Johann Joachim Eschenburg.

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1564. S.—H. Stephanus, Comicorum Lat. Fragmenta. Par. 1569. S.—Almeloveen, Fragmenta comicorum Lat. Amst. 1686. 8.—
M. A. Df7ri7«, Syntagma tragCEdise Lat. Lutct. (Par.) 1607. 4.— P. .Scriverius, Fragmenta vet. tragicoruni Lat. Amst. 1720. 8.—
F. H. Bathe, Poetse sr»nici Latiiiorum. Halberst. 1822. Lips. 1^34. 6 vols. S.—J. B. Levet (and others), Theatre complel. dej

Latins, 15 vols. Gasp. Barth, Poets Lat. Venalici et bucolici. 1613.— Poetae, Lat. rei venatics scriptorea et bucolici antiqui,

Lugd. 172?. 4.— C. Michaler, Collect. Pnctar. Elegiac. Aug- Vind. 1776. 2 vols. 8. M. Mattaire, Corpus Poe'arum Lat. (opera

et fragmenUvet. Poet. Lat Profan. et Ecclesias). Lond. 1713. 2 vols, fol— ijicc. Malatesta If Ph. Argdati, Corpus omn. vet.
poet. Lat. cum Italica versione. (Raccolta, di tutti gli antichi, &c.) Mediol. 1731-1765. 35 vols. 4. cf. Novdie ddla Rcpubl. delU
Letlere, Anno 1736. p. ?S.—CoUeclio Pisauriensis (omn. poematum omn. poetarum, &c.) Pisaur. 1766. 6 vols. 4 —F. Burmann,
Antholo'. vei. Lat. epigramniaiuin, &c. Amst. 1759. 1773. 2 vols. 4. (cf. § 342. 2.)— There is a recent edition of this, by H. Meyer.
Lips. 183^ 2 vols. 8. "edit. Burmaunian. digessit et auxit."— /. C. Wermdorf, Poetae Lat. Miuores. Altenb. 1780-99. 6 vols. 8.

A'. E. Lemaire, Poetae Lat. Minores. Par. 1824-26. 7 vols. ?.— G. S fValker, Poetarum Latinorum Corpus. Lond. 1827.

royal S.— Poela? Lit. veteres, in unum vol. redacti. Flor. 1829. 8.— G. £. H'eber, Corpus Poet. Latinorum. Frankf. 1833. 8.—
Various translations from Rom. Poets are found in A. Chalmers, Works of the English Poets from Chaucer to Cowper. Load.
1810, 21 vols. 8,

"^ 349, Livins Andronkus, who flourished about B, C, 230, was a Greek, born at
Tarentum, and a freedman of M. Livius Salinator, He was the first dramatic poet
among the Romans, and brought the first play upon the stage, about B. C. 239. His
style had a degree of roughness, and was in part unintelligible to the later Romans.
He wrote many poems of different kinds ; among them was one on the Roman histo-
ry, and a translation of Homer's Odys.sey. We have merely a few fragments of his
writings.

1. It is asserted, that when his country was conquered by the Romans, he was
taken captive and carried to Rome, where he became the slave and afterwards the
freedman of the consul Livius Salinator, from whom he took the name of Livius. He
is supposed to have lived at least until about B.C. 220. In Cicero's dialogue De Se-
nectule (c. 14), Cato is introduced saying that he had seen old Livius, while he himself
was a youth, Livius composed both tragedies and comedies. Some of the titles which
have been collected by Fabricius and others, are Achilles, Adonis, ^gisthus, Ajax,
Andromeda, Antiopa, Cevtauri, Equus Trojanus^, Hellene, Hermione, Ino, Teucer.
They indicate that most of his dramas were translated or imitated from the works of
his countrymen of IMagna Gra^cia, or from the great tragic writers of Greece^. A
building was assisrned to Livius on the Aventine hill, which served also for a theatre,
and was inhabited by a troop of players.

