laertii Vita et Scriptis. Nordh. 1831. 8.

1. Edilions.— B.— ff. G. HUbner, Gr. & Lat. Lips. 1S28. 2 vols. 8. A comment;iry on the first 5 books, by samt. Lips. 1830. 8,

¥.—Princeps, by Frolen (the sons of). Bas. 1533. i.—H. Stephaiius, Gr. & Lat. Far. 1570-94. 2 vols. 8.— t M. Aleibomiict,

Gr. & Lit. Amst. 1692. 2 vols. 4.—Lon?ohus, Gr. & Lat. (text of Meib.) Hof. 1739. 2 vols. 8. with engravings of heads.

2. Translations.— The work was first published in the Latin of Ambrosius {Traversari), before 1475. A 2d ed. Ven. 1475. fol.
— Waller Burley, in the beginning of the 14th century, translated or closely followed Diogenes, in the work styled De vita et ynori-
bus philosophorum, &c., which was printed at Cologne, 1472. 4. He is supposed by some to have had a better text of the original

than is now possessed (cf. Wolf's Analekt. Lit. ii. 227). German.— £. A. Barheck, Wien, 1807. 2 vols. 8. French.— (.5no7ij

moiu) Amst. 1758. 3 vols. 12. Par. 1796. 2 vols. 8. English.— By several authors. Lond. 165S. 2 vols. 8.

3. lUus'rative.— C. Jacobitz, I. Casauboni et A. Menagii Observ. et Emend, in Diog. Laerlem. Lips. IS34. 2 vols. 8.

§ 255 b- Flavins PhiJostrahis the elder, from Lemnos, lived in the 3d century,
and in the profession of sophist taught eloquence both at Athens and Rome.

] u. We have from him the Life of Apollonius Tyanensis, 'AttoXXwi/iot) tov T^avh^ (3iog,
in 8 hooks, full of the most extravagant encomiums, especially upon the miracles of
Apollonius, who lived about A. D. 70.

2. It has been thought by many that Philostratus designed, in his biography of Apol-
lonius, to ridicule the life and miracles of our Savior. In the time of Diocletian, less
than a century after Philostratus, his work was placed by Hierocles of Nicomedia in
opposition to the writings of the evangelists. The absurdity of this was afterwards
exposed by Eusebius.

Huet, Demonst. Evang. Prop. ix. c. UT .—Scholl, iv. 289.- Cf. \ 2S7, 283.

3 u. There is also a work by him entitled EiV-owj , in 2 books, containing fi6 descrip-
tions of paintings in a gallery, which was at Naples. — There is a work with the same title
by Philostratus the younger, who was nephew to the former and also of Lemnos. It
is in some respects valuable for artists, although wanting in precision and simplicity.

The bonks on painting have received attention from modern writers. — There is a work on statues, by Callistntus, of an un-
known era, which is usually joined with them.- Count Caylus, Mem. Acad. Imcr. torn. xx\x.—Beyne, in his Opvsc. Acad. vol. v.
—Fr. Jacobs, Animad. in Callistrali statuas et Philost. imagines. Lips. 1797. 8.—Rehfius, Qber den jOngern Philost. u. seine Ge-
mildebeschreib. Tab. 1800. 8.

4. We have other works by Philostratus. In a piece called 'HpwiVrt, he gives the
fabulous history of 21 heroes of the Trojan war. He has left also about 70 letters, and
an eivsrain found in the Anthologies. But a more interesting and valuable work is
his Lives of the Sophists, Bioi mtpianTw, in 2 books. One book gives the biography of
26 philosophical sophists ; the other, of 33 rhetorical sophists. It contains a fund of
anecdotes illustrating the manners and morals of these ostentatious pretenders, and
gives a vivid picture of the dechne of genuine eloquence. — Scholl, iv. 190.

5. Editions.— Of the compZe/croorAj, there have been two editions.— A/tweZ. Par. 1608. fol.— OZcari«f, Gr. & Lat. Lips. 1709.

fol. containing also Philostratus the younger, and the reply of Eusebius to Hierocles. After the edition of Olearius, no part

of Philostratus was published (according to S'-ktill, iv. 296) until the Heroica by Boissonade, Gr. & Lat. Par. 1806. 8. with the
Scholia and with notes —/magmcj, by F. Jacobs Sf F. T. Welcker Lips. 1825. 8. containing also Callistratus on statues.

