Johann Joachim Eschenburg.

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Art of Poetry.

There were in this period several poets of inferior grade who composed didactic
verse. Gratius Faliscus wrote a poem on hunting, a fragment of which is still extant
(cf § 367). Caesar Germanicus (cf <$> 370), ./Emilius Macer (§ 371), and Marcus Ma-
nillas (§ 369), are included among the didactic poets of the Augustan age. We may
mention also Varro Atacinus, the author of a work entitled Chorographia, which was
a sort of description of the universe, and another on navigation entitled Libri Navales.

The fragments of various poems of fano Atacinus are given in Lemaire's Poet. Lat. Min- vol. 4th. — Cf. also Harltx, Brev. Not.
Suppl. i. 165.

% 335. In the next period, extending from the death of Augustus to the Antonines,
there was no very eminent production in this branch of poetry ; although we must as-
sign to this period Terenti<nms Alaurus, author of a poem on letters, syllables, feet,
and mtlers, which Schbll pronounces ingenious and elegant'. The ancients cite a poem
on meters as the work of Csesius Bassus^, who was much commended for his lyrical
pieces (cf. § 328). There is extant a poem on weights and measures, by some ascribed,
to Rhemnius Fannius Palaemon, said to have been a grammarian of the 1st century,
but by others ascribed to Priscian, of a much later age^. Lucilius Junior'^ is mentioned
by Seneca {Qucest. Nat. iii. 26) as a poetical friend, and is by some supposed to be the
author of the poem entitled JEf7ia (cf $ 334). We may perhaps properly name here the
tenth book of Columella (cf *5i 500 a). which is in hexameter verse, and is entitled Cultus
hortorum; it seems to have been suggested by a passase in the Georgics of Virgil (iv.
147), where he expressly says he shall leave the subject of horticulture for another

t The poem of Terentianus is given in the Grammatical Collect, of PutscJiitis, cited § 422.— Cf. Fr. Reinert, De vita Terent

Mauri Lt-mg. :80S. 4. 2 A fragment of Basius is given in the same Collect. 3 The poem on Weights, &c. {de ponderibus et

■inenniris) is given in the 4th vol. of Lemaire's Poet. Lat Minores. Cf. Harles, Brev. Not. p. 353. Suppl. i. p. 12. * Frag-
ments of LiuAHus are also found in Lemaire's Minor Poets, vol. 3d.— The 7th vol. of the same also contains Columella on garden-
ing.— Cf. Schdll, Litt Rom. ii. 306, ss.

§ 336. The last period included in our view of Roman hterature is not without names
of didactic poets; but none of them are of special celebrity. Nemesian, of the 3d cen-
tury, is probablv the most imoortanl (cf. '5> 383). Sainmonicus, whom we shall have


occasion to notice as a physician (^ 555), was tlie author of an inferior poem on dis-
eases and their remedies. The last book in the treatise oi Palladius on agricuUure is
a didactic poem in elegiac verse, upon the art of grafting (cf '^ 500 b). The principal
work of Avienux (§ 3S1. 4) was a didactic performance. Several of the Christian poets,
as Commodian, Prudentius, and others, composed didactic poems.

It may be suitable to remark, before leaving this topic, that we find among the Ro-
mans a few specimens of that kind of poetry which the Greeks termed Gnomic; in
which the composition consists of moral sentences or maxims (cf ^ 31). The principal
gnomic author of the Romans was Dionysius Cato, who hved in the 2d century (cf.
^ 382). The remains of Publius Syrus, a celebrated mime of the Augustan age (cf. §
319), may be ranked perhaps in the same class.

For references on Didactic poelry generally, see ^ 32.— On the Roman didactic poets, Sch'U, Lift. Rom. i. 246, ss. ii. 306.— Dun-
lop, vol. iii. Lond. ed. particularly on the Georgics of Virgil, and the didactic parts of Ovid.— See also the sections below, in
which the poets above mentioned as didactic are noticed separately — On the sententious poetry, J. ^pliinstone, as cited below,
§ 368. 3.

