Johann Joachim Eschenburg.

Manual of classical literature : from the German of J.J. Eschenburg, with additions online

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containing the first three book only, in the convent of St. Gall, near Constance.

3, Translations.— German.— £. A'. /; IVundtrlic/i. Erfurt, ISu5. 8. verse, with orig. text. Italian. — 7'/. iSu:iu» in the Cor

jjtif, &c., of Malatesta S/- Argelati, cited § 348.— A/. A. Pindetnonle. Verona, 1776. 8. French.— vJ. Bureau De LamalU,

verse, with Lat. text. Par. ISll. 3 vols. S.—J. J. A. Causin de Percival, prose, with Lat. text. Par. 1818. 8.

§ 377. Caius SiUus Italicus, whose birthplace is not certainly known, was a poet
of the first century. He seems to have received his surname from the place called
Italica, in Spain. Under protracted disease, having become weary of life, he ended it
by voluntary starvation, A. D. 100. In oratory he was an imitator of Cicero ; in poetry
of Virgil. iBut in his epic poem, entitled Punica, on the second Punic war, in 17 books,
he has fallen iar short of Virgil. It is properly an historical poem, and a work of dih-
gence rather than of genius. On account of its historical fidelity, many circumstances
pertaining to the period to which it refers may be learned or illustrated from it.

1. Some suppose Silius to have been a native of Corfinium, in Italy, which was
sometimes called Italica. He is said to have acquired great reputation as a speaker, at
Rome. He rose in the regular course of offices to the rank ot consul, and under Ves-
pasian was proconsul of Asia. Having received these honors and acquired an ample
fortune, he retired to Campania, where he composed his poem. He had purchased
the estate that belonged to Virgil, near Naples, as also that of Cicero at 'I'usculum.
He lived to the age of 75.

SchSll, Hist. Litt. Rom. ii. 296. Biihr, p. lo\ .—Gentleman's Magazine, vol. xlii. p. 200.— Cellariiu, Heyne. and Ruperli, in the
editions of Ritperti and Lemaire, below cited. — Eme-ili, De Carmine Siliano, in bis edition below cited. — Charaktere d. vurn.
Vichter, vii. 369.

2. Editions —Best ; G A. Ruperti. Goll. I795-9S. 2 vo's. ?.— Lemaire. Par. 1823. 2 vols. 8 (in his BiM. Class. Lat.).—
Valuable, /. Eimesti. Lpz. 1791. 2 vols. S.—A. Drahenborch. Utrecht, 1717. 4. The text of this is followed by 7. P. Schmid.
Mitau, 1775. 8. and in the Bipont, 17S4. S.—G. H. LUnemann, Gott. 1824. 8. with good text.— The Princepa, hy Sioeynheym ^
Paimartz (printers). Rnm. 1471. fol.— The ed. of D. Heinsius, Lugd. Bat. 1600. 8. (republ. Camb. 1646. 12.) contains notes
of some value under the title of Crepundia Siliana,

3. Translations.— French.— /. B. Lefebure de Villebrune, with the Latin. Par. 1781. 3 vols. 12. English.— rA. Ross. Lond.

1658. 1672.— Also by .ihop.—H. IV. Tytler. Calcut. 1828. 2 vols. 8. verse.

4. At the revival of letters there was a general conviction that the poem of Silius was lost. Under the idea of replacing if, the
celebrated Petrarch composed his Africa, the subject of which is the second Punic war. Villtbrune, however, has imagined, that
Petrarch had a copy of Silius and concealed the fact in order to add to the glory of his own work. Poggio found a manuscript of
Silius, probably in the convent of St. Gall, during the sitting of the council of Constance. A copy of this, taken by himself and one
of his friends, was the original from which the first editions were drawn. About 1575, Louis Carrio discovered another manu-
script at Cclogne, of the age of Charlemngne as he supposed. A third, of less ancient date, was found at Oxford. — Cf. Scholl, ii.
302. — Respecting the MSS. found by Poggio, near Constance, see Fabricius, Biblioth. Lat. ii. p. 259.

