Johann Joachim Eschenburg.

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hindrance to the real progress of natural science. We may refer, as evidence of theii
influence, to the works of Melampiis in the former, and Artemidorus in the latter.
Melampus wrote on the art of divination in several branches, and also a work on Prog-
nostics from the changes i?i the moon, which is yet in manuscript in the hbrary of Vienna
— Artemidorus left a work on the Interpretatioii of dreams, 'Oi'stpoKpirtKa, which, with
all its absurdity, is of some value in illustrating mythology and the symbolical and
allegorical figures of ancient sculpture.

It was published by /. G. Reiff. Lpz. 1805. 2 vols. 8.— Cf. SchOIl, iii. 393, ss. v. 277, ss.

^ 268. Under the emperors of Constantinople, all the sciences connected with the
study of nature were in a state of almost utter neglect ; in the whole time we do not
meet with a single name of any eminence, nor one work of special value. We find a
treatise of Epiphaiiius, Tlzpl tu>v ^dJisKu Xtdcov, On the 12 stones in the breastplate of the
Jewish high-priest'; and another, Ilfpt Xi'Sco;/ iwa^twv, 0?j the virtues of stones, by
Michoel Psellus, in the 9th century^. We have a large compilation on agriculture,
entitled Yzw-oviko., in 20 books, by Cassianus Bassus, in the 10th century''. We have
likewise a compilation on the veterinary art, in 2 books, entitled 'I:nriarp(*-a, collected
by an unknown writer-*, by order of the emperor Constantine VI. Porphyrogenitus.
There are also several works, yet in manuscript, on Chimistry, or rather Alchimy^, or
the art of mahing gold; especially one by Stephanus of Athens, in the 7th century,
n^pi xp'c^o'oit'af, in 9 books, and parts of another styled Xi'/zeun/ca, in 28 books by Zosi-
mus of Egypt. The latter author has left us a treatise^ on the maMng of beer, Uepl
^v9Mi' TToifiasMg. Such is the trivial list, with which we must close our view of the Greek
writers on natural science. — One discovery or invention of this dark period ought per-
haps to be mentioned, that of the celebrated Greek Jire (feu Gregeois), the composition
of which was so carefully kept a secret above 400 years. The recipe for making it is
given in a work ascribed to Marcus the Greek, a Latin version of which, in a manu-
script of the 13th century, was found in 1804''.



1 The treatise of Epiphaniitt was published by Gessner, De omnium fossilium genere. ZOrich, 1565. 8. Cf. P. IV. § 195. 3.

^ That of Pielhis, by Bernard. Leyd. 1745. 8. s The Geoponics of Bassus, best, by /. N. Nidas, Gr. & Lat. Lpz. 1781. 4vols. 8.

* The Hippiatrika, Gr. & Lat. Bale, 1537. 4. 5 The MSS. on Akhimy are in the Libraries of Paris and Vienna.

K Oiveu in C. G. Gruner, Zosimi de Zythorum confectione fragmentum. Solisb. 1814. 8. ' Published the same year, by Laporle

riu Theil. Far. IS04. 4. Cf. Gihbcii, Dec. and Fall, &c. ch. Iii. — IVarton, Hist. Poetry, i. 169.— On the subject of this section, cf.
.<fcA6ZZ, vii. 197, ss. 211.

§ 269 L We give the following references to works pertaining to Greek medi-
cine and physics, before speaking of the authors separately.

I. H. Stephmms, Medicae artis principes post Hippocratem et Galenum. Lat. Par. 1567. 2 vols, (oh— Ant. Cocchi, Graecorcm
Chlrurgicorum libri, &c. Flor. 1754. (o\.—Femeliiis, Medic, antiq. qui de febribus scrips, collectio. Ven. 1594. M.—Halkr, Artis
medicae principes. (cur. Vicatii). Laus. 17S4-87. II vols. S. in Lat. version only.— C. F. Matthxi, Medicor. xxi. vet. Grsc.
Mosc. 1808. 4.— C. G. Kuhn, Opera med. Graec. quae extant. Gr. & Lat. Lpz. 1821-33. 26 vols. 8.— C. G. Gruner, Bibliotbek der
aUen Aerz'e in Uebersctzungen und Auszilgen. Lpz. 1780-82. 2 vols. 8.— See references given P. IV. ^ 23.— For some remarks on
the anatomical knowledge of the Greeks, see /. Ebnes, Annals of the Fine Arts, vol. v. p. 225. Lond. 1816 20. 5 vols. 8.—D.'Uo-
tack, Observations on the Surgery of the Ancients. N. York, 18lo. 8.