^ 337. Since the Fable may be considered as a form^ of didactic poetry, it may be
proper to notice it here. "The jEsopian fable," says Scholi, "gained Httle attention
from the Romans. The Roman orators either did not know the use made of it by the
Greeks, or from their serious turn of character they rejected it. The fable of Mene-
nius Agrippa (see Livy, ii. 32) is a sohtary instance, where it is employed for the purpose
of rhetorical ornament. Aulus GelUus {Nod. Att. ii. 29) relates that Ennius inserted
adroitly, in one of his satires, the fable of the lark (cassita). His example was followed
by Lucilius. Bui the first who treated the fable as a form of poetry having its appro-
priate rules, was Horace. His fable of the city-mouse and country-mouse {mits urha-
nus and rustkus; Sat. ii. 6) is well known. After him, Roman hterature presents us
with no fables until the reign of Tiberius."

In his reign flourished Phaedrus, who received his freedom from Augustus. He was
the principal author of fables among the Romans (cf. % 372). "He had the merit of
first making known to the Romans the fables of ^sop ; not that all his fables are
translations of those of the Phrygian philosopher (cf ^ 184); but those which seem to
be properly his own, or of which at least we do not know the Greek originals, are in
the manner of .Esop. He is as original as La Fontaine, who Uke Phaedrus borrowed
the subject in a great number of his fables." — The next author of fables in Latin verse
is Flavins Avianus (cf •§ 381), who employed the elegiac meter instead of the iambic
(cf. § 372). Julianus Titianus, who lived under Caracalla, wrote fables in prose, or
rather translated into Latin prose the fables of Babrius (cf § 31, 184). We find no
other fabulists within the period included in our notice.

There are extant SO fables in Latin prose, under the name of Romulus, of whose person and age nothing is known ; Warton
(Hist Eng. P.3elry, i. 2i6) says the work was probably fabricated in the 12lh century. They were published in the C/Vm Col-
lection, which was the earliest collection of Latin fables, printed at Ulm, 1473. fol— There is also a collection of 60 fables, in ele-
giac meter, which are but so many of the fables of Romulus, versified by some unknown author; Fuhrmann (Klein. Handb. p.
727) says probably by Hildelert, bp. of Tours, who died A. D. 1136. They were published under the title Anonymi Falula:, by
I. Nic NtveUt, in his Mytholog. ^sop. Francf. 1618. 8.— There is likewise a collection of 67 fables in pro^e, which are merely
varia'ions or mutilations of those of Romulus. These were published by /. F. Nilant, in his work styled Fabulx .Iniiqus. &c.
Lugd. Fat. 17t'9. 12.— There are also 95 fables in Latin, considered by some as translations from a lost collection in Greek by Cyri!-
lus, called also Constantino the Philosopher, bishop of Thessalonica in the 9th century ; they were in 4 books, and the Latin title is
Quadriparlitu! Jl/iolo^icus, or Speculum aapientis ; published by B. Cordier, with the tit\e Apologi Mi/rales. Vienna, 163a 12,
Cf SchoU, Litt. Grecque, vi. 214.

For notices of other fabulists, and of Collections of Latin fables, see Sulzer, AUg. Theorie, vol. ii. p. 182, sa. Cf. also Lessing,

Simmtliche Schriften, vol. viii. as cited P. IV. § 168. On early German imitations, &c., see brief notices in T. Carlyle, Essays,

&c., vol. iii. p. 393, ss. ed. Bnst. 1838. 3 vols. 8. On the Roman fabulists, see references given in § 372.

§ 338. (g) The Epigram. In this form of poetry the Romans appear to have been
very successful in the fime of their first attempts in literature. Several epigrammatists
flourished in the period preceding the war of Sylla and Marius (the second of our divi-
sion, cf § 301). Aulus Gellius (xix. 9) speaks of three in particular, viz. Porcius Lici-
nius, Q. Lutatius Catullus, and L. Valerius ^dituus; and remarks that some of their
epigrams are not surpassed in elegance by anything known to him in Latin or Greek
poetry. L. Pomponius, perhaps the same that has been noticed as an author of Atel-
lane comedies (cf 318), is also mentioned as an epigrammatist by Priscian.