6. Translations.— German —Whole works, by Seybold. Lemg. 1777. 2 vols. English.— Liuej of Sophists, by Edw. Benoick.

Lond. IS12. 8. Also Life of Apollonius. Cf. Lond. Quart. Rev. in. 4X7 .—Taiemont, Life of Apollonius (from the French).
Lon<1. 17C2. 12. French —tj/e of Apollonius, by Castillotx. Berl. 1774. 4 vols. 12.

7. Illuftrative.— G. /. BAker, var. lect. et observ. in Philost. vit. Apollon. &c. Heidelb. I8I8.— C. L. Kayser, Not. crit. in
Philost. Vit. Sophistarum. Heidelb. 1831. 8.

§ 2.'55 c. Eunapv/s was a native of Sardis. He studied in Athens, and traveled in
Egypt, and afterwards officiated in Lydia as a pagan priest. He is named here on
account of his work entitled Biot (piXocrocfoiv koI cfxpiarwv, wh'ch contains notices of 23^^?-



p. V. HISTORIANS. ZOSIMUS. PROCOPIUS. AGATHIAS, ETC. 535

losophers and sopliists, who lived in his time, or not long before. It betrays his host:-
Uty to the Christian system.

Coiuin, Nouv. Frajm. Phil. (p. 2C0) cited § 171.

1. Editions.— Princept, by .id. Junghe (Junius), Gr. & Lat. Aolw. 1568. 8.— Best, /. F. Boissotiadt, Gr. only. Amst. 1S22
2 vois. S. with notes. — Scholl nienlions only two editions, besides the Princepi and that of Poissonade ; viz.—/. Commdin,
1596. 8. with the version of Junius.— and P. Etienne (Stephanus), 1616. S. Some catalogues give an ed. by Etienne, printed Col.
AHob. 1616. 12.

2. Illustrative.— Ccnuin, Nouv. Fragtn. Philos. p. 200, as cited § 171.— .See Sclibll, Hist. Litt. Gr. vii. 70.

§ 256. Zostnms flourished in the 5th century. He held the office of Comes
Find at Constantinople.

1 u. His Ntw History, Nta 'laropta, in 6 books, embraces the reigns of the emperors
from Augustus down to A. D. 410. The style is pure, perspicuous, and not destitute
ot ornament. But he is by no means an impartial writer, and appears to have been
strongly prejudiced against Christianity.

2. Polybius had exhibited the causes which contributed to the rise of Roman grandeur.
Zosimus, in imitation of this distinguished writer, proposed to trace the causes of hs
decline. His object and plan were good, but he had not the requisite qualifications for
the task. Among the causes he erroneously ranks the establishment of the Christian
religion.— 5cAo/Z, vi. 338—348.

3. The best editions; Reitemeier, Gr. & Lat. Lpz. 17S4. 8. (Fuhrmann.)—!. Bekker. Bonn, 1838. 8. in Mctufo-'i Corpus,
ciled § 239 a.— The first complete ed. was in Sylbiirg'.t collecticn, Scrijit. Hist. Rorn. Franc. 1590.

4. Translations.— German.— SeytoM and Heyler. Franlsf. 1S02. 2 vols. 8. French, by Cousin.

§ 257. Procopius, a native of Caesarea in Palestine, flourished in the 6th cen-
tury, as a sophist and lawyer at Constantinople. He was a friend to Belisa-
rius, and held for a long time the office of prefect of the Capital.

] u. He wrote a History of his own times, in 8 books, Toiv Kad' avrnv IcTopicJv 0iP\ia
oKToj. The work is divided into 2 tetrades, the first 4 books being called Persic, and
the last 4 Gothic, including a period of 70 years, A. D. 482 — 552. The former portion
describes the wars of the Romans, both with the Persians and with the Vandals and
JMoors in Africa ; and the latter, those with the Goths. He has left also a work styled
'AvUhra, w'hich is a secret history of the Court of Constantinople under Justinian; and
another called Kn'o-^ara, Buildi}/i:s, in 6 books, in which he describes the various works
constructed or repaired by Justinian. His style has the merit of accuracy and clearness.

