Johann Joachim Eschenburg.

Manual of classical literature : from the German of J.J. Eschenburg, with additions online

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to their quantity only. When the mechanical structure of dillerent kinds of versification is familiar, they have given them a literal
translation, of a few verses at a time, taken from some author with whose style they are not acquainted, which is to be turned into
verses of the same kind as those from which it was taken ; and then compared with the original. Afterwards portions of English
poetry are given to be translated into Latin verse. Original verses are then required, which, with themes in Latin and English,
continue through the course. Considerable portions of all the Latin and Greek poets used m school are committed to memory, as
they are read ; particularly several books of Virgil ; all the first book of Horace, and parts of many others; the third and t«;nth
Satires of Juvenal entire ; all the poetry in the Greek Reader, and many hundreds of verses in Homer. This is an important exer-
cise to boys ; and without it they can never write Latin prose or verse with the same facility as with it. It is in this way that the
idioms of any language are gained ; and in writing verses, the quantity and proper use of most words employed by the best writers
are instantaneously determined, by recalling a verse in which it occurs."

% 299 t. Here is the proper place to name some of the 'works which may serve as
aids in studying the Latin language and literature.

1. Chrestomathies and Reading-Books,

F. Gedike, Lateinisches Lesebuch, ISlh ed. Bed. 1820. 8.— By
tame, Lat. Chrestomathie. 4th ed. Berl. IS22. 8.

F. Jacobs (and F. JV. Doring). Lat. Lesebuch. Jena, 1818.
The latter has been published in this country under the title of
The Latin Reader edited by George Bancroft, in 2 vols. (Parts i.
and ii.) The first part of it also, under the title of Andrews'
Latin Reader, by E. F. Andrews. Bost 4th ed. 1833.

F. Eilendt, Lateinisches Lesebuch fUr die untersten Kla-ssen.
5th ed. Konlgsb. 1815. 8,

The Liber Primus (sereotyped 1827), Ktri Rorme (as pub-
lished for Boston lat. School, 1833), and Historic Sacrse, are
also used in teaching beginners.

The Excerpla Lalina (Bost. 1810. 8) was designed for stu-
dents more advanced. — Analecta Latina Majora, containing
selections from the best Latin Prose Authors, with English notes,
&c. on the plan of D 3.1 z eVs Analecta Grxca. Lond. 1831. 8.

The authors usually read fii-st after the Chrestomathy are Cor-
nelius Sfepos, Csesar, Virgil, Ovid, Cicero, Sallwt, Horace.

2. Grammars. Of the great number of grammatical helps
■we mention the following.

G. J. Fosiius, Arislarchus s. de arte grammatica. Amst. 1632.
2 vols. 4. There is an ed. by Fortsch ^ Eckttein ; a " rich col-
lection of grammatical materials for the critical scholar." S.

Fr. Sanclius, Minerva s. de causis lingua? lat. Comment, (ed.
C. L. Bauer). Lips. 1793-1801. 2 vols. 8. (ed. Eb. Scheidius.)
Amst. etGoth. 1S09. 8.

A. F. Bernhardi, VoIIsf. lat. Grammatik. Berl. 1795-97. 2.
vols. 8.

/. G. Scheller, AusfJhrliche lat. Sprachlehre. Lpz. 1803, 8.
Translated into Eng. by G. Walker. Lond. 1827.2 vols. 8.

Cfu G. Br'dfr, Praktische Grammatik der lat. Sprache. (14tb
ed.) Lpz. 1S20. S.

H B. IVenck, Lat. Spracbl. (ed. G. F. Grotefend). Frankf.
1820-23. 2 vols. 8.

C. G. Zumpt, Lat. Gramm. (4th ed.) Berl. 1S24. 8. ranket
high.- Transi. into Eng. by J. Kenrich. Lond. 1S23. 8. Also
publ. N. Vork. 1S29. 8.

K. L. Schneider, Ausftthrl. Gramm. der lat. Sprache. Berl.
1819. 2 vols. 8.

Port Rnyal Lat Grammar (a new method &c. translated from
the French of the Messrs. de Port Royal) by T. Nugeiil. Lond.
1803. 2 vols. 8.