§ 378. Piiblius Papinius Statins, of Neapohs, flourished in the last half of the first
century and was a favorite of Domitian. His greatest poem is an epic, entitled Thehais,
the subject of which is the contest between the Theban brothers Eteocles and Poly-
nices, and the capture of Thebes by Theseus. 'We do not find in it richness of inven-
tion, consistency, or conformity to nature ; and the language is deficient in classical
excellence. 'V\\e Achilleis, which is another epic poem, on the adventures of Achilles
before the Trojan war, is incomplete. Besides these, there are extant five books of
miscellaneous pieces under the title of Sylvcp, which are of very unequal merit.

1. Statius was educated at Rome, where his father became a preceptor of Domitian.
He had a great facihty in composing verses. Three times he gained the prize in the
Alban games. Yet he is said to have been poor, and obliged to sell dramatic pieces
to the actors for means of subsistence. He retired from Rome, to a small estate,
given to him perhaps by the emperor, and there died, while young, A. D. 96.

SchW, ii. ZOZ.—B'dhr, p. 155.— Z,. G. Gyraldus, Life of Statius, in his Hist. Dial, cited ^ 348, and in the ed. of Lemaire below
cited.

2. The Thehaid consists of 12 books : it is an imitation of Antimachus, whose poeip
in 24 books, under the same title, is chiefly lost (cf. § 19). Of the Achilleis there are
but two books, although sometimes divided into more. The collection termed Sylvas,
includes 32 pieces, chiefly in hexameter, on various subjects, composed hastily.

See the Testimonia et IvAicia de Slatio, in Lemaire's edition.— iZoHi/i, Polite Learning or the Belles-Lettres, in his Anc Hist
p. 491, ed. N. Y. \S3d.— Charaktere der vrrni. Dichter, viii. 344.

3. Editions -Best ; Whole Work s.^Amar ^ Lemaire (in Lemaire's Bibl. Class.) Pai 1825. 4 vols. 8.— The Bipontint,
1785 8. and thM of J. Aiken. Warrington, 1778. 2 vols. 12. are considered as respectable.— Of the eirlier; most noted. Carp.
£aTthius(ed. by Ch. Daum). Cygnas (Zwickau), 1664. 3 vols. 4.-7. F. Gronoviiu. Amst. 1653. 8. republ. Manheim, 1782.
2 vols. 8.— The Princeps (according to Harks). Roniae, 1475. fol. without name of printer; (according to Dibdin) Scotus. Ven.
I4S3. fol. Separate poems were printed earlier.- S y 1 v a;, /. Markland. Lond. 1728. 4 — F. Band. Lpz. 1816. 8. intended to
be followed by the other works.— Si»ig. Dresd. 1827. 4.

4. Translations —French.— AficA. de MaroUes. Par. 1658. 3 vols. S.—P. L. CormiUiole. 2d ed. Par. 1805. 4 vols. \2.—Rinn,
Achaintree, fy Boutteville (Lat. & Gall.). Par. 1832. 4 vols. ?.—Cournard (Achilleis). Par. 1800. 12.— Ce la Tour (Sylva;, with

Li', text). Par. I8''3. 8 English.— i?oi. Howard, Achilleis. Lond. 1660. 8.—T. Stevens, 5 books of the Thebaid. Lond.

1648. S.— TV. L. Lewi^. Thebaid. Oxf. 2d ed. 1773. 2 vols. 8. in verse, with a dissertation on Statius prefixed. German. — /. 'J

D'nlling, Die erste Sylve Ubersetzt und erlautert. Plau. 1838. 8. 32 pp.

5. Illustrative.—/ M. Lochmann, Programma de P. Statio. Cob. 1774. i.—Dodwell, Annates Satiri, &c. Oxf. 1698. 8— J
Tortin, as cited h 360. 5.-7. Fr. Gronovii, in Statii Sylv. librns v. Diatribe, etc. ed. by F. Hand. Lpz. 1812. 2 vols. 8. Tbii
work contains the literary controversy between Gronovius and Cniceus, including the Diatribe (first publ. 1637. S), the Antidiu

3c2



582 HISTORY OF ROMAN LITERATURE.

tribe of Cruceus (1639), the FJenchua Aniidiatribes, by Gronovius (1640), aod the Muscarium, by Cruceus (1640). Cf. Fahridiu,
Bibl. Lat. ii. p. 335.

