Johann Joachim Eschenburg.

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in the Mem. Acad, Inscr. i.—Zi(eler, cited § SiS.—SvIzer, All?. Theorie, i. 523.

For references on coiiie:ly in generil. and the Greek comedy, see § 43.— On the history and various forau of comedy, Sulzer, Allg.
Theorie, i 48'i, ss.— On Roman comedy, see references given in the preceding sections (314-318).— VVe may add Ch, Duclos, Sur les
Jpiix sceniqiies des Romains, in the Mem. de T.icad. del hiscr, vol. xxvi.—Osann, cited § 348. 1.— C. F. Flogel, Geschichle der
fenmisclien Literalur. Liegnitz u. Lpz. 1784. 6 vols. 8. — /. C. BuUenser, De ludis scenicis eorumque apparatu tam apud Grascos
quam R-manos, in his Oyiisc Lu?d. Bat. 1621. fol. and the 9th vol. of the Thesaurus of Grsvius (cf. P. III. \ 197).— foote, The
Roman and Enelish comedy considered. Lond, 1747. 8. — For references on the Drama in general, its history in different ages and

nations, Stc. SxCzer, AUg. Theorie, i. 711. On the structure of theatres, decorations, masks, &c. among the ancients, P. IV. § 235.

P. III. § 89, 23%

J 320. It is not improbable that the dramatic exhibitions of modern times grew out of the Ro-
man mimes and pantomimes. Cassiodorus, who lived in the 6th century, makes mention of the
plavs of pantomime. In the reisn of Charlemagne, in the 8th century, the Mimi and Histriones
are spoken of as still acting in their profession. At this period, trade was carried on chiefly by
means of fairs, held fi)r several days in different places, where merchants brought their goods,
and people from various quarters assembled for the occasion. The attendance of musicians, buf-
foons, and histrionic performers of every sort, would be very natural ; and it was by this means,
as some have supposed, that the foundation was laid for modern comedy and theatric represen-
tations in general. The Christian clergy are said to have condemned these amusements at first j
but, findins their opposition fruitless, to have afterwards auempted to turn the taste for such
•shows to the best account they could, by taking scenic exhibitions into their own hands ; they
became actors themselves, and instead of profane fables and stories derived from pagan history
and mytholocy, made use of the legends of the church, or the incidents recorded in the Bible.
Thus orisinated a kind of sacred comedies, or holy farces, which were acted in the chapels of the
. innaeieries, by the monks themselves, accompanied by music and scenic decorations. Partieu-

p. V. POETRY. EPIC. 559

lar seasons or festiVals seem to have gained a special notoriety and popularity from a connection
with such exhibitions ; as, e. g. the Feast of Fools (Fete de Faux) or Jesters, Festival of the Ass
(De VAne, Fcstuni Jisinoriim), &.C.

Other writers have supposed that the religious plays, which were in vogue in the middle ages
under the name of Mysteries, and Moralities, had their origin more directly from the Greek stage
at Ci)nstantinople. There the tragedies of Sophocles and Euripides continued to be represented
until the fifih century. The fascinations of the pagan theatre occasioned much anxiety to the
Greek Bishops and Fathers; they petitioned the Emperor to suppress dramatic exhibitions, at
least on the sacred days of the church; and they often denounced such amusements in their
preaching and writings. Yet some of them composed sacred dramas, founded on the Old and
New Testament, for the purpose of public representation. Gregory Nazianzen, who was a
l)isht)p of dmstantinople in the lattpr part of the fourth century (cf. J 292), is said to have intro-
duced such pieces upon the stage instead of the pagan trasedies. One of his own plays, written
f >r this use, is still extant, entitled Xptcrrdj Trdo-xwi'. Apollinaris, bishop of Laodicea, is said to
have written tragedies adapted to the stage, after the manner of Euripides, on most of the grand
events related in the Old Testament, and also comedies in imitation of Menander, on sotne of
the domestic stories of the Bible. The introduction of histrionic farces, with singing and danc-
ing, into the churches and houses of religious worship, is ascribed to Theophylact, patriarch of
Constantinople in the 10th century. The religious spectacles and plays thus introduced might,
without ditRculty, be carried thence to the west by the commercial intercourse which existed
between Constantinople and Italy.