1 Fuhrnmnn, Klein. Haiidh. p. 549. 2 C"f. Dunlap's Hist. Rom. Lit. p. 54. vol. i. ed. cited § 299. %.—Casp. Sagittarius, De

vita et script. L. Andronici, Na;vii, etc. Altenb. 1672. ^.—Osann (cited § 34S. 1), cap. 2.—Quint\lian, L. x. e. 2.

2. The fragments of L. Andronicus are given in the collection ol Mattaire, vol. 2d, as cited § 348. 2. — Also in those of Delrius, anQ
Scriverius, as there cited.

^ 350. Cneitis Ntpviiis, a native of Campania, flourished about the same time.
Having been banished from Rome, he died in Utica, about B. C. 200. He wrote an
historical poem on the first Punic War ; also tragedies, comedies, satires, and epigrams ;
uot without wit, but in a very rude style. A few fragments only are preserved. This



p. V. POETS. ENNIUS. PLAUTUS. 567

poet must be discriminated from a later author by the name o( Novius, who composed
pieces belonging to the class ot writings called Atellane plays {Fabulcp. AtellancE).

1. The tragedies of Neevius were all translations from Greek dramatists, or close
irnitations: the following titles are preserved; Alcestis, Danae, Duloresles, Hesionu,
Hector, Iphigoiia, Lycuigus, PIkbhIsscb, Protesilaus, Telepkus. Ktevius was consi-
dered a better comic than tragic poet. His comedies partook of the personal satire and
invective, which characterized the old comedy of the Greeks (cf. § 41), and which are
seen in the plays of Aristophanes. His reproaches against the chief men of the ci;y
caused his imprisonment, and perseverance in the same after a release, led to his banish-
ment. — His Poem on the Punic War was in the Salumian verse (cf. ^ 304), and his
style, in all his productions, is said to have been more rugged than that of L. Andro-
nicus. — xXtevius has generally been considered as the author of the Cyprian Iliad, a
trinslaiion from a Greek poem called the Cypria {rh Kvnyio.), a work of amorous fiction
in 12 books.

S^me, however, a5cribe the Cyprian Iliad to a later poet named Lsvius. Cf. Heyne, Excurs. i. ad Lib. II. ^Eneid. On Nac

vius, cf. Dunlop, i. p. 59.— £a/ir, p. 7b. — Sagitlanw, as cited § 3-18. 1.
2. The fragineii'.s of Najvius are found in the Collections referred to above, § 349. 2, and in others cited § 348. 2.

^ 351. Quinftis Envius was born at Rudise in Calabria, B. C. about 240. The elder
Cato broutrht him from Sardinia to Rome, where he was employed as a teacher of
Greek. He contributed much to the improvement of the Latin language. He was the
earliest epic poet in that tongue, and was highly valued by the later and better writers,
paiMicularly Cicero and Virgil. Eimium, sicnt sacros vetustate lucos, adoreinus, in
qitihiis grandia et a7itiqi(a rohora jam non tanlam liah nt i^peciem quantam religionem
(Q u i n t i 1. X. 1). He composed an historical poem of Roman Annals, in 18 books ; an
epic poem called Scipio; many comedies and tragedies; also satires and other pieces.
Of all these we have but brief and scattered passages, occasionally quoted by other
authors.

1. Ennius hved until about B. C. 170, when he died at the age of 70. of a disease
{morbus artiailaris) probably brought on by intemperate drinking {Hor. I. Ep. xix. vs. 7).
But he is said to have hved generally in a frugal manner. His residence was on the
Aveniine hill. He enjoyed the friendship of many patrician families, and particularly
of Scipio Nasica.

A bust of him "as placed (Ctc. pro Avchia, c. 9) In the family tomb of the Scipios (cf. P. IV. § 133. 2) ; "a laureled bust of Pe-
perioo -tone, which was found in ihis tomb, and which now stands on the Sarcophagus of Scipio Barbatus in the Vatican, is supposed
to be ihat of Ennius." Cf. Rome in the 19th century, Letter 36.