Cf. SchoU, vi. 349, ss.— Gibbon, Hist, of Decl. of Rona. Emp. iv. 46. ed. N. York, \S^.—Levesque, in Mem. Acad. Inscr. a
B'lles Uttres, xii. 73.

2. Editi. ns.— The Corpus of Byz. Hist, (cited § 239) includes the thru works of Procopius, edit, by C. Maltrtt, Gr. & Lat
Far 1662 63. 3 vols, fol.— ed. by G. Dindorf, 1833. 3 vols. 8. in the Corpus, {/■<:■ Cf. § 239 a.— The first or Princeps ed. of the
Parsic and Gothic Histor}', by D. Hoschel. Aussb. 1607. fo\.— Princeps of the Secret History, by N. JUemannus, Gr. & Lat.
Lujd. Bat. 1623. foi. Princeps of the Buildings, by B. Rhenaniu. Bal. 1531. fol.

3. Translations.— German.— The secret history, by /. P. Reinhard. Erlang. 1753. 8.

§ 258. Jgathias, of Myrina in jEolis, has already been mentioned as an au-
thor of Epigrams and editor of an Anthology (§ 34, 35). He was a Christian
jurist or advocate, of the Alexandrine school, and lived at Constantinople in the
6th century.

1 ;/. We have from him a continuation of the history of Procopius, through 7 additional
years, in a work entitled Iltpi rfj? 'lovanviavov /3a(n\eiag, Oji the reign of Justinian.

2. This work is divided into 5 books. His style has been thought to suflTer from the
author's habits as a poet. He speaks of himself as being especially fond of poetry from
his youth. His history derives much of its value from an account it contains of Per-
sian insthutions and usages drawn directly by him from Persian writings.

Schm, vi. 377.— /ur. Rev. ^fo. ii.— 5/. Croix, Examen les Hist. d'Alex. &c. cited § 235.

3. The first edition was by B. Vulcanitis, Gr. h Lat. Leyd. 1594. 4.— Included in the Corp. Byz. Par. 1660. fol. with his ept-
frains.— Best by B. G. Niebuhr, Gr. & Lat. 1828. 8. in his ed. of the Cor-pus Byz. Cf. § 239 a.

§ 259. Zonaras {Johannes) flourished at Constantinople in the 11th and 12th
centuries. He was raised to distinguished honors in the court of the emperor
Alexius Comnenus, but resigned them and retired as a monk to Mt. Athos.

1 u. Of many works composed by him in the latter part of his life, we notice as be-
longing here his Annals, XpoviKov, 'in 18 books, including a general history from the
beginnins of the world do%vn to A. D. 1118. It consists of abridgments or extracts
from larg'er works, and exhibits great inequality of style. The history of the Jews is
given first, then that of the Greeks and of the Roman Republic, and lastly that of the
Roman Empire. In the latter part he closely follows Dion Cassius.

2. Another work of Zonaras wns an Eieo-esis on the Canons of the Apostles, Synods, and Fa-
thers. He left also a Le.xicon or Glossary, which is useful as a concomitant to that of Hesychius
SctiSll, vi. 288, 358. vii. 241.

3. The A n n a 1 3 v-ere first published by Wolf, Gr. & Lat. Bas. 1551. 3 vols, fol -Repr. in Corp. Byz. Ducan^e, ed. 1686.



536 HISTORY OF GREEK LITERATURE.

Belonging also to NUhuhrh Corpus Byz. The Exegesis is in Btvei-idge, Synodicon, sive Pandect, cannnum S. S. apost. coDcil. ab

pedes. Grsec. receptorum. 1672. 2 vols. fol. L e x i c o n, by Tiumann (cf § 142. 4). Lips. 1&08. 3 vols. 4.

§ 260. Dares the Phrygian, and Diclys the Cretan, may be mentioned in clos-
ing our list of names in the department of history. Their era is uncertain, and
their value trifling.

