Johann Joachim Eschenburg.

Manual of classical literature : from the German of J.J. Eschenburg, with additions online

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mans. We have only some detached passages and sentences, which are in general
recommended by their own moral excellence.

1. Having obtained celebrity by his representations in the provincial towns of Italy,
he was invited to Rome to assist in the public spectacles given by Caesar. His popu-
larity was very great, and enabled him to live in splendor and luxury. The names
of none of the Mimes of Publius have been preserved. 1 heir nature and subjects are
not precisely known. The sentences or maxims now extant are most of them brief,
seldom exceeding a single line ; they amount to eight or nine hundred in number.
La Bruyere, in his Characteristics, has made a free use of the maxims of Publius.

Cf. Dunlop, i. p. 232.—Schm, i. 208.-£a/ir, 116.

2. Editions.- Often given in the editions of Phxdrus, e. g. in Benlley's (cited § 372. 2).— Separately ; /. Gruter (as ed. by S.
Havercamp). Lu?d. B.il. (Leyden) 1727. 8.— /. F. Krenisier. Lpz. IS09. 9. with the comm. of Erasmus, and Germ, version.—

Probably best, J. C. Orelli. Lpz. 1822. 8. with a Supplement Lips. 1S24. Cf. B'dhr, p. 776. The Princeps, by Des. Erasrrmt.

Bas. 1502. 4.

3. Translations.— German.— %7. C Schwartz. Gott 1813. 8. metrical. French— J. Accarias de Serionne. Par. 1736. 12.

with the ^Ina of P. Corn. Severus. English.-/. Elphinstone, in his Poetic SenlentioH Latini. Lat. & Engl. Lond. 1794. 12.

4. There were two writers of Mimes, contemporary with Publius Syrus, who may be men-
tioned here, Decimus Laherius, and Cneiits Jt/afa'us. —Laberius was a Roman i<nipht, who at the
age of sixty was requested by .Julius CEes;ir to act on the stage the ISlimes, which he had written
merely for amusement. Mortified by the preference given by Caesar to Publius, he retired from
Rome to Puteoli. where he died not long after the assassination of Caesar. Tlie titles and a few
inconsiderable fragments of43of his mitn^s are still e.xtant. The principal fragment is the Pro~

locrne to the first piece he acted ; it consists of 29 lines, preserved by Macrobius. Jilaltius or

Matius wrote chiefly in iambic meter, whence his pieces were termed Miwiambi. Only a few
lines from (hem are preserved. He is said to have translated the Iliad of Homer.

Respecting ~^e ' writers, cf. Dunlop, i. 330, ss —SchSU, i. 20S.—IV. C. L. Ziegler, De Mimis Romanorum. Gott. 17S9. 8. con.
taiuing the (i\x uts of Laberiut if Matius.— F. L. Becker, D. Laberii Mimi Prologus. Lips. 1787. 8.

§ 369. A^arcns Manilius, a native Roman, probably belongs to the age of Augus-
tus, but litti? is known of his history. A poem which has come down from him to
us, is entitled Astronomicon; treating of the supposed influence of the stars on human
destiny. It consists of five books ; the fifth, however, is imperfect, and probably was
not the last of the poem. It is more valuable for the history of astronomy than for
poetical merit ; to which only a few passages, chiefly the introductions to the several
books, can hold a claim. The obscurity of many passages is owing to the defective
state of the manuscripts.

1. In two verses Manilius speaks of Rome as his own city, but Bentley the Cele-
brated English critic, pronounces them both interpolations, and maintains that he was
born in Asia. Some critics have assigned this writer to an age later than that of Au-
gustus.

Schmi, Hist. Litt. Rom. i. 276.— Pingre, as below cited.— M. Dan. Ruber, Observ. in M. Manilii Astronom. Bas. r89. 4 —
Jcrrlin's Tracts, &c., cited § 360. 5.