2. Ennius surpassed his predecessors both in poetical genius and in versification, and
is said to have been the master of three tongues, Oscan, Latin, and Greek. He pro-
fessedly imitated Homer, whose spirit he pretended to possess, by a Pythagorean trans-
migration through the medium of a peacock, if we may rely upon a satire of Persius
(vi. 10) ; destcrluit esse — McBonides Quintus pavone ex Pyihagoreo. — In his tragedies
he imitated from Euripides more than from the other Greek dramatists; perhaps, be-
cause the Romans preferred such plays as were crowded with action and the bustle of
a complicated fable. The titles of some of these pieces were Ajax, Alcmceon, Alexan-
der or Paris, Andromache, Erectheus, Hectoris Lustra, Hecuha, Iphigenia. Medea,
Tflamon. Ttlephus, Thyestes. Most of these were evidently borrowed from Euripides.
The Medea was considered as one of the best productions of Ennius, and was very po-
pular. Attius, Varro, Ovid, and Seneca, successively imhated from this tragedy. — Of
the satires of Ennius little is known, the remaining fragments being very short and
broken. — The Annals seem to have been the great work of this poet; written in hexa-
meter verse, and devoted to the celebration of Roman exploits from the earliest periods
to the conclusion of the Istrian war ; not completed until within a few years of his
death. It was a work highly gratifying to the national pride, and continued long po-
pular at Rome ; much relished in the age of Horace and Virgil, and even down t'o the
time of Marcus Aurelius, recited in the theatres and places of public amusement. —
Ennius wrote a didactic poem on eatables, entitled Phagetica; and another entitled
£p/c/(a?v«Ms, being a translation from the Greek work of Epicharmus the comedian, on
the nature of things. He also left a prose translation of the work of Euhemeres (cf.
§ 222. 4), on the ancient mythology; some passages of which are preserved in
Lactantius.

Dunlop, i. &U—IV. Fr. Kreidmann, Orat de Q. Ennio. Jen. 1754. 4.—SchSll, Hist de la Litt. Rom. L 114, 141, 145.— SaAr,
p. 94, 120.

3. The fmsments of Ennius were first published by IT. Columna, Fragm. poet, veter. Lat. Nap. 1590. 4.— A full and good edi-
tion, by Fr. Hes'el. Amst. 1707. 4 — Recent, by /. A. Giles. Lond. 1835. 12.— The Medea separately, by H. Planck. Gott. 1807. 4
with a commentary.

"S 352. M. Accius Planfus, a native of Sarsina, in Umbria, also flourished about
B. C. 200; being born B. C. 227 and dying B. C. 184. He became so straitened m
his circumstances, that he worked for daily wages at a hand-mill. He possessed emi-
nent talents for a comic writer, a rich vein of cutting wit, a happv invention, and Erreat
force of humorous expression. The Greek comic writers Epicharmus and Diphilus



508 HISTORY OF ROMAN LITERATURE.

were his chief models. He was particularly successful in the low comedy ; but in this,
out of compliance with the taste of the age, he oiten transgressed the hmits of pro-
priety. From the multitude of his comedies, which Gellius numbers as high as 130,
only twenty now remain ; these have frequently been used and imitated by modern
dramatists.