1. Homer (7Z. v. 9) mentions Dares as a priest of Vulcan at Troy. ^lian {Var.
Hist. xi. 2) states that an Iliad or history of the Trojan war by Dares was extant in
his times ; yet this work was probably not from the Trojan priest, but the fabrication
of some sophist. There is extant a work in Latin, entitled Be excidio Trojce historia,
which has been taken for a translation made by Cornelius Nepos, from the Greek of
Dares. It is now admitted to be merely the prose outline of a poem in 6 cantos by
Joseph IscaniiLS, who was an English poet of the 12lh century, born at Exeter in
Devonshire, and called Isca7iius Irom Isca the ancient name of Exeter, and sometimes
Davonius from his native county^

2. There was a kindred fabrication in Greek, made by Praxis, in the name of Dictys
Cretensis, who is said to have served in the Trojan war, and to have kept a journal
{t'prifiepig) of its events^. The original Greek is lost; but there is a Latin version in
6 books. Cf § 238, § 522.

1 Camdcnh Britannia, p. 133, Publ. in Latin 1607. fol. English, by Gibson, 1617. 'i SehoU, Hist. Litt Gr. iv. 107.

3. The pretended works of Dares and Dictys are supposed to have been the original source of
the famous romance of chivalry by Guido dalle Colonne {de Cohimva),a. Sicilian lawyer and poet
nf the 13th century. This romance, the second tliat was written of the chivalric class, was trans-
lated from the Latin into all the languages of Europe, and received with universal enthusiasm.
The first romance of this class is traced to an eastern origin in a Persian tale of Alexander the
Great, translated first into Greek and then into Latin.

SchoU, vii. 3-5, 194-96.— Fatri'atw, Fibliotb. Lat. vol. i. p. 116. — JV. Ouselcy, on some extraordinary anecdotes of Alexander;
in the Traiisact. of the Rcy. Soc. of LUeralure, vol. i. Lond. IS29.

4. Editions. — Dares and Dictys have usually been published together. The first edition was printed, Milan, 1477.— The best edi-
tions ; that of Perizonius. Amst. 1702. 8. a reimp. of Madame DaderU (Far. 16S0. 4), and containing the poem of Joseph Isca-
niiis (cf. § 522), and that of .9. Dedaich, Rom. 1835. 2 vols. 8.

5. Traijslations. — These works were translated in the 16th century into the Italian, French, and German. A Russian version was
published, Mosc 1712. 8. Cf. Fabricius, above cited, p. 112.



X. — Writers on Medicine and Natural History.

^ 261 u. The science of Medicine is founded essentially upon observation and ex-
perience, and is one of those which were but imperfectly understood in ancient times.
Indeed, from the nature of the case, it could not be brought to perfection until later
periods. The same is true, to a considerable extent, of Natural History and Physics
in general. Yet these sciences were pursued among the Greeks not without some
zeal and success. But their success in them can by no means be compared with that

which they enjoyed so peculiarly and happily in literature and the fine arts. At first

the practice of medicine was limited almost wholly to the curing of external wounds.
The great renown which Msculapius ('Ao-k-Ajittio;, cf P. II. § 84) and his descendants
called the Asclepiades obtained, is a proof of the novelty and rarhy of the healing art
in those times, in which in fact it was considered as a miraculous gift from the gods.
The Asclepiades established several schools in ftiedicine, of which those at Rhodes,
Cos, and Cnidus were the most celebrated. It was not until a later period that the
Greeks became acquainted with anatomy. Hippocrates was the first who investigated
the science systematically, or wrote upon the subject.

There is a brief collection of rulef of health ascribed to the .Ssdepiades, entitled 'Aa-KKTjniaciuv iytiva TTapayyiA/iaTa.
Found in J. C. d\iretm, Beytrige zur Gesch. der Lit. vol. ix. — and in Scholl, Hist. Litt. Gr. vol. iii. p. 11.

'S 262. After Hippocrates, the physicians of the same period, between Solon and
Alexander, seem to have in a great measure abandoned the guidance of experience,
and plunged into the labyrinths of speculation. The school termed the Dogmatic was
now established, which attempted to unite the theories of the philosopher's with the
principles of Hippocrates. The sons of Hippocrates are named among its founders.
The most distinjiuished of this school were Diodes of Carj^stus in Euboea, and PraxU'
goras of Cos. Of the medical writings of the former we have a few fragments.

The fragments of Diodes are published in C. G. KUh7i, De Medicis Gr<ecis, &c. Lips. 1S20. 4.— Cf. Scholl, iii. 402.