2. Editions— Best ; A. G. Pingre. Par. 1786. 2 vols. S.—R. Bentley. Lond. 1739. 4. Bentley's criticisms are opposed .B the
edition (not highly approved by //ojto) of £. S?<rton. Lond. 1783. 8.— Contained also in the £ipon(t7i« Virgil, Bip 17S3. 8 and
in Letnaire's Poet. Lat. Mio. vol. vi.— The Princeps by Jo. Resiomantaiivj. Norimb. (probably) 1472. 4.

3. Translations.— French —By Pingre, in his ed. just cited. English.— fid. Sherburne. Lond. 1.675. fol. metrical.— T^omoJ

Creech. Lond. 1697. 8. inetrical.

§ 370. Ccpsar Germanicvs was grandson to Augustus, being the son of Drusus who
was a son of Livia. the wife of Augustus. He was adopted by Tiberius, but after-
wards, l)y command of this emperor, was poisoned at Antioch. His bodily and men-
tal endowments are highly celebrated in history. He is known as a poet, by his
translation of the <^aiv6ntva of Aratus, and bv some fragments, particularly of a poem
73 3 C



578 HISTORY OF ROMAX LITERATURE.

called Dioftemeia or Pro^nostica. There are also some epigrams from him, included
among the Calalecta of Virgil.

1. The name Germanici/s was derived from his celebrated victories over the Ger-
mans. Tiberius was jealous of his popularity, and on this account, after calling him
from Germany under pretence of granting him a triumph, sent him on a mUitary
expediiion into Syria. Germanicus died at the age of 35, A. D. 19. — He was well
acquainted with Greek letters, and was a good orator. We have a considerable frag-
ment of Aratus, accompanied with Latin scholia drawn from the Catasterisms of Era-
tosthenes ; the translation is not exact. Of the Diosemeia, four fragments are extaut ;
it was derived from several Greek works of different authors.

Schmi. i. 2H.—Encydop. Americana— L. D. B. (Lmiis de Beaufort), Histoire de Cesar GennaD. Lugd. Bat. I74I. S.—J. C.
Schauhach, De Arati Solensis interprelibus Romanis (Ctc., Cia. German., el R. F. Avieno) Commenlalio. Meining. 1817. 4.

2. Editions.—/. C. Schwartz, Coburg, 1715. 8. — Given in Lemaire't Min. Lat. Poet vol. v'l.—Princeps, (with Manilius)
Bonon. 1474. fol.

^ 371 *. Mmilius Macer, a native of Verona, was a friend of Tibullus and Ovid.
He died in Asia, B. C. 17. He wrote a poem, entitled Theriaca, an imitation of that
of Nicander (cf. ^ 74); a poem on birds {O rnitho^onia) ; and another on the war of
Troy, a completion of the Iliad. The ancients also speak of annals wrUten by him.
A few lines only are extant of all his works. — Some consider the friend of Ovid, and
author of the completion of the Iliad, to have been a different person from the author
of the other pieces.

1. The poem De Btrbarum virtutilus, in 5 books, by some ascribed to Macer, is a production of the middle ages.— Cf. B'dhr
p 176,202.

2. Editions.- TJie fragments of Macer are given in MatlaireU Op. et Fragm. vet. Poet. Lat. vol. ii. — Cf. fVemidorf, Poet. Lat,
Min. vol. iv.— The fullest edition of the De Herb. Virtutibua. Bas. 1581. 8. {cum G. Picturii eiposilione.)

§ 372. Phcedrus, according to the common account a native of Thrace, and a freed-
man of Augustus, is celebrated for his five books of M.sopia7i Fables. They are in
Iambic verse of six feet, related with much natural ease and simplicity. Notwithstand-
ing the slightness of the accounts we have of him. and the silence of the ancient
authors concerning him, his existence cannot justly be questioned, as has been done
by some.