D. Ludw. Ramshorn, Lateinische Grammatik. Lpz. 1830. 8.
pp. 1165. good for advanced students.

0. Schtdlz has published a Lat. Gram, which is " one of the
best for schools." S.

m H. Blume, Lat. Schulgrammatik. 2d ed. Lpz. 1839. 8.
pp. iSO. " the best school-grammar." S.

I P. Bullions, Principles of Latin Grammar, comprising the
substance of the most approved Grammars extant N. Yk. 1842.
12 pp. 303.

We may mention also ; /. Mihier, Gramm. of Lat. Tongue,
2d eJ. Lond. 1742. 8.—T. Ruddiman, Grammatics Lat Insti-
tutioues. 11th ed. Edinb. 1786. 12.—/. Grant, Institutes of Lat
Grammar. Lond. ISO*. i.—J. Smith, The New-Hampshire
Lat. Grammar. Bost IS12. 12.— The Grammar which has been
most usually adopted in our schools is that ol Adam; the best
editions of which are those of Gould and of Fitk. The Gram-
mar \>y Andrews and Stoddard is now (1S3S) most highly re-
commended. We miy here notice, as very useful helps in

studying the first principles of Latin grammar in the method sug-
gested on a former page (cf. § 6.2) the following: Goodrich'*
Outlines of Latin Grammar, kc—JVillard's Introduction to the
Latin Language. Bost. 1835. 12.

3. Dictionaries.

A. Catepinus, Lexicon Latinum variaram linguarum interpre-
tatione adjecla. Palav. 1681. 2 vols. fol. first ed. 1505. valuable.

J. M. Gessner, Novus LinguEe Romans Thesaurus, post R.
Stephaui et aliorum curas digestus. Lips. 1749. 4 vols. fol. the
most complete.

Facciolalus & Forcdlimu, Lexicon totius Latiiiitatis, Ac (auc-
tum labore variorum). Lips. 1835. 4 vols. fol. — The Universal
Latin Lexicon of Facciolalus and Forcellinus, edited by /. Bai-
ley. Loud. 1820. 2 vols. 4.

/. J. G. Scheller, Ausfahrliches lateinisch-deutsches u. deufsch-
lat Worterbuch. Lpz. 1S04-5. 7 vols. 8.— A smaller work of
great utility is Scheller's Handlexikon, verbessert und vermehrt
durch G. H. LUnemann, 5th ed. Lpz. 1822. 3 vols. 8.

/. E. Riddle, Scheller's Lex. linguje Latinas, with the Germ,
explanations translated into English. Oxf 1835. fol.

IV. Freund, Worterbuch der Lat Sprache, nach historisch
genetischen Principien. Lpz. 1S36-42. 4 vols. S. "considered in
Germany as one of the most perfect specimens of lexicography."

C. du Fresne du Cange, Glossarium ad Scriptores Mediae et
Infinite Latinitatis. Par. 1733-36. 6 vols. fol. exhibiting the coi^
ruptions of the later Latin, as his Gloisarium ad Scriptores Me-
dix et Infimx Grsecitalis (Lugd. 16?S. 2 vols, fol.) exhibits those
of the later Greek.— A supplement to Du Cange is P. Carpe/t-
tier, Glossarium Novum ad Scriptores Medii ^vi. Par. 1766. 4
vols. fol.

C. Labbseus, Glossaria Latino-Grseca et Graeco-Latina. Par.
1679. fol. Lond. 1817-26. fol.

We may name also, T. Holyoke, English & Lat Diet Lond.
1677. fol.— F. Gouldman, English & Lat. Diet 4th ed. Lond.
I6S7. \.—A. Littleton, Engl. & Lat Diet 4th ed. Lond. 1703.
4.-7. Entich, New Lat & Eng. Diet. ed. by W. Crackelt, Lond
1789, 2 vols. 12.—/. IV. Nibloch, Lat & Engl. Diet fo- scbooli



— .T Dymock, Abridgment of Ainsworth ; ed. by AnthoD. — Ch.
H Domer, VVOrterbuch d. LaL Sprache, commenced Stuttg.
1S36. 8.