1. Plautus was the son of a freedman, and received his name from his splay feet (a
pedum ■plunilie sive Trkarvrfiri). He is said to have realized a considerable fortune by
the popularity of his plays, and to have lost it in speculation, or expended it in splendid
decorations as an actor ; thus he was reduced to the necesshy of laboring hke a slave,
when a famine at Rome diminished the general resort to theatrical amusements. Plautus
like his predecessors borrowed from the Greek writers ; from Philemon and Menander
as well as from those named above (Epicharmus and Diphilus). Although he took his
plots and incidents freely from the middle comedy, his spirh and manner in execution,
his coarse wit and personal satire, agreed more fully with the character of the old{ci.
§ 41). Many of the comedies which passed under the name of Plautus, were proba-
bly spurious. Aulus Gellius {Noct. Aft. lib. iii.) quotes a work of Varro, Qacestiones
Plauiince, much of which was devoted to a discussion concerning the authenticity of the
plays commonly ascribed to Plautus; twenty-one were admitted in this discussion to
be unquestionably genuine. These were subsequently termed Varronian, and included
the twenty still extant. The thles of these, with an analysis of each, and a notice of
the principal modern imitations, may be found in Vunlop's Roman Literature. Am-
phitryon, 3IencEchmi, Capteivei and Miles Gloriosus, are among the most distinguished
of the plavs ; some of the others, however, were more popular on the Roman stage.
The wit, drollery, and buffoonery of Plautus were so captivating to the people, that his
plays were still favorite pieces on the Roman stage, even after those of Terence began
to be represented. — Moliere, Shakspeare, and Dryden, may be named among the mo-
derns who have copied from Plautus.

2. The comedy entitled Pccnulvs (or Little Carthaginian) has furnished occasion for much phi-
lolosical speciilatinn, in the specimens of the Punic language, which it contains. In these scanty
remains, commentators have found traces of various different tongues, according to their fancy,
or favorite system.

/. /. Bdlermann published three Prosramrm on the subject; Einen Versuch die punischen Stellen in Ponulw des Plautus zu
erliUren. Berl. 1S09. 8.— Cf. Schmi, Hist. Litt. Rom. i. XlZ.—Vanancty, Essay on the aDtiquity of the Irish language. Dubl.
1772. 8. Cf. P. I. § \iG. —Southern Review, Aug. IS29, p. 37, where are given several versions of the Punic Monologue.— JV. Ge-
unius, Qber Phcenicische und Punische, &c. as cited P. IV. § 45. 2.

3. Editions.— Best ; F. H. Bothe. Berl. ISIO. 4 vols. 8. "Beautiful and truly admirable." (Dibdin).—By same. Halberst.
1821. 2 vols. 8. and Slutlg. 1S29. 4 vols. \2.—S. F. Schmieder. Golt. li-04-O.i. 2 vols. 8. with a commentary, which may be had
separately from the text.—Primepi or earliest; G. Menda (l^iridehn de Spira). Ven. 1472. fol.— Second ; Paul de Ferraria.
Tarvis, 1482. fol.— Of many others, the most important are, /. Camerarius, Bas. I55S. % —D. Lamlinus. Par. 1577. fol.—/'.
TUubmann. Wittenberg, 1622. 4. with a good commentary. — Variorum (ei. J. F. Gronovius). Amtt. 1684. S. — Miller. Berl.

1755. 3 vols. 8. with a Lemcon Plautinum. Editions of single plays have been numerous ; we mention on account of their

emendations in reference to meter, F. W. Rdlz, the R u d e n s. Lpz. 17S9. 8. and G. Hermann, the T r i n u m n u s. Berl. 1800. 8.
— F. GoJZer.theTruculentus. Colon. 1S24. 8. There isa neat ed. of the Cap t i v i (mere text), Cambridge, 1832. 12.

4. Translations.— German.— CA. KUjfner (metrical). Wien, 1806-7. 5 vols. 8.—* G. G. S. KSpke. Berl. 1809, 1820. 2 vols. 8.

/. T. L. Dam, Lat. & Germ. 1S06-1I. 4 vols. 8. French.— A/icA. Marolles. Par. 1658. 4 vols. 8.— ft PA. De Limie:)S, Lat. &

Sail. Amst. 1719. 10 vols. 12— ff. Giiedeville. Leyd. 1719. 10 vols. 12. English.— iaior. £cAard. I^nd. 1716. 12.— B. Thorn-

on (blank verse), 2d ed. Lond. 1769. 2 vols. 8.—R. Warner. Lond. 1772-74. 5 vols. 8.