1. Phaedrus is not mentioned by any ancient writer, unless by Martial (iii. 20), down
to the time of Avienus; and all that is known of him is drawn from his own writings.
His fables were unknown till 1595, when Fr. Pithou discovered a copy in the library
of St. Remy at Rheims and sent the manuscript to his brother Pet. Pithou, who pub-
lished the first edition. This is supposed to be the only manuscript in existence, an-
other at Rheims having been consumed by fire in 1774. But there is a manuscript of
Nicolas Perotto (who was archbishop of .Alanfredonia, about the middle of the 15th
century), containing a collection of fables for his nephew, which includes all those that
benr the name of Phaedrus. Prof. Christ, of Leipzig, in two treatises, published in
174S and 1747, questions the existence of Phosdrus, and ascribes the fables to Perotto.

Sc/toll, Hisi. Litl. Rom. ii 343-3^8.—/. F. Christ, De Phaedro ejusque fabulis Prolusio. Lips. 1746. 4.—/. N. Funk (Funccivi),
Apiilogia pro Phaedro. Rintel. 1747.— CAmf (in answer to Funccius), Expositio ad eruditos de Phxdro, sc. Lips. 1747. 8.—
Schwabe, in his ed. below cited.

2. Editinns.- Best ; /. G. S. Schwabe. Brans. 1806. 2 vols. 8. containing also the fables of Romulut. This is the basis of the
ed. by ^^alpy. I/ind. 1822. 9.— J. B. de Xivrey. Far. 1S30. 8— That of P. Burmann, Leyd. 1727. 4. is celebrated. -Dtserving
of mention •Isn, R. Bentley. Lond. 1725. 4. with Terence and the Mimes of Svrus. Cf. Fr. Bare, Epistola Crilica, &c. Lond.

1726. i.—Dibdin, ii 2S1.-A good school edition, W. Langt. Halle, IS23. i.—\C.J. Brffmanru Berl. 1836. 8. Princepi,

by Pi(-CEtt'(Pilhnu). Augostod. Tricars 1596. 12.

3. Translations.— German.-C. A. Vogelsang, metrical, 2d ed. Lpz. 1823. 8. (ceteris facile palmam prsecipit, KlUgJine).

French.— 7. B. Gail. Par. 1798. 4 vols. 12. with .Esop and La Fontaine. English.— 7%. Dyche. Lond. 1715. 8.— SdrKng.

Lond. 1771. 8 —J. P. Sattler, iambic verse. Norimb. 1798. 12.

4. Illustrative.—/. F. Gntner, Spiciiegium Observ. ad Phasdri priores libros duo. Jense. 1745. i—Th. J. A. .'khillz. Obs. crit.
in Phapdrum. Laub. 1770. 8.— L. Bij'stel, Grammatisches Lexiccm. Uber den Phaedrus. Lpz. 1808. B.~A. C. Meinthe, Worter-
buch 7* Phadri Fabeln. Lemg. 1801. S.—Jacobi, Lat. Fabulisten, in Charahtere d. vom. Dichler, vi. 29.

5. Tn 1808, a supplement to Phsrlrns was piihlished at Naples by Casfffo, consisting of 32 fnhles,
f"i!nd by him in the manuscript of Perotto above mentioned, wfiich was deposited in the Rnyal
lihrHry at 1 1. at city. About .30 of the fables however had been discovered in the same manuscript
by J Ph. DnrviUe, and by him transcribed and submitted to Burmann, before the publication of
his edition of Phaedrus. Burmann viewed them as spurious (cf. Pref to his ed. above cited).
DnrriJie's copy seems to have been lonff forponen, btit at leneth it came into the hands of Prof.
F.irli<tat!t ai Jena, and was used by him in preparins his edition of the new fables in 1812. In
1811. the discovery of the same fables was claimed by Janeih or Gianelli, in an edition of the
manuscript of Perotto.

KlUeliiig. Suppl. to Harles, p. 2'^5.—EiehHiidt. Phaedri quae feruntur Fabulae xxzii.. &c. Jen. 1812. fol. denying their genoine-
nei-s ; which is defended in the ed. en'itled Pluedri Fabulae novae et veteres, &c. Par. 1812. 8.— The ed. of Janelli is entitled
Cnder. Peirolliuuj, &.C. Niples, ISII. 8. In ihe same year, Casilto published his 3d edition. — Cf. Vandcrbovre, on the fables
lately ascribed to Phasdnis, &c., Mem. de Vhvitilut, Classe d' Biit. et Lit. Aruu vol. viii. p. 316.— .5. Mai, Fabi/lae novae xziii.

cod. Vaticiano redintegratae, &c Zurici, 1832. 8.