See J. Warton, Hist. Eng. Poeiry, vol. ii. 73. iii. 193. ed. Lend. 1824. 4 vols. 8. There is an improved ed. Lond. 1840. 3 vols. 8.
—M. du TtlHot, Memoires pour servir a I'histoire de la Fete de Foux, &c Laus. & Genev. 1741. 4. 1751. S.—Ftosel, Geschicht*
des Groteske-Komischen. Liegnilz, 1788. S.—J. G. Sulzer, Al!g. Theorie, i. 524, 726. The views of the Christian Fathers respect-
ing the theatre may be gathered from the treatise of T er t u 11 i a n on Theatrical Shows (de Spectaculis, in the 1st vol. of his Works
by OberthUr. Wire. 1780. 2 vols. 8) ; that of Cyprian on Theatrical Representations (in the 2d vol. of his Works by Obtrthllr,
Wire. 1782. 2 vols. 8); the 4th homily of Basil (cf. § 292), and the 15th of Chrysostom to the Antiochians (cf. 5292).— On
this subject see A. G. Wakh, De theatre primis Christianis exoso. Schleus. 1770. 4.

^ 321. (5) Epic Poetry. The honor of being the earliest epic poet of the Romans is
usually ascribed to Ennius. It should not be forgotten, however, that Livius Andro-
nicus made a translation of the Odyssey of Homer; that the grammarians speak of an
historical poem by him on the exploits of the Romans, in 35 books ; and that Naevius
composed an historical poem on the first Punic war. The songs and ballads (already
spoken of § 306), respecting various incidents of the national traditions, also existed
long before the time of Ennius. Niebuhr has imagined that Ennius borrowed much
from a great poem on the traditional history of the Romans, beginning with the reign
of L. I'arquinius Priscus and ending with the battle of Regillus; "an epopee," he
says, " which in force and brilliance of imagination leaves every thing produced by the
Romans in later times far behind it ;" but he adduces no proof or authority to sustain
this idea. However this may be, there can be httle doubt that Ennius made use of
the old national lays, which were in Saturnian verse, molding them into hexameters in
his own poem. How far his Annals were framed conformably to historical truth,
may be a question impossible for us to answer; Vossius maintains an opinion entirely
opposite to the views of Niebuhr. and ascribes general historic verity to the whole work.
Nor can it he denied, however popular this production was among the Romans, that
it was deficient in the peculiar embelhshments of fancy, and might be called a Chro-
nicle in verse, more justly than a proper epic poem.

Cf. § 351.— Sc/iO/7, Litt. Rom. i. 141.— DunZop, Hist. Rom. Lit. i. IS.— Niebuhr, Hist Rom. (transl. by Hare & Thirlwall) p. 196.
vol. i. ed. Phil. 1835.— Foistu-!, de Historicis Latinis, L. i. c. 2.

^ 322. After Ennius, we find no epic poet until we reach our third period (cf. ^ 301),
the golden age of Roman letters ; and here, although we meet with several names,
there is one which ecHpses all others in this branch of Roman poetry ; it is that of
Virgil. 1'he author of the jEneid obviously imitated the author of the Iliad and the
Odyssey, yet he produced a poem strictly national; and if the work is not so strongly
marked with the impress of original genius as its models, it is yet full of beauties and
signs of cultivated taste.