i. F'onz, Scriptores Dhv^iosnomoni^e veteres. Altenb. 1780. S.— /. G. Schneider, Eclogae pbysicas e script, praecipue Gnenis. Jen.



p. V. PHYSICIANS. HIPPOCRATES. DIOSCORIDES, ETC. 539

1801. 2 vols. 8. confajnin? natural history and physics.-/: L. Ueler, Meleorolo?ia vet. Grsec et Romanorum. Berl. IS02. S.
Prolegomeua to his eJ. of Aristotle, citeJ ) 274.-X F. Pfaffius, De orlibus et occasibus BJderum apud Auctcres Classicos. Gott.
I7S6. S.-^. Libe>, Hisloire Je !a Physique. Par. 1810. 4 vols. 8.-Spr,7,gd, cited P IV. § 23, contains, particularly in vols. I and
2, DO-ices of the nilural sciences among the ancients.-Tl.e following old work gives the names of most of the arlides of the
vegetable kinsdom noticed by the Greeks ; !V. Turner, New Hertall ; wherein are contayned the names of Herbes in Greke, Latin,
and Englysh. Lond. 1551. io\.—Launay, also Moore, as cited P. IV. ) 195. 2.

§ 270. Hippocrates, of Cos, a descendant of ^sculapius, flourished B. C.
about 4-20. In philosophy he was a disciple of Heraclitus. He practiced the
medical art particularly in Thrace and Thessaly, and died at Larissa in the lat-
ter country.

1 w. With uncommon acuteness of intellect he combined a rich variety of knowledge
and experience which was increased by travels, and which gave to his writings a value
not limited to ancient times, but enduring even to the present day. Of the numerous
works that have been ascribed to him, many are spurious. Of those which are
genuine, the Aphorisms, or brief medical principles and maxims, are the most
generally known.

_ 2. Besides the 'kppiafioi, the following works are by all acknowledged to be genuine,
VIZ. the E7r(%ia, Epidemics; WpoyvwriKa, Prognostics, in 4 books ; llcpi riaWm oltoyv.
Of regimen in acute diseases; n^f/l 'AEpwc, 'Y(5d-wi', Tdrrov, Of Air, Water ami Climate
.a work of general interest ; n^pi rdv iv Kc^paXr, Tpa)//a^w^', Of wounds of the Head; llspl
Ayfiow, Of Fractures. There are 12 or 13 others, which some of the critics receive;
and a much larger number of pieces, which all consider spurious.

Schsn, vol. iii. 12, 6s. gives a view of the various opinions of the criUcs. For remarks on Hippocrates, see £. Ruih, Intro-
ductory Lectures (medical). Phil. ISll. 8. lect. xii.

3. Editions.-W o r k s. The most convenient for use is that of KUhn. Lips. 1827. 3 vols. 8. belonging to bis Collection
cited § 269. 1.— The best previously ; Faaius {Fees) Gr. & Lat Frankf. 1595. Genev. 1657. fol. to which belongs, as a glossary
or leiicon, Fasii CEconomia Hippocratis. Gen. 1662. fol.— A Chartenis (Chartier). Par. 1679. 13 vols. fol. with Galen. (More
full than Fas.)— An ed. was commenced by A. M. Dortiier, Gr. Lat. & Gall. Par. 1827. vol. i.-xi. containing .iphorisms and Prog-

noitics, with a notice of Life and Writings of H. The Aphorisms have often been published separately; Berl. 1S22 12. a

reimp. of B'yidllon. Par. 17S5. wilh the Prognostics— J. JV Underwood, Gr. & Arg. Lond. 1S31. 12.— Of A i r, &c. Coray.
Gr. & Fr. Par. ISfO. 2 vols. 8. repr. ISI6.— An ed. of select wjrks was comn enced by De Mercy. Gr. & Fr. 1815.

4. Translations.— IPTio-'e m-j-^j. -Latin, by /cej, ed. by Pierer. Altenb 1806. 3 vols. 8. containing a good Notitia Literana,

Lips. 1S27. German.— Grimm. Alt. I7SI-92. 4 vols. 8. cf. Gruner, cited § 269. French.— Gordcit Toul. 1801. 4 vols. 8.