5. Illustrative. — D. Chr. U Schmid, Anweisung der vornthmsten Bacher in alien Theilen der Dichtknnst. Lpz. 1781. — Lessing,
Abh. Qber Playtus Leben und Schriften, in his JVbrks, cf. P. IV. § !68. 2.—Thos. Cnoke, Amphitryon, (Lat. et Angl.) with a Dissert,
and the Life of Plautus. Lond. 1750. 12 .Hurd, The opinion of Cicero and Horace respecting Plautus compared, in his Commen-
tary on the Art of Poetry. Lond. 1766. 8. (p. 214. vol. i.).— Cf. Sulzer's Allg. Theorie, &c. vol. iii. p. 706.— G. £. Rost, Opuscula
Plautina. Lips. 1836. vol. i. Commentationes. 1837. vol. li. Translationes.

^ 353. Marcus Pacuvius, of Brundusium, was a nephew of Ennius, born B. C. about
220. He was celebrated at Rome both as a painter and a tragic poet. Quintihan
praises the dignity of the thought, expression, and characters in his tragedies. Of these,
however, we have but a few unimportant fragments.

1. Pacuvius in advanced Ufe retired from Rome to Tarentum, where he died at the
age of nearly ninety. The epitaph inscribed upon his tombstone, placed by the side
of a public road, is quoted by Aulus Gellius (Noct. Att. 1. i. c. 24).— The ancients speak
of 19 tragedies written by him ; the titles are given by Dunlop. Pacuvius, like his
predecessors, chiefly borrowed from the Greeks. " His Pauhis, however, was of his
own invention, and was the first Latin tragedy formed on a Roman subject;" only
five lines of it are extant. The tragedy entitled Antiope was one of the most distin-
guished of his pieces. A scene in the Iliona, where the ghost of Polydorus who had
been assassinated appears to his sister Iliona, was greatly admired by Roman audi-
ences. — Pacuvius was one of the earliest of the Romans who attained any eminence in
the art of painting (cf. P. IV. § 224).

Dunlop, i. p. 209— ScASM, i. p. 115.— Cf. Cicero, Brut. 64, 74. De Oral. i. 58. ii. 37. De Divin. i. 57. ii. 64.— Qutnffi. x. 1. 97.
-H'V. Ep. lib. II. i. 55.— Also Annibal de Leo, Delle Memoire di M. Pacuvio, anticbissimo poeU fragico, dissertazione. Napl.
736. 8.
9 The fragments of PacuvJus may be found in the collections, already cited (§ 348. 2), of Stephanw, Ddrio, Scriver, Mattaire.



p. V. POETS. ATTIUS. TARENTIUS AFER. 669

§ 354. Lucius Accius, or more correctly Althis, a native Roman, was a tragic poet,
a contemporary of Pacuvius, but younger. He also wrote, in verse, Annals of the
Roman History. Of his tragedies a few remaining fragments are found.

1. Attius is said to have brought forward his first play at the age of 30, B. C. 138,
the same year in which Pacuvius gave to the pubhc ijis last, at the age of 80. The
story related by Valerius Maximus (iii. 7), of Attius refusing to rise on the entrance of
Julius Caesar into the College of poets, is supposed by some to show that this poet did
rot live so early ; others suppose that this anecdote refers to another poet, or to a Julius
Cajsar earlier than the conqueror. Attius is exposed to the charge of vanity ; " though
a person ot diminutive size, he got a huge statue of himself placed in a conspicuous
niche in the temple of the Muses." He was highly esteemed by the Romans. He
wrote many plays ; the titles of above fifty have been collected. Most of these were
drawn from Grecian sources; two, however, his Brutus and Decius, were founded on
Roman subjects ; written probably m honor of Decius Brutus, consul B. C. 137, who
was his warm patron and friend.