§ 323. Of the other epic writers in this period, Lucius Variiis was most highly com-
mended by the ancients. He has already been noticed (^ 311) as a dramatic author.
Before the appearance of the ^neid, the first rank in epic poetry was assigned to him
(cf Hor. Sat. I. x. v. 43). Varius sung the exploits of Augustus and his son-in-law
Agrippa ; and his poem, which is wholly lost, must therefore have had more of the

historical than of the epic character. The other names to be mentioned in speaking

of the epic poetry of this period, are the following: Cneitis Mattius, the mimographer
(cf ^ 319). who translated the Odyssey ; P. Terentius Varro, surnamed Atacinus. who
translated the Argonautics of ApoUonius, and composed a poem on the war of Julius
Caesar against the Sequani ; Hostius, author of a poem on the war oflstria, C. Rabi-
rius, who wrote on the battle of Actium ; and T. Valgius Rufus, highly eulogized bv
TibuUus (El. IV. i. 80) : their works have perished. Pedo Albinovanus is also said to
have composed epical pieces. Cornelius Severus commenced a poem upon the Sici-
lian war. SchoU, Litt. Rom. i. 225.

§ 324. In the fourth period of our division (cf. § 301), after the death of Augustus,
there were four poets who must be ranked among the epic writers ; but no one ap-
peared who coulii rival or equal Virgil. Although they imitated him, yet they all fell


far below him. They were well informed and well disciplined, but were deficient in
native enthusiasm. Two of the number chose national subjects ; and their poems
may be said to belong to the historical class rather more properly than to the epic—
The first in order of time was Lucan, who celebrated in his Pharsalia the civil war
between Pompey and Caesar (cf § 375). Valerius Flaccus, next in order, took the
Argonautic expedition for a theme, and in the estimation of some critics even surpassed
his Grecian model, ApoUonius of Rhodes (cf. § 73). Silius Italicus selected a national
subject, the second of the Punic wars ; and his work is much valued as a help in
illustrating the history of the period (cf. § 377). Statins left two performances in epic
verse, the Thebaid, and the Achilleid ; the latter in an unfinished state on account of
his premature death (cf. S> 378). All these poets flourished within the 1st century;
af;er which the history of Roman hterature presents no important name in the depart-
ment of epic poetry.

^ 325. There were, after the 1st century, many versifiers; and they composed many
pieces, of an historical or descriptive character, in the heroic measure ; but the only
one that can claim any notice as an epic writer is Claudian, who flourished at the close
of the 4th century. His poems (cf. % 386), with all their blemishes, show a genius
worthy of a better age. — The elder Gordian, who became emperor of Rome, A. D.
238, is said to have been a poet in his younger days, and to have composed a poem in
30 books, entitled Antonias, of which Antoninus Pius and Marcus Aurelius were the
heroes. — Some of the descriptive pieces of Ausonius (cf ^ 385), a poet of the 4th cen-
tury, were of the heroic kind. We might also rank in the same general class some of
the productions of several of the Christian poets (cf. % 329) of the same century, as e. g.
Juvencus, Victorinus, and Sidonius Apollinaris.

On the Epic Poetry of the Romans, see Bdhr, Geschichle der Rom. Lit pp. 120-163. — Charaktere dor vomehrmten Dichta,\\a.
378, ss.— For references on Epic poetry in general, cf. 3 20.

^ 326. (c) Lyric Poetry. While the dramatic and epic productions of the Greeks
were translated and imitated by the Romans as soon as a sufficient degree of inter-
course existed between the nations, it was not until many years had elapsed that the
Romans made any attempts in lyric verse. This was a form of poetry in which trans-
lation is less likely to be successful; in which originality is perhaps more indispensably
essential to merit. The early circumstances of the Romans, and their peculiar habits
and traits of character, were such as to render them less susceptible to the lively im-
pressions of lyric poetry. It was not until the third period of our division, i. e. after
the civil war of Marius and Sylla, that this form of poetry began to be cultivated.

Cf. Dunlop, Hist Rom. Lit. vol. 3d. Lend. ed. 1828.

§ 327. Catullus, born B. C. 86, was the first to open to his countrymen this new
field. Only four of his pieces now extant are called odes, yet in others there are pas-
sages of a lyrical cast. The third of the odes is a translation from Sappho. These
few productions, however, have secured him a place in the catalogue of lyric poets
(cf. <^ 358). — But the first rank in Roman lyrics belongs unquestionably to Horace, to
whom the Greeks themselves can present a superior only in the bold and lofty Pindar.
That Horace borrowed freely from the Greeks, the critics have clearly shown ; yet
the universal admiration which his odes have awakened, demonstrates the power of his
genius (cf. •§ 363).