SeUct parn.— English.— /. Clifton, Lond. 1734. 8.

5. Illustrative.- Lemosii Judicium Operum Hippocratis, ed. /. G. Thierfeldcr, Miss. 1835. 8.— C. Ji. G. Berends, Lectiones in
Hippocr. Aphorismos, ed. A. G Siosch. Berl. 1830. S.—L. Wcrl, De Magni Hippocratis secundi Vita et Scriptis. Frib. 1^35. 8.

§ 271. Pedam'us Dioscorides of Anazarbus in Cilicia, flourished in the 1st
century. He was a distinguished physician, and in various travels in Europe
and Asia he studied the nature of plants, which he afterwards described for the
benefit of pharmacy.

1 n. We have from him a work, Uspi vKtj? iarpiKris, de Materia Medica, in 5 books.
Besides this there are ascribed to him a treatise on Antidotes, 'AXe^iipdpfxaKa, in 2 books,
and aporher U-pi eiTTdpiaTOiv (papixuKOii', On medicines easily prepared; but their genuine-
ness is doubted.

2. It has been mentioned that Dioscorides was celebrated as a botanist (cf. § 267) ;
for many renturies his work de Mat. Medica, above named, was considered as a sort of
oracle in Botany, although he treats of the subjects only in reference to medicine.

Scholl, V 332.— .Sp-er!?eZ, Hist, rei herb. Amsf. 1807. 8.

3. Editions.- Best, by C. Sprengel. Lpz. 1829. 2 vols. 8. in the CoU. of KUhn, cited §269. 1.— The best previous is that
of Saraceiius (Sarrann), Gr. & Lat. Frankf. 1598. fol.— Respecting the curious manuscript of Diosc. see P. IV. § 107. 2.

§ 272. Jrefasus, of Cappadocia, probably lived towards the close of the 1st
century, at least later than Pliny the elder, and Dioscorides.

1 7t.. He was one of the most distinguished of the Greek physicians, and left two
works : Ylepl AiViwi/ Kai -Zttfieuoi' uleuv koL xpovicov TraOCiv, On the Causes and Sigfis of acute
and chronic diseases; and the other, O71 the Cure of the same, Ucpl Qepa-eias o^lwu Kai
Xpovu.)VTra9tov. Both of them have come to us only in a mutilated state.

2. He is cnnsidererl as the most faithful observer of facts after Hippocrates. His works are
well written, and may be termed truly classical— ScAoZ/, v. 344.

3. Editions.— A good edition is that by G Dindoif, in the Collect, ol KUhn, cited § 269. 1.— Also by J. VPfggan, Gr. & Lat. Oxt
1723. fol —And by H. mrhave. Leyd. 1731, 1735. fol.

4. Translations.— German.— By F. 0. Dewez. Vienn. 1790. 1802. 2 vols. 8.

§ 273. Claudius Galenus was born at Pergamus in Asia, about A. D. 130.
He traveled much, and repeatedly took his residence at Rome. He wrote not
merely on medical topics, but also on subjects of philosophy, mathematics, and
grammar. IMany of the writings ascribed to him are undoubtedly spurious
especially such as are extant only in Latin.



r>40 HISTORY OF GREEK LITERATURE.

1 The name of Galen is justly associated with that of Hippocrates ; because to
these two, above all the ancients, the heahn^ art is indebted. The time of his death
is unknown. He was the confidential physician of the emperor Marcus Aurelius.
Some of his works composed at Rome are said to have perished by the burnins: of his
house ; yet there are extant 82 treatises of estabUshed genuineness, besides 18 com-
mentaries on Hippocrates and a number of fragments. In addition to these, there are
18 published under his name of doubtful genuineness, and a still larger number now
acknowledged to be spurious, and many still in manuscript in the Libraries. Among
the most interesting and important of his works are the following : Uspl dvaTo^nKCiv
'Ey\£(pi7J£&j;', Of anatomical manipulations, in 9 books (originally 15) ; Tltpl xp^iai; tCbv ev
d'Op^o^j a.'jua-t fiopiw. On the use of the different parts of the human body, in 57 books,
regarded as his chef-d'oeuvre, and containing a demonstration of divine wisdom and
design ; Tf\-ti7 iarpiKf}, The healing Art, cited also in the middle ages under the title of
Tegnum, 3Iicrotegnum or Michrotechnum, a work which was adopted in all the schools,
and familiarity with which was made a prerequisite for admission to practice ; and
Q<:pa^tvTiKr\; fieOooog, Therapeutics, in 14 books, called in the middle ages jMegalotechnum.
We may mention another work, which is rather curious, Uspl tuv ioiwv PiffXlcji/ Ypa<pr\, a
systemaiic enumeration of his own writings, with incidents of his life, composed when
advanced in age. — SchoU, v. 345, ss.