Dunlop, i. 2\'l.—Scholl, i. \\6.—Fabricius {cited § 299. S), iii. 235.— Cf. Ciciro, Brutus, 28, 63. Pro Archia, W.—.9idus Gdlius,
Noct. Alt. xiii. 2.— Pliny, Hist. Nat. xxxiv. i.—Quintil. v. 13.— /for. Ep. II. i. 55.
2. The fragments of Attius are contained in the collection of Scriver, and others, before cited.

% 355. Puhlius Terentius Afer was born B. C. 192, in Africa, perhaps at Carthage,
and died B. C. 159. He was a freedman of the senator Terentius Lucanus, and lin
intimate friend of Laelius and the younger Scipio Africanus. As a dramatist he was
an imitator of Menander and ApoUodorus. His six comedies still remaining are of
remarkable excellence, in respect to the characters, the truth and refinemeiu of the
dialogue, and the management of the plot. He possessed less invention, and less of
comic power than Plautus ; but on the other hand he had more taste, a better style,
and a finer knowledge of human nature. We find no trace of any other than the ?ix
comedies now extant ; yet it is related that he lost 108 plays in a shipwreck. Of the
ancient commentators upon Terence, the most worthy of notice are Xlius Doiialus,
a grammarian of the 4th century, and Eugraphius, of the 10th century.

1. It is not known how Terence was brought to Rome, or became the slave of the
Terentius whose name he has preserved from oblivion. After giving to the Roman
stage his six comedies, he made a visit to Greece, whence he never returned. Accord-
ing to one account, he perished at sea, on his voyage from Greece to Italy, with the
108 comedies he had translated from Menander; others state, that having sent the
same comedies before him by sea to Rome, and they being lost by shipwreck, he died
of grief in Arcadia.

Suetonius, Vita Terentii. Cf. p. xxiii. 1st vol. of iemairc'j ed. of Terence, cited below.

2. The titles of the six plays are Andria, Eunuchus, Heaufontimorumenos {sav-ovTi-
ixwpjvijhoi), Adelphi, Hecyra, Phormis. An analysis of these is given by Dunlop, with
a notice of the imitations by Moliere and other modern dramatists. The Andrin was
the earliest and is usually called the best of the pieces. In respect to style Terence
has been regarded as a model of correct composition. " It is a singular circumstance,
and without exaniple in the literary history of any other country, that the language
should have received its hiirhest perfection, in point of elegance and grace, combined
with the most perfect simplicity, from the hand of a foreigner and slave. But it so hap-
pened, that the countryman of Hannibal and the freedman of Terentius Lucanus gave
to the Roman tongue all those beauties, in a degree which the courtiers of the Augustan
age itself did not surpass." As to versification, it is generally allowed, that Terence
used very great liberties.

Cf. Dunlop, \. 175-209.— BaAr, i. p. 104, iS.—Sulzer'i Theorie der SchOnen Kanste, iv. 522.— Jl WVllner, De Terentii Vita e(
Scriptis. Monsst. IS29. 4.

3. Editions.— Best ; N. E. Ltmaire. Par. 1S27. 3 vols. 8. Included in his Bibliotheca Clati. Latino.— Zeiiniui (republished
with additions, by Priestley). Lond. 1820. 2 vols. 9.—lVesterhoviui. Ha?. Com. 1726. 2 vols. 4. " In his account of the various
editions of Terence, he has enunjerated not less than 24S."— G. Stallbaum. Lips. 1830. 8. commenced ; the ed. of Westerhovius
with additions.— BeJitJo/. Amst. 1727. 4. specially valuable in reference to meter.— Pnnceps ; an edition printed at Milan, 1470. fol.
is generally called the first; Dibdin decides for the following, Mmtelin (pr.), Argent, supposed before 1470. fol. Valuable edi-
tions of the present century ; F. H. Bothe. Berl. 1806. 8. also in the 4th vol. of his Poetse Scenid (cf. § 348. 2).—Bruns. Halle,
1611. 2 vols. S.—SchmieJer. Hal. Sax. 1819. 8.—J1. Rossi. Mil. 1820. 2 vols. S.—F. C. G. Perlet. Lpz. 1S2I. 12. (text highly
valued), ed. auctior. IS27. 8. — i. J. Valpy. Lond. 1823. 8.— The various editions of single plays cannot be mentioned.