The Dictionaries, which have been most commonly used in
our schools, are jlinsworth's, MoreWs Abridgment of Ainsworih,
and Kounj'J.— In Germany much use has been made of Schd-
ler'i Kleines lat. Worterbuch, edit, by LUnemann, 5th ed. Han.

1816. 8. The best for common use, F. P. Leverett, A new

Latin-English and English-Latin Lexicon, abridged from the
Lexicon of Facciolati & Forcellini, wiih improvements drawn
from Scheller & LUnemann. Bost. 1836. 8.— There is an abridg-
ment of Leverett. Bost. 1810. 8.

For Grammars and Lexicons of the Latin and other languages,
»ee /. S. faler, Literatur der Grammatiken, Lexica, und Wor-
tersammlungen aller Sprachen der Erde, &c. Berl. 1815. 8.

4. We may refer also to a few works on particular branches
of Grammar or Lexicography,
(a) On Syncmymes.

J. Hill, The Synonymes of the Lat Language with crit. Dis-
•ert. upon the force of Prepositions. Edinb. 1804. 4.

/. B. G. Dumesnil, Synon. Lat. Par. 1777. 8.— Same, trans-
lated from French iulo German by /. Ch. G. Ernesti. Lpz. 1779.
3 vols. 8.— Engl. Trans), by /. M. Gosset, Lond. 1809. & 1S25. 8.

M. Lieber, Homonyma Ling. Lat. Lips. IS37. 8.

Ludw. DoderUin, I^teinische Synonyme, &c. Lpz. 1826-38.
6 vols. 8.

L. Rarmhom ; a valuable work, in which the Sanscrit is ap-
plied to the Latin.— Engl. Transl. by F. Lieber, Diet, of Lat.
Synonymes. Bost. 1841. 12. cf. N. Amer. Rev. vol. 49. p. 467.

E. C. Habicht, Synonymisches HandwOrterbuch der Lat.
Sprache, &c. Lemg. 1829. 8.

F. SchmaJJitld, I^teinische Synonymik. Lpz. 1839. 8. pp.
506. 3il ed. it has been highly recommended.

(6) On Particles.
Ch. G. Schiltz, Doct. particular. Lat linguae. Dessav. 1784. 8.
ffor. Tursdlinus, De parliculis ling. Lat. libellus, (cur. /. X
Emesli) Lpz. 1769. 8. ed. by /. BaiZey. Lond. 182S. 8.

T. Hand, Tursellinus sen De particulis Latinis Commentarii.
Lips. 1829-38. 5 vols. 8. "an original and splendid work, com-
pletely exhausting the subject."

(c) On Analogies and affinities of the language and Etymology.

G. Baxter, De Analogia Ling. Latinae. Lond. 1679. 12.

G. J. Vossius, Etymologicnn Ling. Latinae, Amst. 1695. fol.

Dunlar, Inquiry into the Structure and Affinity of the Greek
and Latin languages. Ed. 1827. 8.

N. Fork, Etymologisches HandwOrterbuch d. Lat. Sprache.
Lpz. 1S38. 2 vols. 8.

A'^ Salmon, Stemmata Lafinitat's, or Etymological Lat Diet
wherein the mechanism of the Latin tongue is exhibited, &c.
Lond. 1796. 2 vols. 8.

G. Shar-pe, Structure of Lat tongue. Lond. 1751. 8.

E. Palairet, Thesaurus Latin. EUipsinm. Lond. 1761. Lips.
1830. 8.

C. B. Prilfer, De Graeca atque Latina declinatione. Lips.
18!7. 8.

K. L. Struve, Ueber d. Lat Declin. n. Conjugation. Konigsb.
1823. 8.

F. A. Landvoigt, De tertiae declin. Gr. et Lat. generibus.
Merseb. 1S26. 4.

F- A. Landvoight, Ueber die Personformen und Tempuafor-
mend. Gr. u. Ijit Sprache. Merseb. 1831. 4.

/. A. Hartung, Ueber d. Casus, ihre Bildung u. Bedeutung in
d. Gr. u. Lat Sprache. Erlang. 1831. 8.