2. Editions.— There have been many ediiions in Latin ; Sch'dU speaks of ^.— He mentions two of the Greet text alone ; Andrt
d'Asola (in sed. Aid.). Ven. 1525. 5 vols. {o\.—A. Cratander (printer, ed. Gemusseus). Bas. 1538. 5 vols, fol.— There are two
also of the Greek with a Latin version ; R. Chartier. Par. 1679. 13 vols. fol. (cf. § 270. 2.)— Best, K. G. KUhn, in the first 20

vols, of the collection cited § 259. 1. We notice the following works, separately published : Tnat the bat pliysician is also a

philosopher, by Caray. Par. 1816. with a treatise of Hippocrates (§ 270. 3).— Exhortation to study of the sciences, IVilht, Leyd.
Ifcl2. 8.

3. Translations.— German.— Commenced by N'oldeche, (1st vol. publ.) Oldenb. 1805. 8.

§ 274. Aristotle must not only have a place among the rhetoricians (cf. § 115)
and the philosophers (cf. § 191), but also be ranked high among naturalists.

1 u. He was the first to bring both physics and natural history into a scientific form.
In these branches, he displayed fine powers of observation, with habits of close rea-
soning. Of his works pertaining to this department, we mention as the principal, his
^MiKn 'AKpoaaii, a work on general physics, in 3 books ; the History of Animals, Xltpi
Z'ocji/ Icropiag, in 10 books ; and the Meteorology, 'SlcreuipoXoyiKa, in 4 books. Some of
the others ascribed to him are not genuine, or ^at least did not come from him in their
present form; as e. g. the treatise Ihpl Sra^fiaaloi!/ 'Axovana-uyv, On wonderful reports.

2. These treatises are found in the editions of A.'s Works, § 191. 2. History of Animals, by /. G. Sch-neider, Gr. i Lat.

1811. 4 vols. 8. very satisfactory.— PTOTider/uZ Reports, by J. Scckmann. Gott. 17S6. i.— Three pieces pertaining to sleep and
dreams, by G. A- Seeker. Lpz. 1^3. S.—Mtttorologica, by /. G. Idiltr, Gr. & Lat Lpz. 1834. 2 vols. 8.

3. Translations.— French.— .4. G. Camus, History of Animals. Par. 1783. 8. with Gr. text and notes. German.— K Stradt,

His'ory of Animals. Frankf. 1816. 8.

4. Illustrative.—./?. G. £ Hmsc'^el, De Aris'otele botanico philosopho. Vratisl. 1824. 4.— A. F. A. Wiegmann, Observ. znologi
cs in Arist. Hist. Animal um. Lips. 1826. 4.— Cf. Schbll, iii. 283.— A brief analysis of A.'s History of Animals is given by Kidd,
Bridgewa'er Treatise, ch. x. sect. 3.

§ 27.5. Theopkrastus also stands among the naturalists, as well as among the
philosophers (cf. § 192).

1 u. The works which place him here, are principally the following: Tl^fH (pvrwv
toTopiaj, History of Pla7ifs, in 10 books; Ilfpi <pv-i<'7)v Airioii', On the causes of Plants,
in 10 books, of which only 6 remain; Uspl yiOoiv, Of stones. We have also from him
several other treatises, on Wijids, Fire, Odors, &c. and various fragments preserved
in Photius.

2. Schneider's ed. of the W h o 1 e W o r k s (cf. 5 192. 2) furnishes the best of these parts.— The Hist, of Plants, by /.
Stackhouie. Oxf. IS13. 8. hand=ome, but not correct {Fuhrmann).

3. Translations.— German.— ffisf. of Plants, hy Sprengel. Alton, 1822. S.—Stones, by Schmieder. Freib. 1806. 8. French.

—Stonft. (anin.) P?r. 175!. 8. Engli-h.- 0/ stones, by /. HxH. Lond. 1746, 1777. 8.