"^ 263. It was by the physicians at Alexandria that the actual dissection of the human
body was first attempted. Among the earlier physicians of the Alexandrine school,
the most distinguished were Herophilus and Erasistratus, who lived under the first
Ptolemies, and were each the head of a class of followers. Among the adherents of



p. V. MEDICINE AND NATURAL HISTORY. 537

the former sooa arose the Empiric scliool, founded by Fhilinus of Cos, and Serapion
of Alexandria. To this school most of the physicians of the period before the fall of
Corinth attached themselves. 'I'hey professed to follow the lessons of experience
(ijjL-s'.pla). — One of the most illustrious of the Empirics was Dioscorides, who will be
noticed below (§ 271). We may mention also Apollonius of Ciiium, and Xenocrales
of Aphrodisium, as of some eminence. — It was towards the close of this era that the
medical art of the Greeks was introduced among the Romans, by ArchagatJnis; it had
been, at first, chiefly practiced by Greek slaves. The physician that seems to have
acquired the highest celebrity at Rome, was Asdepiades ol Bithynia, B. C. about 100.
He may be assigned to the Empiric school, although he professed to have peculiar
notions of his own.

C. F. H. Buck, De Schola medicorum Alexandrica. Lips. 1810. A.—SchSll, iii. 404. v. 335.— The work of Xmoarata (on tht
nauriskitunt furnished by aquatic productions), by Coray. Par. 1814. 8.— The remains of Asdepiades of B. were published by
Gmiiptrt, Asclep. Bitb. Fragmenta. Vimar. 1794. 8. — The name of Asdepiades was borne by many different persons. Cf-
Harleis, Medicorum ret. Asdepiades dictorum lustratio, &c Eon. 1828.

^ 264. In the period succeeding the fall of Corinth a new school arose, called the
Mrtltodic or Methodist ic, founded B. C. about 90, by Themison of Laodicea, who was
a disciple of Asdepiades, and fixed himself as a physician at Rome. The svstem was
matured by Soranns of Ephesus, who practiced at Rome under Trajan and Hadrian
with brilliant success, and has left several works. To this school belonged Crifo7i,
also celebrated in the time of Trajan, and Moschion, the reputed author of a work on
Diseases still extant. — Within the limits of the same period, another medical sect was
originated, the Eclectic, which is generally ascribed to Archi^enes, another physician
in the time of I'rajan. AretcEus, whose works will be noticed below, was an eminent
advocate of this school. Eiifus of Ephesus was an eminent physician not assigned to
any of the sects ; his works are still considered valuable. But the name which is most
important, not only in the space between Augustus and Constantine, but in fact in the
whole history of the Greek physicians, is that of Gale7i. With transcendant genius he
broke from the restraints imposed by the different medical sects, and built a system
for himself upon the ruins of them all, and became and continued for many centuries
the oracle of the art.

The worljs of Soranns are in jlnt. Cocchi, cited below, § 269.— That of Moschion, separately, F. 0. Dewcz. Vienn. 1793. 8.—
Those otRufits, by IV. Clinch. Lond. 172S. 4.—Scholl, v. 338,

^ 26.5. During the long period from Constantine to the capture of Constantinople, no
progress was made in the science. Alexandria continued for a long time the chief seat
for the theory and science of medicine, while Rome and Constantinople furnished
ample fields for hs practice. Most of those who attempted to write on the subject,
contented themselves with commenting upon the works of Galen or some author of
times previous to their own. They formed what is called the School ofGale?/, although
thpy professed to be Eclectic, and to draw their principles from all tfie different sects.
There are but few names which are specially deserving of mention. — Oribasivs, in the
time of Julian, is the first writer of any note ; he has been called the ape of Galen, on
account of borrowing so much from him ; among his works was a medical compilation
from preceding wrhers, made by order of Julian, and called 'Ei3ioijr]KovTai3ii3\og, from its
comprisins 70 books, 8 or 9 of which yet remain in Greek, and several others in Latin
onlyi. — Mtius of Amida in Mesopotamia, was a physician at Constantinople, in the
6th century. He left a compilation from the earlier medical authors, under the title of
E(;'3Xtoi' larpiKoi', in 16 books^. Alexander, of Tralles in Lydia, flourished in the reign
of Justinian, and after much travel practiced in Rome with great celebrity ; his Thera-
peutics, 'Ei[i\iov ^epaTTcvTiKov, in 12 books, is extant. — Paul of ^^giiia may also be men-
tioned as a practical physician, and as the author of a compilation entitled an Abrids-'
went of all Medicine^. — We will add only the name of Constantine, surnamed the
African, a native of Carthage. He studied among the Arabians, Chaldeans, and
Persians, both medicine and astronomy, whh the kindred sciences. Returning to the
west after an absence of nearly forty years, he was regarded as a sorcerer, and finally
re'ired, in a rehgious habh, to Salernum in Italy, where the monks of Mont-Cassin
had established a medical school. Here he employed himself until his death, towards
the close of the 11th century, in making known the Greek and Arabian medicine, and
contributed much to the high celebrhy which that school attained**.