M. Schmidt, De pronomino Gr. et Latino. Hal. 1832. 4.

We may here mention also the following : /. Harris, Hermes,
a philosophical Inquiry concerning Universal Giammar. Lond.
1751. 8. also in his Works. Lond. ISOl. 3 vols. 8.—T. Browne.
Hermes Unmasked. Lond. 1795. 8.~J. Home Tooke, Diver
>ions of Purley. Lond. 1786. 4.

Here may be noticed works in comparative philology. See
Ihe references given P. rV. § 36, § 114.— G. Burton, J\.ctipava
•etBns Ling. Persicae ao. Graecos et Latinos. Lips. 1720. 8.—

F Griefius, Comm. qua Ling. Gr. et Lat. cum Sclavicis dialeo
tis in re grammatica comparatur. Petrop. 1S27. 4.—K. G. Als-
ton, Versuch das zuverliUsigste Unterscheidungszeichen der
Orient u. Occident. Sprachen. Lpz. 1798. 8.— C. G. T. Amdt
Ueber d. Ursprung u. d. verschiedenartige Verwandtschaft d.
Europ. Sprachen. Frankf 1S27. 8.
(d) Proiody and Meter.

J. Carey, Latin Prosody. Lond. 1808. 8.

Janxes Otis, Rudiments of Lat Prosody j with a Dissert, on
Letters, &c. Bost 1670. 12.

C H. Sinlenis, Gradus ad Pamassum, &c. ZOllich, 1816.
2 vols. 8.

N. A. Haden, Anleitung zur Kenntniss der Dichtkunst des
alten Roms. NQmb. 1815. 2 vols.

M. C. Kirchner, Prosodia Latina completa, &c Bas. 1&43. 4

T. Gaisjoid, as cited § 422.

5. In UTiling Latin, there are various useful helps.

Scheller, Pnecepta slili bene latini. Lpz. 1797. 2 vols. 8.

C. D. Beck, Artis latine scribendi praecepta. Lips. 1801. 8.

E. Valpy, Elegantiae Latinae ; or Rules and Exercises Illustra-
tive of Elegant Latin Style. 9th ed. Lond. 1831. Introductory
to this are the two works stjied Finl Latin Exercises and Se-
cond Latin Exercises, by E. Valpy.

The New Latin T^jtor, or Introduction to the making of Latin,
&c., is now much used in our schools.

W. Robertson, Dictionary of Latin Phrases, &c., for the more
speedy progress of students in Latin Cumpoiition. lond.
1830. 12.

TV. maker, Dictionarie of English and Latin Phrases and
Idiomes. Lond. 1685.

Al. Crombie's Gymnasium, or Symbda Critica. Lond. 1830.
2 \oIs. 8. Ct Class. Joum. x. 384. xi. 296. xii. 167.

E. H. Barker, Elements of Latin Prosody, with Exercises de.
signed as an introduction to the scanning and making lAtiu
verses. 6lh ed. Lond. 1830. 12.

S Bidler, Praxis on the Latin Prepositions, being an attmpt
to illustrate their Origin, Sigui£cation, and Government 3d ed.
Lond. 1832. 8.

We may name also as valuable in reference to idiom and style^
C. J. Grysar, Theorie des Lateinischen Stils. Col. 1831. 8.—
/. P. Krebs, Antibarbarus der Lateinischen Sprache. 2d ed,
Frankf. 1837. 8. pp. 515.— F. Hand, Lehrbuch d. Lateinisch.
Styls. Lpz. 1S39. 8. pp 502. not a book of exercises, but con-
sidered as an excellent work on Latin composition.

6. On Antiquities, consult P. IIL § 197.— For helps pertaining
to the subjects of Geography, Chronology, and Biography, con-
sult § 7. 7.— We add here,

A. Th. BischoffSf J. H. MSlkr, Vergleichung des WOrierhuchj
der alien, mittleren, und neuen Geographic. Gotha, 1829. 8.

Chr. MUUer, Roms Campagna in Beziehung auf alte Ge-
schichte, Dichlung, und Kunst Lpz. 1824. 2 vols. 8.

Cramer, Ancient Italy. Oxf. 1826. 2 vols. 8. with map.

C. KtlsaU, Classical Excursion from Rome to Arpinun.
Genev. 1820. 8.

Gorton, BiographicaJ Dictionary. Lond. 1828. 2 vols. 8.