4. Illustrative.—/. Slackhmise, Illustrationes Theophras'i in usum Botanicorum, &c Oxf. 1811. 8.— Cf. SchSll, iii. 395.

§ 276. Jnfigomcs of Carystus, in the island Euboea, lived about B. C. 284
under Ptolemy Philadelphus.

1 u. He compiled, from the works of other naturahsts, his 'Icrropicov irapaSS^utv cwaycoyfj .
Collection of marvelous things. It consists of 189 sections, containing particularly aa
account of animals. The last 62 sections are the most important, being drawn from
authors tha^ are lost.

2 Th,» ivo'k was first published by Xylander {Holzmann). Bas. 1568. 8.— Another ed. by Meursius. Leyd. 1619. 4.— Best, bj
J Eeckmarin. 1791. 4.

§ 277. JElinnus has been named among the historians (§ 252). But we have
a work from him, bfiloncring to this place, on the peculiarities of animals., TIfpi
^wcji tScoTJjroj, in 17 books. It is chiefly a compilation from earlier writers^



p. V. JEVnSII AND CHRISTIAN WRITINGS. 541

particularly Aristotle. The additions by iElian are mostly of a fabulous cha-
racter.

1. II i3 given in the editions of his loorks, cited § 252. 2.— Separately, Jibr. Gronov. Lend. 1744. 2 vols. i.—ScJmeider. Lpz.
17&4. 8.— Best, F. Jacobs. Jen. 1830. 2 vols. 8.

•2. The compilation of Apollonius Dxjscolus, stvied Wonderful Histories (cf. $ 135), might be
ranked in this department j but it is of little value.



Jewish and Christian Writings in the Greek Language.

% 278. Before leaving the history of Greek Literature, we ought to remark, that we
find in the Greek language tn^o classes of writings, which have not been noticed in the
preceding glance, and which ought not to be overlooked, although they are not com-
monly included in the range of classical studies.

Hhe first of the classes, to which we here refer, comprises those writings which may
perhaps properly be termed Hebrew-Grecian; being pubhshed in the language of the
Greeks, but of a Hebrew origin and character. I'hese are, the Septuagint version,
and the Greek Apocrypha, of the Old Testament. These writings breathe a moral
spirit quite at variance with that of pagan literature, and it cannot be doubted, that they
exerted some influence, when made known to the scholars of Alexandria. Indeed it
has been thought, that their influence is apparent in the style of some of the pagan
writers of the age (cf ^ 68. 3). — The most marvelous stories have been reported as to
the manner in which the proper hterature of the Hebrews, composed of their Canonical
Boohs and called by us the Old Testament, was first presented to the Greeks in their
native tongue. The true s^ccount is, probably, that the Jews of Alexandria, who had
lost the use of their national language, procured for their own benefit a Greek transla-
tion of these Books, in the reign of Ptolemy Philadelphus, B. C. about 280. This
translation received the sanction of their Sanhedrim, consisting, like that at Jerusalem,
of 70 or 72 members, and was from this circumstance called the Septuagint. This
version enjoyed a high reputation both among Greeks and Jews for many years; but
in some of the most interesting parts it fell far short of the spirit and force of the origi-
nal, and attempts were made at a later period to give to the Grecian reader, in a more
elegant dress, this body of sacred history and poetry.

For an account of the Septuagint, and of other Greek versions, we refer to Home's Introd. to Crit. Study of the Scriptures, as
cited P. IV. § 107. I.— Works of higher critical Authority are J. G. Eichhorn, Eiuleitung ins. A. Test. (4th ed.) Gott. 1824. 5 vols. 8.
and PV. M. L. De Wttle, Einleilung in die Bibel Alt u. N. Test. (3d ed.) Berl. 1829. S.