^ 339. Many of the small poems of Catullus are properly regarded as epigrams.
The Garland of Meleager (cf § 35) had been compiled before his time, and thus he
might easily become familiar with the style of the Greek epigrams. Some of his pieces
are allowed to possess distinguished merit ; of 'he crowd of epigrammatists whose
names occur in the period before the death of Augustus, he is decidedly the best.
Among these names we find those of Virgil, and Cicero, and his brother (^uintus ; of
Julius Caesar, Augustus, and Maecenas ; from each of whom some remains are pre-
served in the Latin Anthology. Licinius Calvus was celebrated for the sarcastic tone
of his epigrams ; in the only one now extant in full, he satirizes Pompey's mode of
scratching his head. Domitius Marsus was ranked among the best epigrammatists in
the time of Augustus ; there seems to have been a collection of epigrams t y him, en
titled Cicuta; only two pieces now remain.


^ 340. Passing by others of this period who have a place in the Anthology, we come
to Martial, in the succeeding period of Roman literature ; to whom the critics, almost
without an exception, have awarded the palm in preference to Catullus and every other
Latin epigrammatist. His pieces are marked by something of that jpoint which is con-
sidered essential in a modern epigram (cf % 34). Several less important names belong
to this period. A number of epigrams are contained among the remains of Petronius
Arbiter. The pieces in the Greek Anthology ascribed to an author called TanovWiog
and TaiTovXiKiog, are supposed by some to be the productions of Cornehus Lentulus
GaetuUcus, whom Suetonius cites as an historian, and Martial names as a poet. L. Asi-
nius Gallus, son of Virgil's friend Asinius PoUio ; Alfius Flavus, mentioned by Seneca
the rhetorician as an eminent orator of his time ; Septimius Serenus, surnamed Falis-
cus (cf. § 328) ; Vulcatius Sedigitus, so called from the number of his fingers ; and
Sentius Augurinus, lauded by Phny the younger (£p. iv. 27. ix. 9) for the delicacy and
irony of his pieces; must be included in the catalogue of epigrammatists. We may
add Pliny himself, and Seneca the philosopher, unless we suppose the epigrams con-
tained in the wrhings of the latter to be interpolations by some scholastic author. The
emperor Hadrian or Adrian w^as the author of epigrams in Greek as well as Latin.
There are some pieces from a poet by the name of Florus, who was living in the time
of Adrian, and is by some supposed to be the same as L. Annaeus Florus the historian
(cf § 536).

§ 341. In the last period included in our glance, from the Antonines A. D. 160 to the
overthrow of Rome A. D. 476, there were many productions of an epigrammatic kind.
The more distinguished authors w^ere Ausonius and Claudian. In the works of the
former (cf § 385) we find about 150 epigrams, generally framed after the manner of
Martial, but inferior to their model in force and point. About 40 epigrams are ascribed to
Claudian ; 2 are in Greek ; but some of these pieces are not considered as genuine (cf.
^ 386). Several of the Christian poets might be mentioned among the epigrammatists.

It is perhaps worthy of notice here, that in the later ages some of the Latin poets imitated the
frivolous devices that were invented by certain Greeks of the Alexandrine school, who amused
themselves in composing little poems, in which the verses were so formed and arranged as to
present the tigure of an altar, egg, musician's pipe (cf J 68. *i), or other object. A specimen of
this sort of effort is given in a Latin poem by P. Optatianus Porphyrins, who lived in the time
of Constantine the Great. He had been banished by that emperor; but he regained his favor by
the poem here mentioned. It was a eulogy on the emperor made up of a series of poems, having
something of the epigrammatic character, but representing by their form ditferent objects, one an
altar, another a flute, another a sort of organ (cf. P. III. $ ISO. 2). It included also other devices ;
e. g. in one poem the first line was composed of words of two syllables, the second of words of
three syllables, and so on ; another poem was a complicated acrostic of 20 lines, the first letters
of which, taken from top to bottom, formed the words Fortissimus Imperator ; the letters in the
14lh place formed the words Clevientissimus rector; and the last letters, Constantinus inoictus.