^ 379. Marcus Valerius Martialis, of Bibilis in Celtiberia, was a poet of the same
period. He wrote his Epigrams in the reign of Titus and of Domitian. These pieces
are arranged in 14 books. Prefixed to them is a separate book on the pnbhc shows or
spectacles ; but the pieces in it are perhaps the productions of several authors. Most
of the epigrams are uncommonly ingenious and appropriate ; their multitude and ex-
cellence cause us to admire the ever lively and almost exhaustless wit of this poet.

1. Martial was obliged to obtain subsistence by his personal exertions, and preferred
to devote himself to poetry for the purpose, rather than to oratory and pleading. Ai
about the age of twenty-two he fixed his residence at Rome. Having passed there
thirty-five years he returned to Spain, having received from Pliny the younger the
means of defraying his travehng expenses. In Spain he married a woman named Mar-
cella, who had rich possessions on the river Salon, a branch of the Iberus. His birtn
has been dated A. D. 43, his death A. D. 101. — The epigrams in the 14 books amount
to about 1200 in number. The 13th book is styled Xenia as containing niottos or de-
vices for presents bestowed on friends ; and the 14th, Apophoreia, containing mottos
(or such presents as were distributed at various festivals. I'here are some other pieces
ascribed to this poet. Many of Martial's epigrams are very obscene.

Schtill, Rom. Lilt. ii. 345.— Bdhr, p. 327.— Cf. Pliny, Epist. lib. iii. e. 21.

2. Editions.— Best ; Lemaire (in his Bibl. Lit.). Par. 1S28. 3 vols. S.—L. Schmidt, Amst. 1701. 8. An ed. publ. at Vienna
(Vindoli.), If04. 2 vols. 8. is considered good {KUIgling) ; another, Lond. 1816. 12. (Fuhrniann). — The more important of the
earlier, C. Schrevel. Leyd. 1670. 8.— P. Scriver. Leyd. 1619. 12. Amst. 1621. followed in the Bij)C7Uine, 1784. S.—M. Rader,
Moguntiacum (Maynz), 1627. fol. with a commentary highly valued.— /"rincepj (according to Moss, ii. p. 296), was by A. Galltts,
Ferrar. 1471. 4. (according to others) by Laver, Rom. without date. 4. (cf. Dibdin, ii. p. 226.)— For the epigrams not included in
the 15 books, see Burmann, Anthol. Lat. vol. i.

3. Translations.- German.— C. IV. Ramler, select epigrams, with the Lat. text. Lpz. 1787-91. 5 vo's. 8. with a supplem. vol.

entitled Nachlse. Berl. 1724. 8. French.— CoXar (selection). Toul. 1689. 2 vols. 12.— £. T. Simcm, with orig. Par. 1819.

3 vols. 8. English— Tim. Ki-ndal. Lend. 1577. 12, Cf. Warton, Hist. Eng. Poetry, iv. 259.— TA. May, 1629. 12.— 77i. Scolt.

1773. 8.—/. Elphiiistm. Lond. 1782. 4.

4. Illustrative. — /". Zo7nuts, Diss, de Scholis publicis antiq. Jtidseorum. Plsenae, 1716. containing a notice of various explana-
tions of the term Anchialu! in Martial, ii. 94.— A M. v. Goens, Epist. Grit, de locis quibusdani M. V. Martialis. Traject. 1764. 8.
^also in Harlts, Brev. Not. Suppl. ii. p. 126).— ^nl. de Rooy, Aniniadv. Crit. in M. V. Martialis Epigram. Harderovici. 1788. 8.
— A'l'c. Perotli, Cornu Copiae (a commentarj' on Martial), first publ. Ven. 1489. fol. — J. G. Dalzell, some account of an a- cient
MS. of Martial's Epigrams, illustrated by an engraving, and occasional anecdotes of the manners of the Romans. Edinb. 1813. 8.