Furike, Real-Lexicon (Geography, Biography, Antiquity, &c
Lpz. 5 vols. S.

/. £^(apro(/i. Tableaux Histor. de I'Asie. Par. 1826. 4. with Atlas.

7. Among the valuable helps of an historical character, we
mention the following.

Geschichte der Romer, zur Erkllrung ihrer klassischea
Schriftsteller. Lpz. 1787. 2 vols. 8.

F. Fielder, Geschichte des rOm, Staates und Volkes. Lpz
1821. 8.

Thns. Blackwell, Memoirs of the Court of Augustus (com-
pleted by /. Mills). Edinb. 1753-63. 4 vols. 4.

Ad. Ferguson, Hist, of Rise and Progress of Rom. Republic
Often reprinted. Transl. into German with additioue by C. D,
Beck. Lpz. 1784. 3 vols. 8.

0. Goldsmith, History of Rome. Lond. 1770. 2 vols. 8.
Often reprinted.— Same Work abridged ; one of the best editioM

p. V.



is by Pinnock (rcpubl.' by Key fy Biddle). Phil. 1835. 12.—
Beiitzlcfs Gesch. der Romer (is a transl. of Goldsmith). Lpz.
1785. 2 vols. 8.

C. de S- Montesquieu, Considerations sur les Causes de la
grandeur et de la decadence des Rnmains. Par. 1734. 12.

R. A. de Vertol, Hisloire des Revolutions dans le governement
de la Rfipubl. R-iraaine. Par. 1796. 6 vols. 12.

C. Rollin, Histoire Romaine (froa the foundation of the city
to the battle of Actium) ; continued by /. S. L. Crevier, His-
toire des Etnpereurs Romains (from Augustus to Constantine).
Lond. 1754. 16 vols 8. The latter, transl. Engl, by /. Mills,
Hist, of the Emperors. Lond. 1761. 10 vols. 8.

G. B. Niebukr, Rom. Gesch. Berl. 1831. Transl. Engl, by
S. C. Hare and C. Thirlwall. Cambr. 1832. 2 vols. 8. Repr.
Phil. 1835. Cf. Amer. Quart. Rev. vol. iv. p. 367. 2f. Anier.
Rtv. xvi. 438.

N. Hooke, The Roman History from the building of Rome to
the ruin of the Commonwealth. 3d ed. Lond. 1771. 3 vols. 4.
Lond. 1806. II vols. 8.

Ed. Gibbon, Hist, of Decline and Fall of Rom. Empire.
Lond. 1776, ss. 6 vols. 4. Often repr. A French transl. by
Suard, with notes by Guizot. Par. 1812. 13 vols. 8. The in-
fidel insinuations of Gibbon are exposed and refuted in R. Wat-
ton's Apology for Christianity ; often reprinted.

Heiren, History of the Gracchi, in bis fermischte historische
Schriften. Gott. 1S31.

T. Arnold, History of Rome, 1st vol. Lond. 1838. 8. highly
commended in Blachwood^s Ma^. vol. xliv. p. 141.

T. Kngfitley, Hist, of Rome (to the reign of Augustus).
Lond. 1837. 8.

IV. C. Taylor, Overthrow of Rom. Empire (extending from
Constantine to the fall of Constantinople). Lond. 1838. 8.

Sismondi, The History ot^ Rome, and the Fall of Rome,
4 vols, in Lardner'a Cabinet Cyclopaedia.

HSch. Rom. Geschichte vom Verfall d. Republik bis znrVol-
lendung d. Monarchie unter Constantin. Braunsch. 1841. 8.

IV. Spalding, Italy and the Italian Islands, from the earliest
ages to the present time. 2d ed. Lond. 1 842. 3 vols. 8.

8. Works belonging to the class Histories of Latin Literature,
or Introductions to the same, are very useful helps. We have
already mentioned (5 7. 9) some which treat of the Latin au-
thors together with the Greek. Some others relating to the La-
tin may be added here.