1 An edition of Oribafius in Latin was published, Bas. 1537. 3 vols. 8. but not complete. —The works o( .Alexander are given in

the collection of Hallcr (cf § 269). 2 The Latin version o{.S:tiiis by /. Comarius and J. McTitantis is also in Haller. ^Patil

of^?. was jiubUshed by Remusxiis. Bas. 1539. fol. There is an English version by F. Adania. * Constanline left numerous

works, but in the Latin language.— ScASiJ, vii. 247, ss,

J 265 h. It may be proper to remark here, that the Scievce of Medidvewns divided by some -'nt-i
five parts: 't>v(TtoXoyiKfi, Physiolnpy and Anatomy; ' AfrioXoyiKth iEtiolosy, or the doctrine f'
ihe causes of disease ; Uadv^oyiKii, Patholoory, oi- the whole doctrine of disease, its nattire an I
etft'cts ; 'Yyisivdv. Hyeiene, or the art of preserving health; 'ZrjueioTiK'n, Semeiology, or th"
knowledge and discrimination (Sinyiiua-K;) of the symptoms of disease ; and 9£oa:rfvri*,-f;, Thera-
peutics, or the art of healing. Aiatrjjri/ftj, Dietetics, was sometimes made a distinct division j
68



538 HISTORY OF GREEK LITERATURE.

and ^npixaKSVTiKfi, Pharmacy; also Xcip'jvoyta, Surgery; these last three, however, were ra-
ttier considered as subdivisions of QcpancvTiKT], or the general Art of Healivg.

For details on these subjects, see W. A. Greenhill, in Smith's Diet, of Antiquities, p. 219, 327, 722, 749, 756, 817, 961.— Cf. ChoU
lanl, Handbuch der Bacherkunde far die Aeltere Medicin. Lpz. 1841. S.—Sprengd, as cited P. IV. § 23.

§ 266 u. Physics, or Natural Science, formed a prominent object of many of the
first Greek philosophers, and furnished subjects for some of the earhest didactic poems.
The study of philosophy in later periods usually implied some attention to these
branches. But for want of sufficient observation, and of the necessary helps, many
errors were adopted and long retained in the Grecian schools.

§ 267- The merit of first treating these subjects systematically and scientifically is
universally ascribed to Aristotle. Alexander is said to have aided his studies in na-
tural history with a princely liberahty. Theophrastns, the disciple and successor of
Aristotle, pursued the same studies with considerable success. While Aristotle is
called the father oi Zoology, Theophrastus must be acknowledged to stand in the same
relation to Mineralogy and Botany. — Among the Alexandrine scholars, the subjects
of natural science seem to have obtained but comparatively httle attention. This could
not have been owing wholly to want of encouragement, because the Ptolemies are
said to have expended considerable sums in procuring collections of what was curious
in the three kingdoms of nature. Antigonus of Carystus is the principal Alexandrine
writer of whom we have remains pertaining to this department, and his work is chiefly

a collection of marvelous stories, and not a description of natural objects. -Nor

under the Roman supremacy, from the fall of Corinth even to the time of Constantine,
do we find any manifest advancement. The chief writers were Dioscorides, who was
distinguished as a botanist {piloTOjiog), as well as physician, and ^lian, who compiled a
considerable work on the history of animals. — The superstition and love of the mar-
velous, which prevailed both in this and in the preceding period, were probably a



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