^ 380. Decimvs Junius Juve7ialis, a native of Aquinum, applied himself first to elo-
quence, and afterwards to poetry. He lived from A. D. 3(S to A. D. 119. He pub-
lished his satires but one year before his death, in the reign of Hadrian. Sixteen of
these are now extant, which are sometimes unnecessarily divided into five books. With
a noble and animated spirit he inveighs against the vices and follies of his times, but
he paints them with too great freedom. His style is less elegant than that of Horace,
and less difficult and obscure than that of Persius.

1. Our knowledge of Juvenal's history is derived from a short biography ascribed
to Suetonius. He is supposed to have employed his talent for satire first, at about the
age of 40, in the reign of Domitian. Most of his satires were composed in the reign
of Trajan. Two of them, the 13th and 15th, were written after Hadrian received the
empire, when Juvenal was in his 79th year. On reciting his satires publicly, which
he did now for the first time, he excited great admiration. His 7ih satire, which was
the first composed by him, and which was directed against a favorite of Domitian, awa-
kened the jealousy of Hadrian. Under pretext of bestowing an honor, the emperor
appointed him to a military command at Syene in Egypt, according to some, or accord-
ing to others at the great Oasis (cf. P. I. § 176), w hich was a residence for exiles ; here
Juvenal died a few years after.

J. F. Fraiike, Exam. crit. D. J. Juvenalis vitae. Lpz. 1820. 8.— Also, »ame. Brief an Cramer, ttber ein Einschiebsel Triboni-
ansbeym Ulpian.die Verbannung nach der gros,sen Oase betreffend. Kiel, 1819. S.—SchSU, Hist. Litt. Rom. ii. 329— G. Jl. Rupeit,
in Prolegomena to his ed. below cited. — Manso's Character of Juvenal, in the Charaktere der ooni. Dichter, vi. 294.

2. Horace, Persius and Juvenal form the illustrious trio of Roman satirists. Most
of the critics and translators of either have made comparisons, in which each writer
has labored apparently to show the superiority of his favorite. Heinsius and Dacier
(ixalt Horace; Scaliger and Rigaltius plead the cause of Juvenal ; while Persius finds
a defender in Casaubon. Dryden has attempted a comparison wiih these various
opinions in view ; and Gifford, with the Dedication of Dryden, the preface of Dussaulx,
and the prolegomena of Rupert before him, has endeavored to exhibit in a complete
manner the characteristics of each poet.

Burgess, Tractatus var. Lat. (containing Rigaltiiis de sat. x. Juv.) Lond. 1788. S.—Heintius, De Sat. Horatiana, first published
in his ed of Horace. Lug. Bat. I6l2. 8. — Dtis<,aulx,Sar les Satyriques Latins, in liis ed. and version belnw cited. — /. F. Laharpe,
Lycee, ou Cours de Litterature (lom. 2, § 9). Par. 1799 (An T).— Dryden and Gifford, in translations below ciied.

3. Edilions.— Best ; G. A. Rupert. Lips. 1S20. 2 vols. 8. (first ed. 1801). The commentary may be purchas d feparaleh trom the
<cxt.— That of N. L. Mhaintree, Par. 1810. 2 vols. 8. is highly commended. It is in Lemaire^s BiW.— C. F. Heinnch. Lpj 1839.
I vols. 8. 1st vol. containing the text, scholia, and notes on the scholia, pp. 440 ; the 2d vol. containing, " Einleituns und Erkllri'iig
Mimmt Register," pp. 558 ; said to be " rich and valuable yet often faulty." CE, Wel/er in Jabn's Jahrbacher, 1841. Aniocg ear-



p. V. POETS. AVIANUS. CATO. NEMESIANUS. 583

,ier edilbns noted, Hentiinhxs. Traject. I6S5. i.—Pilhceiis. Lutet. 1585. S.— Aldus, Ven. !50l. 8.— There were many editions
before 1500, usually including Persius.— The Princtpt, by y. de S^'iTa■ Ven. 1470. fol. (fuArmann).— The Ddpliin ed. by L. Pro-
tau, 1st ed. Par. 1634. 4. has been reprinted in this country. Phil. 1S14. 8. containing Persius. — Some of the approved edition*
as containing both Juvenal and Persius; Bipoutine, Z-veibriicken, (Bip.) 17S5. 8.— So/idfcy. Camb. 1763. 8. wilh plates.— rh.
Marshall. Load. 1723. S.—C. TV. Slacker. Oxf. 1*37. S. with English notes.