^ 342. Anthologies. This term has been applied to collections of Latin epigrams as
well as Greek. They include many epigrams from unknown authors. It should also
be remarked that they include not only such epigrams as were preserved in ancient
manuscripts, but many others which are epigrams in the original sense of the term,
i. e. inscriptions, placed on pubhc or private monuments. The latter class have been
drawn from monuments scattered over Italy and the Roman provinces, but found in

greatest number in the region of Rome itself Collections of the Greek epigrams

began to be made more than 100 years before Christ (cf § 35). But it does not ap-
pear that the Romans thought much of similar collections of Latin epigrams. Per-
haps we may consider the Priapeia as being something of the kind, since it consists
of little poems pertaining to the god Priapus, very probably written by different authors,
although sometimes ascribed to Virgil (cf *5i 362. 2).

1. The modern Latin Anthologies seem to have originated in the collecting and publishing of
actual inscriptions found on ancient monuments. An Italian of the 15th century, Piziocolli,
known also by the name of Cijriacns Anconitainis, is said to have been the first to enter upon
this work. Under the direction of Nicolas I he traveled in Italy, Hungary, and Greece, for tha
purpose of copying inscriptions both Greek and Latin. He prepared a volume of prose inscrip-
tions, and another of inscriptions in verse ; and although no part of his collection was printed
until about 20O years afterwards, yet his example influenced other scholars to pursue the study
of inscriptions, and a number of collections were published during the 16th and 17th centuries.
Ten or twelve such works, ai least, preceded the first edition of Gruter's Collection (cf. P. IV.
5 130).

2. The Anthology differs from the mere collection of inscriptions, not by excluding epigrams
jireserved only dn monuments; for, as has been observed, many such are admitted. But the
Anthology properly admits only those pieces which seem to possess some merit as literary pro-
ducticins, while the collection of the other kind will receive the most insignifiiaMi or trivial in-
scription, although it may contain merely detached words, or proper names. Several collections
of these more select and choice pieces were published in the 17th and 18th centuries. The one
which is considered the must complete, and the best in arrangement, is the Latin Anthology of
Burmann (cited $ 348. 2). The first volume of this is d^'voted chiefly to epigrams and smaU
poems, drawn from manuscripts; while a great part of the 2d volume is occupied with inscrip-
tions properly so called, and originally taken from existing monuments. The pieces contained
in the work are arranged in 6 hooks.

Of Ihe collections that come under the class of the .iiUholngies, the earliest that is mentioned by Fabricius is that of P. Pithoew
aitiUed Epigrammatavete)a,kc.). Par. ! 390. 12.


On Latin epierams, see Bahr, Gesch. Ram. Lit p. 32(l.—<!chSlI, Lit(. Rnm. i. 153, 365. ii. 349. iii. 124.— Durdop, Roin. Litf. L
SI9. ed. Phil. 1 827.— StJcer, AUg. Thenrie, iv. 398.— £ui-nia/m, as cited §348. 2. — On the epigram generally, see references
§ 34, 35. On the subject of Latin Inscriptioni, cf. P. IV. § 130.

_ $ 343. {7i) Satire. There has been much disputing among the learned on the ques-
tion whether the Satire of the Romans was borrowed from the Greelvs, or was of their
own invention. The word is derived differently by those who take the opposite sides
on this question. Those who suppose that satire descended from the Greeks, derive
the word from Sar'pa;, Satyrus, the imaginary being said to be composed of a man and
a goat. Those who maintain the native origin of satire, generally derive the word from
sattira ; this term was apphed to the platter or vessel filled with all sorts of fruits (/a «j;
saliira), which was offered to Bacchus at his festivals ; and it might easily be thrnce
transferred and employed to designate a composition written in various meters and

comprehending a medley or farrago of subjects- >But whatever may have been the

real derivation of the term, satura or satira, and whatever may have been the fact as
to the question whether the Roman satirists imitated the Greeks and borrowed from
them, two things may be here asserted. The first is, that the Roman satire was quite
different in its character from the Greek dramatic satyre (cf. '5i 45). 'J'he other is, that
the Romans exhibited in very early times the beginnings of their satire, in the rude
taunts and railleries which were practiced at the festivals of their rural gods.