§ 328. From the time of Horace, lyric poetry held an honorable place in the amuse-
ments of society ; but a writer who should rival or equal Horace himself was not to be
expected. Quintilian {Inst. Or. x. 1) names Ccpsius Bassus, in the next period after,
as approaching him ; but we have no means of judging for ourselves. Vestritius
Spiiriniia, who is repeatedly named in the history of Tacitus, is said to have written
lyric pieces both in Greek and Latin. F Vwy {Epist. iii. 1) highly commends them'.
Statit/s is also sometimes named among lyric poets, on account of two odes contained
m his SylvGs; one of them is addressed to Septimius Serenas. This Serenus, we may
add, is cited by the grammarians as the author of a lyric poem, or a collection of lyric
pieces, entitled Falisca, written in a peculiar meter invented by him^. — There is ex
tant, probably from some author in this period, a poem of about a hundred lines, en
titled Pervigilium Vtiieris, in imitation of the Carmen Sceculhre of Horace ; it was
formerly ascribed to Catullus^,

1 Gaspar Barth published in 1613, in the collection entitled Poets Latini vtnatid et bucolici, four odes, said to have been found

by him in an old MS. at Marbour?, which he ascribed to Spurinna ; they were the production of a later age. ^ Serentu is also

said to have written several small poems on the various labors of the field, opuscula ruralia ; of which the Moretum, commonly

ascribed to Virgil (cf. ^ 362. 2), is supposed to be one. 3 The Pervigilium Veneris is a hymn in honor of Venus, and takes its

title in reference to the festival of Venus in April, held during three successive nights, which were devoted to music, dancing, and
pleasure (nocturrue pervi^ilaf tones, cf. Ovid, Fast iv. 133) ; it has been ascribed to various authors j the piece is given mLemaireU
Minor Latin Poets (cited § 348), 2d vol.— See SditU, Litt Rom. iL 340. iii. 24.

^ 329. After the 2d century, although a few lyric pieces may be found among the
remains of the minor poets, there is nothing worthy of particular notice, within the
remaining period included in our division, except the songs and hymns of the Christian
poeta Among the earhest of these authors of Christian hymns were Hilarius and


Prudentiiis (cf: '^ 3S7). Those of the former were expressly designed to be sung; and
are said to have been set to music by Hilary himself. Damaaus, who attained'^to the
Pontificate in the 4th century, left a number of hymns, among which is one in rhyme.
The works of A7nhrosc, bishop of Milan, in the latter part of the same century, contain
a collection of sacred hymns.

The collections of the Minor Lalin PoeU contain the lyric pieces above referred to : e. g. in Lemaire's (cf. § 348. 2) are the Car-
men de fiirtuna, by Syniposius ; de beata vita, by Pentadius ; rfe letale, by Lindinus.— On the Christian poets who wrote in Latin,
we refer to the SuppUnitnt of Bdhr, ciled § 299. 8.

For references on the subject of lyric poetr>' generally, and that of the Greeks, see § 26.— On Roman lyric poetry, Dunlop, as cited
§ 299. S.—Chnraktere der vorn. Dichter. v. 301, sa.—R. Schomberg, The character and writings of Pindar &. Horace. Lend. 1769. 8.
— Cf also § 363.

^ 330. (d) Bucolic or Pastoral Poetry. Virgil appears to have been the first among
the Latin poets to attempt the composition of pastorals. He commenced, as did the
poets in every other department, with an imitation of the Greeks. The Eclogues of
Virgil are, in a great measure, borrowed from the Idyls of Theocritus. If thelloman
poet has less of natural simplicity, and of that minute accuracy and vividness which are
the result of original observation; he has, on the other hand, the merit of a more
judicious selection of incidents, and a greater freedom from what is gross and ofTensive.
The Bucolics were among the earliest of the poetical compositions of Virgil, and were
greatly admired by the Romans. The 6th Eclogue, entitled Silenus, was recited in
the theatre, shortly after its composition, by Cytheris, the celebrated actress of mimes.