•S 373. Auhis Persius Flarnis, a native of Volfenae in Etruria was a pupil of the
Stoic Annaeus Cornutus, about A. D. 50. He died in the 28th year of his age. We



p. V. POETS. PERSIUS. SENECA. 5T9

have from him only six satires, and Quintilian speaks of him only as author of one book
of satires, by which however he has acquired much celebrity. They are specially
remarkable as containing earnest and impressive casiigaiions of the then prevalent cor-
ruption of morals, enforced witli rather more of Stoic ^everity than of true poetic spirit.
The frequent allusions and references to pecuharities of his own age render many
passages obscure to us ; and this difficulty is the greater because the style in general is
concise and hard.

1. Persius is said to have commenced his studies at Rome at the age of 12. A fine
personal appearance and an excellent character are ascribed to him ; his health was
delicate. On his death, A. D. 62, he left his library of 700 volumes and a sum of
money, to his preceptor Cornutus; who accepted, however, only the books. — Cor-
nutus, from regard to the reputation of his pupil, advised the mother of Persius to
destroy all his writings except the satires, which were committed to CcBsius Bassus,
himself a lyric poet, for the purpose of publication.

Respecting the character and Poetry of Persius, cf. Scholl, li. 3\3.—Selis, Dissertation sur Perse. Par. 1783. 8.— f'. Pasioio,
Ceber das Leben und die Schriflen des Persius, iu his ed. below cited. — Manso'i Character, &c., id Cltarahtere d. vorn. Dic/Uer,
»L 81. — Gamier in the Mem. de VJicad. da Inscr. vol. xlv.

2. Editions.— ftrriuj is very commonly printed with Juvenal. Separately, Best; G. L. Konig. Gott. 1804. 8. with i com-
mentary in separate volume.— Basis of that by A. J. f^alpy. Lond. 1820. S.—F. Plum. Havn. 1827. ^.—^F.DUbner. Lips.

1833. i —Achaintre. Par. 1812. 8— In I.emaire'a Coll. That of Casauboru Par. 1605. 8. celebrated for CaJat/i</?i'j Com

mentary. Republ. Lond. 1647. 8. — /Vtnceps, by Uldaricus GaUus, probably Rome, I46S or "0. small fol. {Fuhrmann.)

3. Translations. — German.— .?VajiZ. Passow, metrical, with Lat. text. Lpz. 1809. 8.—/. Fr. IVagner. LUneb. 1811. 8.— •

French.— Se/ts, metrical. Par. 1775.— />. Pieire. Fir. ISOO. 8.— RaouL Par. 1812. 8. Uali^o.— Marc. Aurel. Soranus. Vea.

1778. 8. Emnsh.—Dryden. Lond. 1693. fol. with Juvenal.— £. Owen. Lond. 1786. S.—IV. Drummond. Lond. 1793. 8.—

Also by Sheridan, by Gifford, and by Madan. Cf. § 380. 4.—T. Mitchell, as cited § 355. 4.

§ 374. Lucius Annans Seneca, son of the rhetorician IVr. A. Seneca (cf. ^ 355. 4.
§ 414), flourished about the middle of the 1st century, and was celebrated as a philo-
sopher. He was a native of Corduba in Spain, but was removed to Rome while yet a
cliild. After many vicissitudes he became the instructor of the emperor Nero, by
A'horn he was finally sentenced to death, under the charge of having participated in the
conspiracy of Piso. Seneca was allowed the privilege of determining himself the mode
•if his execution, and chose to have his veins opened ; but as the blood did not readily
flow, he took poison (cf. ?> 469. 1). That he was a poet is well known from the testi-
mony of other writers. The ten tragedies which are ascribed to him, are certainly in
part the production of others, as their style is extremely unequal. The last of them,
entitled Ocfavia, cannot be from him. as is evident from its subject and contents. In
general, these pieces are far removed from the noble simplicity of the Greek tragedies,
and are defective in plan and execution, although by no means destitute of particular
beauties.