4. Translations.— German.— C. F. Ba^rdl. NJrnb. 3d ed. 1821. 8.—/. /. C. Dorrur. TJbin;. 1821. 8. French — J. Ihti-

ttri'T, «i!h orig. text. Par. 1796. 2 vols. 4. Reprinted (A'. L. Achaintrtt ed.). Par. 1!!20 2 vols. ».-/,. V. Raoul. Tournay,

1818. 2 vols. 8. English.— /J. Slofltlotu Oxf. I6J4. fol.— If. GifforJ, in verse. Lond. 1802. 4. improved ed. Lond. 1817. 2

vols. 8.-C/L Badham. Lond. 1SI4. 8. Cf. Lond. Qaiirl. Rev. xi. 377.— Saiciair. Lond. 1815. Il.—Drydcn,c{. 5 373. 3.—T.
Sheridan. Lond. 1729. S.—Madan. Oxf. IS07. 2 vols. 8. with Persius.

5. Illustrative —C. Fr. Heinrich, In his three Commenlationt!, printed successively, Kilon, IS06, 1810, 1811. 4.~J. C Fr. ."^anso,
Observ. in loca aliquot difRcil. D. J. Juvenalis. 1812, 4. — A. G. Cramer, in Juvenalis satiras Commeatarii vetusti. Hamb. 1823. 8.
— Cf. Moss, Manual of Bibliogr. ii. 165.

"^^ 381. Flnvlus Avianus lived probably in the 2d century, in the reign of the An-
tonines. We have, under his name, 42 tables in elegiac verse. The text is in a very
imperfect state; and, in natural ease of expression, the fables are far inferior to those
of Pheedrus.

1. Avianus, from his censure of idolatry in one of the fables, is by some supposed to
have been a Christian. Respecting the age in which he lived, the critics are not
agreed ; some assign him to the 4th century.

See Canne^ieter, Diss, de aetate F. Aviani, in his ed. below cited.— .ScAtZZ, Lift. Rom. iii. ^.—Harlea, Brev. Not. Suppl. ii. 333.
—Pr. HuUemann, De cpdice Fabularum Aviani Luuensi, &c. GO!t. 1807. 'A.—Sch'oU, Litt Rom. iii. 61, ss— f. A. Ukert, Geograph.
derOrieoh. und Rom. Weim. 1S21. S.—lVeriisdorf, Commenl.de R. F. Avieno, in his Poet. Lat. Min. vol. \.—Suhle, in Pref. to
nis e.1. of Aratus (cf. ^ 71).— Sc'iaudacA, cited § 370.

2. Editions.- Best, /. A. Noddl, Aujst. 1787, 8.— ff. Cannegieter. Amst. 1731. 8.— Found also in the Bipmtine ed. oi PhxdruA.
17Si. 8.— and in MaVaire's Phsdrus. Lond. 1773. 12.

3. Translations.- lulian.— G. C. TrcmiUlli (with the fables of Gabrias, cf. § 184). Ven. 1735. 8. English.— fT. Caxtoru

1484. fo!.

4. The fables have sometimes been ptiblished under the nawe of Ritfus Festus .Bvienvs, who
was a different person frnin Avianus, although often confounded with tiim. .^ rien us prnbdUiy
flourished about A. D.400; most that is ktiown respeciin? him is drawn from his writinirs, espe-
cially an inscrirition found at Rome, and contained in Burmanns Latin Anthology, consisting of
eight verses addressed by Avienus to J^ortia, an Eln:scan deity. — The principal work of Avienus
was a translation of the •fdii/df/Eca of Aratus (cf. $ 71); sometimes entitled Carmen de .^stris.
He also translated the Tle()n}yri<Tiq of Dionysiiis of Charax (cf. J 217), in a poem of 1394 he.xame-
ter lines, entitled Descriptio orbisterrm. Another produclion was called Ora Maritiiiia,a. poetical
description of the Mediterranean coast from Cadiz to the Black Sea; a fragment only remains,
of abfiut 700 lines. There remain also three other short pieces by Avienus. He is said likewise
to have reduced the History of Livy to iambic verse. — There is a poem in about 1100 hexameters,
called Epitome Iliados Horneri, which some have ascribed to Avienus.