'^ 331. After Virgil we find no pastoral writer until the latest period included in our
view of the Latin authors. CoJpnrniits, who lived in the latter part of the 3d century
after Christ, composed eclogues in imitation of Virgil and Theocritus. He was pro-
bably the author of the pastoral pieces which have sometimes been ascribed to Neme-
sian, a poet of the same period. The eclogues of Calpurnius are not without merit,
but he is far inferior to his models (cf. § 384). — The name of Idyl is given to a number
of the poems of Ausoriiufs (cf. § 385), who flourished in the next century ; but the sub-
jects and style of these pieces are not such as to bring them properly under the head
of pastoral poetry. The same remark is applicable to the Idyls of Claudian (cf. ^ 386).
There is a performance from Severus Sanctus, a Christian poet of the same century,
which may perhaps more justly be considered as a pastoral poem, and which is not
wholly destitute of merit.

The Poem of Seuertt?, entitled De mcrtibus bmim, is given in Lemairc's Poetae I^t, Minores, cited § 348. 2.

On the Pastoral Poetry of the Romans, see Charaklcrt der vorn. Dichter. vii. 242-256.— .ScAoi;, Litt. Rom. i. 3S2.— Harrington,

Essay upon Virgil's Bucolics. Lond. 1658. 12.— Diss, de Carmine Bucolico, in LemaireU Virgil, vol. i. p. 53. On the Greek

Pastoral Poetry, see references given § 30.

About the time of the revival of letters there seemg to have been a great fondness for pastoral poetry, and many pieces of this kind
were composed in Latin. Before the middle of the 16th century, a Collection of no less than thirty -eight bucolic authors was pub
lished by /. Oporinus (in his .iutor. Bucol. Basil, 1546. 8).— Cf. Sulzer, Allg. Theorie, ii. p. 592.

§ 332. (e) Elegiac Poetry. In this variety of poetical composition, the Romans had
many successful authors. Like the other departments of poetry and hterature gene-
rally, it flourished most in the age of Augustus. It commenced with CatuUus. whom
we have noiiced already as the first author of lyric pieces (§ 327). Cornelias Gallus
succeeded and excelled him in the elegy; he was ranked among the best poets of this
class (cf. § 3.59).— But Tihullus and Propertius (cf. ^ 3G0, 361) are more celebrated
names. " With reason did the ancients doubt to which of them to ascribe the first
rank among the Latin elegists. Both possess many qualities which raise them a'.iove
ordinary poets to a place of eminence ; while each has peculiarities of distinsfuished
excellence. Tibullus has a high degree of elegance and propriety of expression ; Pro-
pertius a great richness, a great variety of poetic erudition. In the one the purity of
his language shows a writer born and educated in the Roman capital ; in the other,
the character of his diction indicates an author deeply versed in Grecian productions.
The one is more delicate ; the other more nervous. The first has the appearance of
having written with ready simplicity; the other of having thought what he ought to
write ; if the one is more natural, the other is more careful. You may love the' one,
and admire the other."

§ 333. There was another elegiac poet of the Augustan age, scarcely less eminent •
by some even considered as the superior. Ovid is less tender than Tibullus, and less
chaste than Propertius ; but more original, and of a more free imagination, than either.
His works generally are characterized by Httle imitation of the Greeks, and by inde
pendent reliance on his own resources. Ovid was one of the greatest versifiers "among
the Latin poets : his verse is like the flowing of the stream from a full fountain : iii this
respect both Tibullus and Propertius must be confessed to stand below him. Three
of his works, the Amores. the Tristia, and the Letters from Pontns. belong to the head
of elegiac poetry (cf. § 364).— C. Pedo Albinovanus, a friend of Ovid, is usually placed
in the hst of elegiac poets, although it is not agreed by all the critics that he was the

author of the elegies by some ascnbed to him^'cf. § 366). After the Auffustan age

we find nothing important in this branch of poetry. Arhorius, in the 4th"'century, a
relative of Ausonius {^ 385) is said to have imitated Propertius • an extant elegy as


cribed to him is far inferior to its model. The Itinerary of RutiHus, in the 5th century,
is in elegiac verse (cf. "^ 389).— Some of the Christian poets (cf. § 329) composed pieces
in elegiac verse.