1. The tragedies ascribed to Seneca have afforded for the critics much matter of
debate, on the question of their genuineness and their merits. Among the testimonies
that Seneca was a poet, are Quintilian (hist. Or. x.) and Tacitus (Ann. xiv. 52).
'^ Lipsius maintained that the ISTedea, regarded by him as the best of the 10 tragedies,
was the genuine production of Seneca the philosopher; but that the other 9 were from
another Seneca, who lived in the time of Trajan. The majority of critics attribute to
the philosopher not only the Medea, but also Hipipolytus, Agameimion, and The Tro-
jans (Troas or Troades): and some consider the last as the best tragedy. The six
other pieces, Hercules Furens, Tlujesles, Thebais or PhoenissaB, CEdipiis, Hercules
CElo'us. and Octavia, they do not regard as being the work of one poet ; but
think them to have proceeded from several authors, and to have been added to those
of Seneca by copyists. The last mentioned, Octavia, is the only one constructed of
materials furnished by Roman history, and is an instance of the fabtila tosata (cf.
'5i 316); all the others are founded in Greek traditions." In this piece Xerosis intro-
duced as a speaker, and in one passage (vs. 732) there seems to be a plain allusion to
the mode of his death.

Schmi, His*. Litt. Rnni. ii. 257.— H. G. PU^amm, De viliis trajoediarum, qua- tu1?o Senecse tribuuntur. Gott. 1765. i.—Sclde-
gel, Lect. on Dramat. Literature.— 7 G. C. Klolz-ich, De Annaeo Seneca, uno tragcediarum qus supersunt omnium auctnre. Viteb.
1802. 8.— Bee*, in Pref. to his ed. below cited. -F. Jacobs, in the Charakt. rf. v. nichter, iv. 332.—/. Jarlin, Remarks on Seneca, in
Tracts, &c., cited § 360. 5.—/. /. Scaliger, Animadv. crit. in his Opuscida. Par. 1610. 4.

2. There is extant a satirical piece ascribed to Seneca, entitled 'A-o.foXox-{ivrM7i? (Jle-
tajnorphosis of a Gourd), or more properly Ludus de morte Claudii. It is a mock apo-
theosis, a satire on the emperor Claudius, partly in prose and partly in verse; consi-
dered as unworthy of Seneca, and probably spurious. Several epigrams are found also
in his name, but they are not received as genuine. — The Prose writings of Seneca are
noticed in another place C?* 442, 469).

3. Editions.— W hole W o r k s. see § 469. 4.— T r a 5 e d i e s — Best, Fr. H. Bothe. Lpz. 1819. 3 vols. 8 —J rrhtrf ffa-
den. Lpz. 1821. 2 vols. 8.— Noted amoni the earlier, /. C. Schrsedr. Delphis (Delft), 1728. 4.—/. Fr. Gronoviu-s. Amst. 16S2. ».
[This is called by Dihdin a reprint of the 3d edit, of the Variorum. Lu»d. Bat. 1651 ; it his an engraved frontispiece representin?
the subjects of the several plays. I have before me a copy of it which was given in the year 1694 (0 a pupil of the Gymnasium of
Dort (Gymjuwtt Dordraceni) as a " Prstmium literarium" (" boni profcctus tut hottimentum^ ; the testimonial is in a printej



580 HISTORY OF ROMAN LITERATURE.

Latin formula, with the actual signatures of the Examiners and Rector; on the outside of the cover is an impression in gold leaf
representing the goddess of letters, with her ancient symbols, in the act of presenting a book of modern form, surmounted by the
inscription Minerva Dordracma.^—Plantin. Antw. 15S8. S.—Jlldva. Ven. 1517. S.—Princeps, A. Galluf. Feirara, 14S4. fol.