4. Translations.-German.— /. C. G. Ntide. Lpz. 1784. 2 vols. 8.— X J. Roos. Giessen, 1794. 2 vols. 8 (most eminent accnrd-
ir e to Fuhrmanu).—F- H. Von Eindtsel (metrical). Lpz. 1806. 2 vols. 8.— Five other Germ, translations cited by Lernaire.—

There is another, byjj. F. IVolper, in the Prenzlau collection of translations. French.— A/ad Dacier. Par. (with orig. Laf.)

I68«. 3 vols. S—^iiionymous (metricEl). Far. IS06. 2 vols. 8.— Six others named by Lernaire. Italian.— .?n( Ce^ari. Vemn.

2 vols. S.—Lemaire cites three others. English.- C. Hoole (Lat. & Angl.). Lond. 1676. 8.— G. Colman (metrical), Lond. 1765.

2 vols. 8 — S. Patrick. (Lat. & Angl). Lond. 1767. 2 vois. S.—T. Mitchell. Phil. 1S22. 2 vols. 12. with Aristophanes and Persiua
— Cf. Harles, Brev. Not. Supp. i. p. 145.

5. Illustrative.- £. Burton, in his .4ncien/ Characters deduced from Classical Remains. Lond. 1763. S.—L Echard^ Compari-
son of Terence and Plaulus, in his translation, cited § 352. 4.—/. C. Bnegleb, Programmata de lectione Terentii, philosopho noo
indigna. Coburg, 1769-78. 4.— £,. Schopen, Diss. Crit. de Terenlio et Donato ejus interprele. Bonnasad Rhen. 1821. S.—D. Hein
lua, Diss, ad Horatii de Plauto et Tereotlo judicium, Amsf. 161*. 12. given in Lemaire's edition above cited.— Gai/iere, Apologi*

72 3b 2



570 HISTORY OF ROMAN LITERATURE.

de Terence. Far. 1728. 12. — J. M'Caul, Remarks on the Terentian Meters, with a sketch of the History of anc. Comedy, llond,
IS28. 8.

§ 356. Cdius Liicilius, of Suessa in Campania, was a Roman knight, born B.C. 150.
With a great knowledge of language he combined a great talent ibr satire. He was
the first among the Romans to cultivate satiric poetry in the more didactic form. He
wrote 30 books of poetry, or more probably 30 single pieces, rich in wit, and keenly
severe, although in some measure deficient in accuracy of style. He also wrote hymns,
epodes, and a comedy.

1. Lucilius, in early youth, served at the siege of Numantia, in the same camp with
Marius and Jugurtha, under Scipio Africanus the younger. He afterwards resided at
Rome in the house which had been built at public expense for the son of Seleucus
king of Syria, when that prince was a hostage at Rome. Little is known of the hfe
and manners of this poet. He died at Naples, at the age of 45, as is commonly stated.
He enjoyed the friendship and protection of Scipio Africanus and Laelius.

Of his writings only detached fragments remain ; these however are sufficient to
show something of his spirit and manner. His peculiarities are also frequently men-
tioned by ancient writers; one of the most striking was his vehement and cutting
satire. Horace acknowledges his merits, yet censures his versification as loose and
prosaic. The third book of Lucilius contains an account of a jotirney along the coast
of Campania to Naples, and thence to Rhegium and the straits of Messina, which Ho-
race seems to have imitated in his description of a journey from Rome to Brundusium.

Durtlop, i. 238-248— Sc/iSH, Hist. Abrei. de la Litt. Rom. i. \iS.—CharaUere der vontehm. Dichtar, iv. 419.— Cf. QiiiTi/tZ. x.



Online LibraryJohann Joachim EschenburgManual of classical literature : from the German of J.J. Eschenburg, with additions → online text (page 124 of 153)