The elegy of Arborius (ad Kympham nimis cultam) is found in Lemaire's Poet. Lat Minores, vol. ii.— There is extant an elegy
(dt cupiditate) by a writer named Lupercus Servasius, of the 5th century, given in the same vol. of Lemaire.

$ 333 b. Before leaving this topic, it may be proper to allude to the songs called nwnitp. They
were sung to the fluie, in funeral processions (cf. P. III. $ 340) ; but seem to have been more
of a panegyrical than of an elegiac character. " We are not to suppose them," says M'iebiikr,
"like the Greek threnes and elegies ; in the old times of Rome, the fashion was, not to be melted
into the tender mood and to bewail the dead ; but to pay him honor. We must therefore ima-
gine the nxEnimlQ have been a memorial lay, such as were suns at banquets (cf. $ 27); indeed,
the latter were perhaps no others than what had first been heard at the funeral." Perhaps we
h^ive some specimens or fragments of the iiccnicr,\n such inscriptions as are found on tlie stones
belonging to the sepulcher of the Scipios (cf. P. IV. $ 133. 2).—Mebuhr's Hisi. Rom. 1st vol. p.
194. Phil. ed.

On the origin of elegiac poetry, &c., see references § 29. Respecting the elegiac poetry of the Romans, Scholl, Litt. Rnm. i.

324.— fr. .^Jig. IVideburg, Ue Poetis Roman. Elegiacis. Helmst. 1773. 4.— F. G. Bartfi, super Elegia, maxime Rnmanorum, in
his ed. of Propertius, cited be'ow § .161. 3. — Pack, Essay upon the Roman Eleeiac Poets, in MdistrrCs Dissertation upon the most
celebrated Roman Poets. Lond. 1721. 8. Cf. Class. Journ. ix. 346.— £. C. Chr. Bach, Geist der rOm. Elegie. 1809. S.—Fraguier,
as cited § 29.—Smichay, on Latin elegiac poets, Mem. Acad. Inscr. vii. 384. xvi. 399.— Dun"»if, Dissertatio de carm. eleg. natura,

&c., in the C I I e c t of C. Mkhaler, cited § 348. 2. ^A collection of the modem Latin elegiac poets was published by

MichiiUr. Vindob. 1784. 2 vols. 8.

?i 334. (/) Didactic Poetry. The Romans paid but little attention to didactic poetry,
until the third period of our division ; i. e. from the civil war B. C. 88 to the death of
Augustus, A. D. 14. In the previous period Ennius had indeed composed a poem on
eating (cf '^ 351), and translated a Greek philosophical poem. But the first who gained
any distinction in this kind of poetry was Lucretius; his poem on the nature of things
has ever commanded especial notice as a didactic performance. Cornelius Severus is
ranked among the didactic poets, on account of his poem entitled jEtna, although it is
by some ascribed to a later author (cf ^ 335, 365).

The most finished didactic poem is found in the Georgics of Virgil. It was composed
on the suggesiion of Maecenas ; the four books treat of agriculture, the culture of trees,
the training of animals, and the keeping of bees. "It is in this work," says Schbll,
"that Virgil shows all his genius. He commenced it at the age of 34, and did not
cease to amend it until the end of life. The Latin language does not contain a more

perfect work." It has been a model for imitation to modern poets of all nations. •

The name of Ovid must not be omitted in this place, as several of his works belong to
the didactic class. His eminence in elegiac verse has already been noticed ; he is to
be considered also as one of the great didactic poets of the Augustan age. — Some may
perhaps consider it proper to put Horace in the hst of didactic authors on account of his

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