Of single plays we can only mention here Hercules, T. Baden. 1T9S. S.— T h y e s t e s, /"r. Horn, with Germ, version.

Penig. 1802. S.— M e d e a, Charks Beck (Prof Lat. in Harv. Un.), Bost. 1S34. 18.— The epigrams and the Satire are found in some
of the editions of the Tragedies ; also in the editions of whole wO'ks.—The Satire {Ludiis, &c.), Fr Ch. Neubur, Lit. & Germ.
Lpz. 1729. 8. It was first published about 1515 by Rhenanus (cf the Notilia LiUraria, of the Bipont edition of Seneca, p. lix.). —
Ft. E. Guascus. Vercell. 1787. 8.— Cf. Dan. Heinaius, De Senecae Apocolocyntosi, iu his Grationea. Lujd. Bat. 1627. 8.

4. Translations.— German.— 7. JV Rose, in his Tragische Bilhne, cited § 312. French —L. Couyd, Theatre de Seneque. Par.

1796. 2 vols. 8.—/. J. Rmisseau, of the LvJtis de morte Claudii, in his Worlis, cited P. IV. § 12. I. vol. 14th. English.— Sfud-

ley, Heywood, and others. Lond. 1581. See an account of this curious version in T. IVartcn's Hist. Eng Poetry, p. 205, vol. iv.
ed. Lond. 1824.— £. Sherlnime. Lond. 1708. 8. — A gamemnon, Blachmore, in his Miscellaneous Poems. 1718. 8.

^ 375. Marcus AnncBUS Lucanus, a poet of the 1st century, was a native of Corduba.
He was born A. D. 38, and died A. D. 65. His father was a brother of Seneca the
philosopher. Nero was jealous of his poetical talents; and Lucan, having taken part
in a conspiracy against Nero, was by him condemned to die. The subject of his poem
enliiled Pharsalia, in 10 books, is the civil war between Ceesar and Pompey, which
was terminated by the battle fought in the plain of Pharsalia. It is historical rather
than epic; too strictly limited to real occurrences, and too uniform in the style of nar-
rative. But h contains excellent delineations of character, and finely wrought speeches.

1. Lucan was educated at Rome and Athens. At the early age of 14, he was
accustomed to declaim in Greek and Latin verse. By his uncle Seneca, the preceptor
of Nero, he was brought into some intimacy with that prince. Nero bestowed on him
the offices of quaestor and augur. Lucan imprudently became a competitor with the
prince in a poetical contest, and received the prize ; but he was soon forbidden to de-
claim again in public. This perhaps instigated him to join the party of Piso. Lucan is
charged by Tacitus {Ann- xv. 56) with having betrayed his mother Anicia as an accom-
plice in the conspiracy, for the sake of propitiating the favor of Nero. But he did
not thus secure his own life ; Nero only allowed him to choose the mode of his death.
He left a widow named PoUa Argenlaria, highly praised for her character.

SchTU, Hist. Lilt. Rom. ii. 286. — The Life of Lncan, ascribed to Sueloriius, is found in several editions ; also in some another
Life drawn from a very ancient commentary.— Cf. Murphy, Note to Tac. Ann. xv. 56. containing an apology for Lucan.

2. We have the titles of several pieces by Ltican, which have perished; among which are,
Saliirnalia, Burning' of Rome, Medea, an unfinished tragedy, and Combat of Hector and Jichilles ,
composed at the aee of 12. — There is extant a poem in 201 verses, containing a Eulogy on Piso,
author of the conspiracy against Nero, which has been ascribed by some to Lucan, by others to
Ovid, but by most critics to Saleius Bassus.

Schbll, ii 292.— Fabricius, vol. ii. p. 150.— (ftrnsrfor/, Poet. Lat. Min. 4»h vol.— Lemaire, Poet. Lat. Min. 3d vol. Respect-
ing Lucaii's works, see also the Charaht. d. v- Dichter, vii. 340.— G. Meusel, Diss, de Lucani Pharsaliis. Hala;, 1763. 4.— G. Wad-
del, Animadvers. critics, &c. Edinb. 1734. S.—Jortin, as ci'ei § 360. S.—Marmontel, in Preface to his transl.'below cited.— La
Harpe, in his Melanges Litteraires. Par. 1765. \2.—H. Blair, Lectures on Rhetoric, &c., lect. xliii.