^ 344. The invention of the Roman Satire is commonly ascribed to Ennius. He
composed satires, which were not designed to be recited like the rude jests at the festi-
vals, but to be read more privately. He employed a diversity of meters. Pacuvius
imitated Ennius. Lucilius, who follows them in order of time, gave to satire some-
thing of a new form and character, and is therefore spoken of by some of the ancients
as its inventor. He aimed less at mere comic effect, and more at the castigation of
vice, and thus rendered the composition more didactic ; he also confined it much more
to one kind of verse, particularly the hexameter. Of the satires of these authors mere
fragments now remain. — M. Furius Bibaculusi was another satirist of this period ; by
some of the ancients placed by the side of Horace. — The name of Valerius Cato may
be perhaps properly introduced here, on account of the poem enthled DircB in Bat-

• Two fragments from him are preserved in a work ascribed to Suetonius (De illust. gramm. c 11 j cf. below § 537). ^ It is

given in Lemaire's Poet. Lat. Minores, 2d volume.

^ 345. In the next period, that including the Augustan age, most of the writers who
composed satires followed the manner of Lucihus. One author, M. Terentius Varro,
whom we shall have occasion again to notice, preferred the manner of Ennius, espe-
cially in the use of various meters. He also mingled prose and verse. His satirical
compositions were termed 3Ienippean, from a certain Menippus of Gadara, not because
Menippus had written pieces of this kind, but because Varro imitated his humorous
and pungent style. These writings of Varro were not professed satires exactly ; al-
though thev may be ranked under this better perhaps than under any other denomina-
tion (cf § 423). Peculiarly eminent in the department of satire is the name of Horace

(cf. ^ 363). He gave the finishing hand to the method introduced by Lucilius. The
satires of Horace are wholly in the hexameter verse, of a familiar style, not much ele-
vated above that of prose, and not unfrequently assuming the form of dialogue. Ridi-
cule of foibles is a pecuhar characteristic of his pieces, a trait well suited to the age in
which he hved, which was marked by luxury, folly, and extravagance, rather than by
the gross crimes and enormities which called forth the keener severity of later satirists.
— Perhaps the Ibis of Ovid (cf. '^ 364. 4) may require the mention of him as a satirical
writer. It is a sort of imitation of the poem of CaUimachus under the same title (cf §
70. 1), written during his banishment at Tomi, and containing a series of imprecations
against his enemies. It is like the Diroe of Cato.

"5> 346. In the following period there were two authors of distinguished celebrity for
the composition of satires; Perxius and Juvenal. The circumstances of their times
were such as demanded the strong tone of reproof and fearless censure, with which
they assailed the prevalent vices of Rome. They employed the meter and external
form which the example of Horace had settled as appropriate to satire ; but neither of
them retained the ease and simplichy of his language ; yet in point of merit they are

by no means unworthy of comparison with him (cf. % 380. 2). There are some other

names which ought to be mentioned here. Martial {Ep. xi. 10) and other writers speak
of a Turnus as an eminent satiric poet in the times of Nero and Vespasian. An ex-
isting fragment of a satire against Nero has been ascribed to him by a modern critic.
AVe have also a satirical poem from a female author, Sulpicia, who Uved in the time
of Domitian and after. The production of Petronius Arbiter, entitled Satyricon (cf.
^ 472), was a sort of romance made up of satirical pieces, after the manner called Me-
n>pp''an or Varronian. in mingled prose and verse. There is a Menippean satire, as-
cribed to Seneca (cf. "5> 374. 2), but its genuineness has been doubted.