/, AT. Funccius ; three portions of his History of Latin Litera-
ture are cited P. IV. § 1 14. 2 ; the other parts are the following :
De virili aetate Linsuae Latinse Tractatus. Marb. 1727-30.
2 vols ; De imminente L. L. Senectute Tract. Marb. 1744 ; De
inerti ac decrepiti L. L. Senectute Commentarius. Lemg. 1750.

/. A. Fabricii, Bibliofheca Latina, rectius digesta et aucta dili-
gentia /. A. Ernesli. Lips. 1773. 3 vols. 8.

G. E. MUller, Hist. krit. Einleituog zu nOthiger Kenntniss u.

nQIzlichem Gebrauche der alten lat, SchrifUteller. Dread.
1747-51. 5 vols. 8. not completed.

J. C. Zeunii Introductio in linguam latinam. Jen. 1779. 8

M. C. Nahmmacher, Anieitung zur Kritischen Kenntniss der
Lateinischen Sprache. Lpz. 1768. 8.

F. A. Wolf, Geschichte der rom. Literatur ; ein Leitfiden far
akad. Vorlesungen. Halle, 1787. 8.

Th. Ch. Harles, Introductio in Historiam linguae latmae.
Norimb. 1781. 2 vols. 8.— By same, Notitia lileraturae Romanse,
in primis scriptorum latinorum. Lips. 1789. 8. with Supple-
ments i. & ii. Lpz. 1799, ISOI, and iii. (ed. C. F. H. King-
ling) Lpz. 1817.— By same, Notitia liter, ronianse, &c. acco-
mod. in us. schol. Lpz. 1803. 8. with Additammta by KlUs-
ling. Lpz. 1819. 8.

C. Saxitis, Onomasticum Literarinm, sen Nomenclator pr^
stantissimorumomnisaeviscripforuni. Traj. ad Rhen. 1775-1803*
8 vols. 8,

F. SchCll, Histoire Abregee de la Litterature Romaine. Par.
1815. 4 vols. 8. Cf. Ed. Rev. No. Ixxx. vol. xl. p. 375.

J. Dunlop, History of Rom. Literature, from the earliest pe-
riod to the Augustan aee. Lond. IS23. 2 vols. 8. Repr. PhiL
IS27. Cf. Ed. Rev. as just cited. A 3d vol. (Lond. 1828) con-
tinues the history during the Augustan age.

Charpentier, EtuJes morales et historiques sur la litterature
Romaine, depuis son oridne jusqu'a nos jours. Hach. 1S29. S.

G. Bemhardy, Grundriss der Romischen Literatur. Haile,
1830. 8.

/. Chr. F. Bdhr, Geschichte der ROmischen Literatur. 2d ed.
Carlsr. 1832. 8. This is probably the best work of the kind.
There is a valuable Supplement entitled, Die Christlich-romische
Literatur. Carlsr. 1836-38. — Other works of this class are cited
by Dunlop at the close of the Appendix to his History above

We may add here the following: F. Caun'arit, Storia delle
Scienze, lettere, ed arti, delliRomani della foiidazione di Roma
fino ad August Maut. 1823. 8.— CtaT-pe^itte?-, Etudes morales
et historiques sur la Litterature Romaine, depuis son origin
jusqu'a nos jours. Hachette, 1S29. 8.

9. On editions and translations, we refer to the works cited,
§7. 10.

F. A. Ebert, General Bibliographical Dictionary, transl. from
the German. Oxf. 1830, ss. 4 vols. 8.

A recent ed. of Blachwairs Introduction (cf. P. IV. § 29. 4).
Oxf. 1837. 12. contains some notices of editions of Class, authors.

On German translations the following may be added ; T. F,
negen, Versuch einer voUstindigen Literatur der deutschen
Uebersetzungen der Romer. Altenb. 1794. 2 vols. 8. Supplem.
Erl. 1799. 8.

Consult also Harles, Notitia, &c., above cited ; in which are
found likewise references on most of the subjects specified under
the preceding heads.

*S 300. In giving the history of Roman literature, we shall follow the same method
as in treating of the Greek. We shall first suggest a division of the whole extent of
time included into a few distinct periods, and designate the several departments par-
ticularly cultivated among the Romans; and then proceed to notice these departments
separately. In doing this, a general view of the department will be given first, and
then a brief notice of the most important authors in it, ranged in chronological order.
In speaking of individual authors, we shall advert to their lives and characters, to their
works, and to the most important editions and translations, and other useful helps in
studying them.