3. EJitions.— Best, C. F. Webir. Lpz. 1821-31. 3 vols. 8. On the basis of G. Carte. Lips. 1726. 8. which was published be-
fore the editor's plan was coniideled {Dibdin, ii. 186).— ij. Benlley (published by his grandson R. Cumberland, ifter B.'s death).
Strawberry Hill, 1760. 4. celebrated for its beauty chiefly (ZWMih). Reimpr. Glasg. 1816. 8.-§ C. H. IVeist. Quedl. 1835. 8.—
Noted among the earlier, P. Burmann. Lugd. BaL 1740. 4. The text of Burmann is partly followed in the Biporitine. Sirassb.
(Argent.) 1807. 8.— Fr. Oudendorp. Leyd. 1728. 4.—H. Grotiua. Ant. 1614 8. Grotius was a great admirer of Lucan, and if
said to have carried a copy always with him {semper in »tnu).— The Princepi, by Sweynheym If Pannartz (print.) Rom.
1469. fol.

4. Translations. — German. — PA, L. Haus. Mannh. 1792. 2 vols. S.—Clu B. H. Piitcrius, of the 7th book, describing the battle.

Berl. 1802. S. French.—/. F. Marmontel (prose). Par. 1766. 2 vols 8. also in his (Euvres Completes. English.— iVtc Roux

(verse). Lond. 1718. fol. 1807. 3 vols. 12.— r. May, 2d ed. Lond. 1731. 12. verse, cf. Tytler, on Translation.

§ 376. Caius Valerius Flaccus, probably a native of Patavium (Padua), lived in the
reign of Vespasian and Domitian, and died while young, A. D. 88. — After the example
of Apollonius Rhodius (cf. '^ 73), he selected the Argonautic expedition as the subject
of an epic poem, of which 8 books are now extant. The conclusion of the 8th book is
wanting ; and the work probably included several other books. The general tenor of
this poem is not sufficiently animated and interesting; and the style is also frequently
obscure and abrupt. — Some of the descriptions, however, are not destitute of poetic,
merit ; and it contains particular passages that are beautiful.

1. The idea that Valerius was born at Patavium is founded on passages in Martial
{Ep. i. 62, 77). — The name of Setinus Balbiia is added to the other names of this poet,
in the manuscripts. Hpuce some have supposed his birthplace to have been Setia in
Campania. Others suppose that Setinus Balbus was a grammarian who revised the
text of Valerius, or perhaps owned a remarkable manuscript. — Some critics rank the
Argonautica of Valerius next to the .^neid. Quintilian {Inst. Or. x. 1) speaks of Ills
death as a great loss to letters.

Cf. § 73.— Scftrn, Hist. Lilt. Rom. ii 29i.—Chara\tere der vpmehm. Dichter, viii. 296. The Prefaces of Burmann and Wagner,
given in Lemaire's ed. below cited.-/. A. fPeichert, Epistola Critica de C. Val. Flac. Argonaut. Lpz IS12. 8.

2. Editions. — Best; Lemaire. Par. 1821. 2 vols. 8. (in his BiMiolh Class. Lat.) It contains the Prefaces of the most important
previous editions.— /. A. Weichert. Meissen, 1818. 8 — /. A. Wagner. Gott. 1805. 8. 2 vols. 8.— Earlier editions noted, P. Bur-
t-iann Leyd- 1724. « — /. Bapt. Pius (or Pio). Bonon. 1519. fol. containing 2 books, 9th and 10th, fabricated by the editor.



p. V. POETS. SILIUS. STATIUS. 581

{SchSn.) The Princept, (print, by) U. Ru^eritis ^ D. Bmtochus. Bonon. 1474. fol.— Porgio first discovered a MS. of Valerius



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