Of. Schsn, Lilt. Rom. ii. 337.— Ifemsdorf gives the fragment by him ascribed to Turnus in his Poet. Lai. Minora. It is also
contained in Lemaire's Minor Latin Poets, vol. 2d. The same vol. of Lemaire likewise contains the satire of Sulpicia, which treaU
of the banishment of the philosophers from Rome by Domitian.

.3 B


^ 347. In the subsequent history of Roman hterature, we find no productions strictly
belonging to the class ot^ satires. Two pieces of Claudian in the 4th century, consider-
ed among his best performances, the invectives against Rufinus and Eutropius (cf.
•J 386), are commonly ranked here; they are however quite different from the satire
of Horace or Juvenal, the manner of treating the subject being more full, and more

conformed to epic description. The Satyricon of Marcianus Capella, of the 5th

century, is a work composed partly in prose and partly in verse, and thus in form re-
sembles what is called the Menippean or Varronian satire ; but it is a philosophical
medley, or a sort of encyclopaedia, rather than a satirical performance (cf. 'ji 473).

On Reman satire and satirists ;— /. Ant. Vvipius, De Satyrse Latinje natura et ratione, ejusque scriptoribus. Patav. 1744. 8.— /o.
Gerber, Diss, de Ronianorum Salira. Jen. 1756. 4. — G. L. Konig. De Satira Romana ejusque aucloribus praecipuis. Oldenb. 1796. S.
— /. Camuban, De Satyrica Graecorum Poesi et Romanoruiu Satira Hal. 1774. S.—A. Dacier, Discours fur la Satire, in the Pref.
to trans), of Horace, cited below § 363. 5 ; also in the 2d vol. of the Mem. Acad. Inscr. et Belles-Lellrei, p. 187.— J. Diyden, His-
course concerning the origin and progress of Satire, in his vers, of Juvenal, cited § 380. — Du SatUx, Satyriques Latins, Mem. Acad,
Inscr. vol. xliii. p. 157.— Cf. SchGll, Litt. Rom. i. 143. ii. 311.— See alsc references under § 363, 380.

§ 348. Before proceeding to notice the poets singly, we will refer here to a few
works, which relate to them collectively, or to classes of them.

1. Gyraldixs, Historiae Poetarum, &c., cited § 47 t.—G. J. Vossivs, De vet. poet. GrJEC. et Lat. temporihus, cited § 47 t.—L. Cm-
tins, Lives of the Roman Poets. Lond. 1733. 2 vols. S. Translated into German, by C. T. Schmid. Halle, 1777. 2 vols. S.—F.
Jacobs, KurZtT Abriss der Geschichte der romischen Poesie, in the work styled Charahtere der vomehmsten Dichter, &c., cited

§ 47 (. /. C. F. Manso, Ueber Horazens Beurlheilung der allern romischen Dichter, in his Femiischten. Abhandlungen und

Aufs'dtzen. Breslau, 1821. 8.— OsanJi, Analecta Critica, Poesis Ronianorum scenicae reliquias illustrantia. Eerl. 1717. cf. p. 59
of Appendix to Dunlop^s Hist. Rom. Lit. cited § 299. S.—Ziegler. de Mimis Ronianorum. Gotlin?. 17S9.— /. C. Wermdorf, Dissert,
de poelis lat. satyricis, elegiacis, lyricis, &c., prefixed to the 3d vol. of his Poet. Minor, below cited. Altenb. & Helmst. 1780-99.
6 vols. 8.— Connoissance de Poetes le plus celebres. Par, 1752. 2 vols. 8.— A'. A. Heiden, Anleilung zur Dichtk. des alten Roms
und dessen vorzaglichster Dichter. Trans, from the French (Elrenius du Paillasse). Nurnb. 1815. S.—Hawkii.s, Inquiry into
the nature of Latin Poetry. Lond. 1817.— PoJyc Leyser, Hist. Poetarum et poematum medii aevi. Hal. 1721. 8.— /. Spence, Poly-
metis. &c., cited P. IV. § 151.

2. The following are some of the various collections of Latin j>oe\ry.—Stej>hanus {R. ^ H.), Fragment. Vet. Poet Par.

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