§ 279. The books termed the Apocrypha {dTT6Kpv(pa) were originally written, some of
them in the Greek, but most of them in the Hebrew or Chaldee. "They were all, or
nearly all, composed before the Christian era. Several of the pieces contain authen-
tic narratives of events, and are highly valuable in supplying the historical deficiencies
of the canonical books, and illustrating the circumstances of the age to which they re-
fer. A larger number must be viewed as mere historical fictions, having perhaps "their
foundation in matters of fact, but embellished according to the fancy of the author, often
ingenious and amusing ; yet framed wholly for moral and religious purposes. Some
of the books are more purely and directly didactic in character, consisting of proverbial
reflections, and maxims of prudence and wisdom. " The song of the three children"
is the only piece in the collection which can be justly called poetical ; in form and struc-
ture it almost exactly resembles the Psalms of David. What interest these apocry-
phal writings excited, or to what extent they were circulated, among the Greek hterati,
it may be impossible now to determine ; but it is manifest from the reply of Josephus
to the attack of Apion, that about the commencement of the Christian era, the antiqui-
ties and historical records of the Jews had become interesting subjects of inquiry among
pagan scholars. At first the Greeks very generally looked upon the Jews w'ith pro-
found contempt, classing them without distinction under the levehng epithet of barba-
rians. Occasionally they honored them with a tribute of derision for their proud claims
as a nation favored of heaven, and their bigoted adherence to a system of burdensome
ceremonies. But at length the Greeks became more acquainted with their sacred
books, and conversion from paganism to Judaism was not an uncommon occurrence.
Synagogues, composed in great part of proselytes, existed in many of the Grecian
cities, at the beginning of the Christian era.

On the writing? classed under the Apocrypha of the Old Testament, see /. A. Fabricius, Codei Pseud-epigraphus Veferis Testa-
rnenti. Hamb. 1723. 2 vols. S.—Home, Intro. &c. cited § 278. vol. i. p. 626.— Besides the apocryphal books above mentioned, there
are some other spurious productions, ascribed to biblical personages. The book of Enoch and the Ascension cf Isaiah have been
found in the Ethiopic language, in modem times. See R. Lawreiice, Book of Enoch, &c. Oxf. 1821. 8.— Same, Ascensio Isiii.
etc. Lond. 1819. 8.

^ 280. The otJier class, to which we alluded (§ 278), comprehends the numero-js

2 Z



542 HISTORY OF GREEK LITERATURE.

writings from Christian authors. After the time of Clirist, there began to appear in
both tiae Greek and Roman tongues, worlds totally different in their whole spn'it and
character from all that is found in pagan literature. In the notices already given of
Greek authors, a few names of professed behevers in Christ are found ; but they have
been presented only as their works related to the subjects strictly included in the com-
pass of profane studies. Independent of all such works, there was a body oi Christian,
literature, which deserves our notice here, and which in fact offers a spacious and most
interesting field of observation. Our limits confine us to a glance at the Christian
writings in the Greek language before and during the time of Constantine.

§ 281. The first object which appears as we enter this field, is the collection of sa-
cked WRTTi]Nr&s contained in the Neio Testament. These, considered in a literary point
of view, may be classified under the three heads of historical, epistolary, and prophetical

composition. Of the five pieces which are historical, four illustrate the life, death,

and character of the great Founder of the religion, while the fifth relates the circum-
stances of his followers for some time after his death, and details the labors particularly
of one apostle. They are written in a style of the most affecting siniplicity, and con-
tain an historical and biographical narrative, which, in whatever hght it is considered, is
altogether without a parallel in the literature of the world. The epistolary part con-
sists of letters from five of the first teachers, directed to companies of believers in the
Christian faith united together in churches, or to individual converts. Those letters
must of course be accommodated to the specific object of each, and contain many allu-
sions to the peculiar wants and circumstances of the times. But they were intended
for general instruction, and present it in almost every variety of form in which it can
be offered to the mind and heart of man ; in rigid demonstration of truth ; in clear expo-
sure of error ; in strong warnings against impurity of life ; in warm encouragements to
active goodness and benevolence ; all urged with sanctions drawn from the sublime re-
alities of a future eternal existence. One piece only is considered as prophetical, styled

the Revelation. It was composed last of the whole collection, and is marked by many
striking peculiarities. There is one trait in its style specially remarkable, to which
there is nothing similar in any department of pagan literature, the singular use of sym-
bolical language. This peculiar language was chiefly derived from the Hebrew pro-
phets, by whom it seems to have been employed as essential to the prophetical style.
It throws an air of mystery over the composition, but at the same time imparts to it an
overwhelming majesty and subhmity. The grand and simple object of this beautiful
vision of the venerable exile at Patmos seems to have been to show forth the hastening
overthrow of Judaism and Gentilism, the future general triumphs of Christianity on
earth, and the final rewards of its disciples in Heaven.

For whatever pertains to the editions of the New Testament, its interpretations, and kindred topics ; Home, as already cited. —
Especially, J. L. Hu?, Einl. in a. Schriften d. N. Test. (3d ed.) Stullg 1826. 8. Transl. into English, by D. Fosdick, with notei



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