5. Editions of Avienus. The Frir'ceps, G. Valla. Ven. I4S8. 4.— A more complete ed. P. Mdian. Madrit. 1634. 4.— Best,
in Lemaire, PoeL Lat. Min. vol. v. (Par. 1826) and in Wemsdorf, above cited. The smaller pieces are found in Bumiann, An
thol. Lat.

•^ 382. Dionysius Cato, a writer of whose history nothing is known with certainty,
belonged, as some suppose, to the same age with Avianus. He was the author of
moral maxims or sentences, which are composed in Dislichs, and are chiefly valuable
for their instructive character. It is not impossible, however, that they were of a
much later origin, and were marked with the name of the Roman moralist Cato, on
account of the sentiments contained in them.

1. The chief authority for assigning D. Cato to the age of the Antonines is a pas-
sage, in which 'M. Aurelius Antoninus (cf ^ 196) appears to speak of him. Some
have supposed the Distichs (Distkha de moribus, in 4 books) to be that work of Cato
the censor which is mentioned by Phny and Aulus GeUius. The work was held in
very high estimation in the 14th and 15th centuries. "

SchijU. Hist. Lilt. Rom. iii. i\ .—Benihold, in Pref. to hised. below cited. — Dissertations o( Boiftam, Canriegieto-, and WUhof, in
the ed. of jjrn/::€n below cited.— rPhrfoii, Hist Eng. Poetry, iii. 2.

2. Edition?.— .Most complete, Kimi? & Kooigsfeld. Amst. 1759. 2 vols. 8.-7. M. BemhoM. Schweinfurt (Marcbr.) 1784. 2 vols.
8. — 0. Arnlzen. Amst. 1754. 8.— The P!-i>i££pj. Sermones super. Catonis Ethica, &c Augustje, 1475. {Hctrles, Brev. Not. p. 697).

3. Translations.- German. — C. B. H. Pislorius, metrical. Slnilsund, 1816. 8. French. — Maturinus Corderius (Corderoy),

dedicated to Rob. Stephens, Lat. el Gall. Par. I56I. 8.—^ M. H. Boulard (ed.), Lat. French, and Greek. Par. 1802. 8. The
Distichs were translated into Greek by Maximus Planudes at Couslautinople; bis version was printed wilh the orig. text, Antw.

1568. English. — rr. Caxlon. Lond. 1483. in the preface, he pronounces Calo'g Morals " the liesl boke for to be taught fo yocge

children in schole." {IVarton.)

§ 3S3. 3Iarciis Aurelius Olpnpius Nemesianus, a native of Canhage, lived in the
latter part of the 3il century. He strove successfully for the prize in a poetical contes'
with the emperor Numerianiis. We have from him a poem on Hunting (Cynegetica),
•which in point of style and skill in execution appears to great advantage among the
works of that age. There also remain two fragments of a poem by him on Fowling
{De Aucupio). The iour pastorals ascribed to him were probably written by Calpur-
nius.

1. Little is known respecting the hfe of Nemesian ; the chief notices are found in the
life of Numerian by Vopiscus (cf. § 542. 6). Vopiscus states that he composed poems
entitled Cynegetica, Ilalieutica, and Nautica, and that he gained various prizes.



584 HISTORY OF ROMAN LITERATURE.

There is a small poem in honor of Hercules, De laudibus Herculis, which some as-
cribe to Nemesian.

Schmi, Litl. Rom. iii. 34. Respecting the Pastorals {Bucolica, Eclogs); cf. Wenitdorf, in his Poet. Lat. Min. and MUller, in

his Eiiileitu7ig, &c. cited § 299. 8. They were first ascribed to Neniesiao, in the ed. o( Angdus Ugoletus, Farm, without date
(about 1-193), fol.