^ 301. The history of Roman literature, in its most extensive signification, compre-
hends a space of twelve hundred years, from the building of Rome, B. C, 752, to the
overthrow of the Western Empire, A. D, 476, It may be very conveniently divided
into FIVE distinct periods.

The first period e.xtends from the huildin^ of Rome, to the close of the first Punin
War, B. C. 240. It includes more than five centuries, during which the language con-
tinued in a state quite unpolished. The second period extends from the close of the

first Punic War, to the civil War of Marias and Sylla, B. C. 88, It includes about
one century and a half, during which the language was greatly improved and enriched
in consequence of intercourse between the Romans and the Greeks of Magna Graecm.

The third period extends //-oot the civil War of Marius and Sylla, to the death of

70 3 A


Augustus, A. D. 14. It includes about a century, dunng which the language exhibited
the highest degree of refinement it ever attained. This may properly be called the

golden age of Roman Uterature. The fourth period extends from the death of

Augustus and accession of Tiberius, to the age of the Antoniucs, A. D. 160. It in-
cludes about a century and a half, during which the language lost something of its

elegance and poHsh. TYie fifth period extends from the age of the Antonines, to the

overthrow of the Western Empire, A. D. 476. It includes about three centuries, in
which the language became greatly corrupted and finally loaded with barbarisms.

"^s 302. In noticing the most important authors and prominent circumstances in the
Iherary history of the periods above named, we shall follow the order which we adopted
in treating of the Greek hterature. We shall speak first of the Poets; next of the Ora-
tors; then of the Mhetoricians, the Grammarians, the writers of Epistles and Fiction,
the Philosophers, the Historians, the Mathematicians and Geographers; here we shall
mention some, who may be called Economists, treating of practical arts, especially
husbandry ; then the Mythographers, and the writers on JSEedicine and Natural History.
We propose also to introduce a brief notice of the writers on Law and Jurisprudence.


I. — Poetry and Poets.

% 303. In the first centuries after the building of their city, the Romans were but little
acquainted with poetry. During the whole time, which we have designated as \\\e first

feriod of Roman Hterature (cf. § 301), they did not really cultivate any branch of letters,
t was not until B. C. 240, above 500 years after the founding of Rome, that they had,
properly speaking, any Uterature. At this time, the conquests of the Romans had
brought them into intercourse with the Greeks settled in the southern part of Italy,
and the influence was soon felt at Rome in awakening and cherishing a love of the arts
(of. P. IV. <5i 113). Dramatic poetry appears to have been the first form of literature
thus derived from the Greeks. Subsequently, the Romans looked to the Greeks for
their models, not only in poetry, but in every other branch of hterature.

?i 304. Previously to the introduction of the drama just mentioned, there were indeed
some compositions of a poetical kind, which were rehearsed on festive and comme-
morative occasions. wSuch was the hymn chanted by the Fratres Arvales, supposed to
be the earliest specimen of the Roman language now extant (cf. P. IV. ^ 114). — Such
also were the hymns (sometimes called axament a) sung by the Salic priests (cf. P. III.
$ 215). — Such too were the Fescennine verses {versus Fescennini), rude and satirical
verses, that were rehearsed at certain festivals, in the time of harvest, and accompanied
with rustic gestures and dances. Their name was derived from Fescennium, a city of
Etruria, or from a deity termed Fascinus. They were also called Saturnian, from the
irregularity of their meter, or ihe\r freedom from definite rules of structure. They were
of a very licentious character, which it became necessary to restrain by law. Traces
of this sort of poetical effusions were retained, in the latest times, at Rome, in the songs
of young men on nuptial occasions.

Cf. G. H. Heinrichs, Versus ludicri in Romanorum Caesares priores olim compositi. Hal. 1810. 8. — Cf. Hor. Ep. 11. i. 145.—-
Rfspectin? Fascinus, see FmcdUni, Lexicon Tot. Lat. Also cf. P. H. § 91. 2.— On the Saturnian verse, cf. Dunlop, as cited §299. 8.

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