2. Editions.— Best; Whole Remains, Lemaire, Poet. Lat. Min. Ist voU—fVemsdorf, Poet. Lat. Min.— The Cy negetica;
often printed with Gratius Faliscjts, as in the Princeps ed. by Loguii. Ven. 1534. 8. (cf. § 367) ; ttiis contained also the Bitcolics,
first printed by Schweynhtim Sf Pannartz. Rom. 1471. i.—K.,i.Kmtner. Miltau. 1775. 8. with Gratius.— Bucoli ca, with
notes of P. Burmann and others. Milt. 1774. 8 including also Calpurnius.— R. MUller, Lat. & Germ. Zeit. 1843. 8.

3. Translations.— French.— Of the whole Remains, by S. M. de la Tour. Par. 1799. 8. Italian.—/. G. Farsetti, in his Diicorso

scpra il Trattato della Natura dell' Egloga di FontenelU. Ven. 1752. 8.

^ 384. Tihis Julius Calpurnius, born in Sicily, was a contemporary of Nemesian.
There are extant seven Eclogues by this poet, composed in the manner of Virgil, and
distinguished by an easy versification. They are dedicated, as some suppose, to Ne-
mesian.

1. The Eclogues themselves furnish what we know respecting Calpurnius. The
protector and friend to whose honor he seems to have dedicated his poems was not,
probably, the poet, Nemesian ; as this protector was a man in high rank at the empe-
ror's court {magisler ojjiciorum, Eel. iv. 150, 159). — The foitr Eclogues, sometimes
ascribed to Nemesian, there is httle doubt, belong to Calpurnius, making the whole
number eleven; which were all published as his, in the editions preceding that of Ugo-
letus (cf. § 383. 1).

Scmil, Lilt. Rom. iii. 36.— BaAr, Gesch. ROm. Lit. p. 302.

2. Editions.— Best ; C. D. Beck. Lpz. 1S03. S.— Lemaire, Poet. Lat. Min. Ist vol.— Contained also in fferjudor/. Poet. Lat. Min.
Princeps, by Schweynheim S,- Pannarlz (print.). Rom. 1741. 4. Cf. \ 3S3. 2. •

3. Translations.- German.— Best (according to Fuhrmann) by G. E. Klmisen, Allona, 1807. 8. with original. — Fr. Adelung.
Petersb. 1804. 4.— C/i. G. M'lss. Lpz. IS05. 8. French.— A/airawf. Bruxelles, 1744. 12. Italian.— G. Fanetti. Ven. 1761. 8.

§ 385. Vecimus Magnus Ausonius, a native of Burdigala (Bourdeanx), and probably
a Christian, was a grammarian, rhetorician, and poet, of the 4th century. He was
preceptor to the emperor Gratian, under whom he afterwards held the office of consul
at Rome. Subsequently, he lived in literary ease in his native city. Some of the
smaller poems, which we have under his name, belong to the general class of epi-
gramfi; others are mere epitaphs and memorial verses ; the 20 Idyls may be entitled
to the name, because they are truly little pictures, short pieces of a descriptive charac-
ter ; but they are not, properly speaking, pastoral poems.

1. The evidence that .^usovius was a Christian is drawn from his pnemg, particularly the first
Idyl. Yet some have questioned whether he really was. on account of the manner in which
pasan mytholoi»y is etnployed in some of his pieces, and especially on account of their licentious
character. — The memorial verses, in honor of the Professors of BiirdigMla (commevwralio pmfes-
sornm Btirriicrolensiujn), are of considerahle interest to literary history ; they celebrate several
teachers of rhetoric and grammar otherwise unknown — Among the epitaphs are snnie upon
Grecian heroes, which are supposed to have heen drawn froin the Tlir;\t^ of Aristotle (cf J 191.
2). After these, are epita;ihs upon the Roman emperors. We find some valuable information
in the poem, or poems, entitled Ordo vot>iIiiim nrbiuw, eivins a description of IT principal cities of
the Roman empire. — The lOih Idyl, on the river Moselle, is considered as one of the best pieces



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