Johann Joachim Eschenburg.

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of Ausonius. The 13th, cento nn'ptialis, is composed of verses or hemistichs taken from Virgil ;
it does no honor to the purity of the author's imagination.

Echfill. iii. 45 — J. L. E. PUttmann, De Epocha Ausoniana, &c. Diatribe. Lips. 1776. 8. (containing also E. Corsinus, De Au-
sonii Cansulatu Epistola. Pis. 1764).— CA. «. Heyne. Censura inzenii et D. M. Ansonii. &c. Golt. 1802. foL Also in hii
Opusc. .^cad. vol. vi. GOtt. \S\2.—De Labastidt & D'Uf'Sinix, Histoire de la Litlera'ure Francoise. Par. 1770.

2. Ediions. — Among the best; /. B. Snichay, (in usum Delph.) Par. 1720. 4. Valpy, in his Deiphin S,- Variorvm Classics. —
The Bipontine. Bip. 17S5. 8. is correct, and its Notitin Literaria valuable. — /. TMius. Amst. 1671. 8. the Varic/rwn; valued
highly.— The Princeps, B. Girardinus. Ven. 1472. fol. containing also Calpurnius & Proba Falcania. — Some of the poems are
given in Lemairc's Poet. Lat. Min.

3. Tr-mslations.- German.— Of the lOlh Idyl, by £. Tross, metrical, with orig. I>at. Haiiim. 1S24. 8. French.— Of whole

■works, by Joubtrt, Par. 1769. 4 vols. 12. English. — Of some of the epigrams, by T. Kendall, Flowers of Epigrammes out of

sundrie the most singular authors, &C. Lond. 1577.

4. Prnba Falcovia was a native of Horta, and lived at the close of the 4th century. She ia
mentioned here on account of her Biblical History, composed (like the 1.3th Idyl of Ausonius) by
uniting centos of Virgil, employed so as to designate events related in the Old and New Testa-

The Centos were published by L. H. Teucher. Lpz. 1793. 8. with a Greek work styled ' firic»iiccvTpa (cf. 5 78. 5).— Cf. /. Fan-
tanmus, De Aniiquitatibus Horta:. Rnm. I7ii8. 4 containing a DissertaUon on Probi.- /. Chr IVolf, Mulierum Graecarum, quae

oral, prosa usae sunt, frajr^^nta. Lond. 1739. 4. containing a catalogue of ancient distinguished women. Several works of similar

device, i. e. composed of lines or clauses taken from Virgil, have been preserved. Cf. ScliSU, Litt. Rom. iii. 53.— P. Burmann,
Anthol. Lat. cited \ MS.

^ 386. Claudius Claudianus, of Egypt, was an author of Greek and Latin poetry,
under Honorius and Arcadius, in the 4th and 5th centuries. Besides several panegy-
rical poetns, we have from him two small epic productions; one entitled De Eaptu
Proserpincp, in 3 books ; the other, Gigantomachia, or the War of the Giants, not com-
pleted ; and also two historical poemsr De hello Gildonico and De hello Getico. There
are likewise two satires, each divided into two books, written by Claudian against


Rufinus and Eutropius, rivals of Stilicho. Among his epigrams and other smaller
pieces, some are happy performances. In general, however, his thoughts, images,
and expressions, bear the marks of the unnatural and artificial taste belonging to the
age, although his own genius and poetical ability shine through them.

1. Claudlan was born probably about A. D. 365, at Alexandria, where he was edu-
cated. Subsequently he lived for a time at Rome, and at Mediolanum, which was
then the residence of Honorius, the emperor of the West. He enjoyed the patronage
of Stihcho. the guardian and minister of Honorius ; and was elevated to important civil
offi'"es. His wife was a rich heiress from Alexandria. He continued iri favor at court
xiniil the ruin of Stilicho, who was accused, perhaps unjustly, of a design to place his
own son on the throne, and was put to death A. D. 408. How far the poet suffered
from this catastrophe is not certainly known ; but he did not long survive it.

Cf. £. Gibbon, Decline and Fall of Roman Enip. ch. 30. A statue n-as erected to Claudlan durin; the time of his prnsperify,

in the forum of Trajan, on the request of the senate, by Arcadius and Honorius. The pedestal, with an Inscription, was discovered
at Rome in the 15th century ; there are, however, doubts respecting the authenticity of the monument. The inscription is given by
Schsa, Hist. Litt. Rom. iii. p. 82.

2. The first compositions of Claudian are said to have been in Greek ; the G'uxaiito-
machia was originally written in that language; a few verses of this poem and two
epigrams, with some other trifling fragments, are now extant in Greek. Besides the
poems named above, we may mention fwo Epilhalamia, one on the marriage ot Hono-
rius with Maria, daughter of Stilicho ; five poetical epistles, and seve?i descriptive pieces
termed Idyls. Several of the epigrams under his name are considered as the produc-
tions of some Christian author; from the contents of these, it has sometimes been
imagined that Claudian was a Christian ; but Augustine and Orosius state with regret
that he was a pagan.

For a view of his writings and character, see Gibbon and Scholl, as just cited atmve.— Also, Classical Journal, vol. rxiii.— 5.
G. IVaJch, Comment, de Claudiani carmine, etc. specimen. Gott. 1773. 4.— Gamer, Merian, and Konig. as cited below.

3. Editions.— Best ; P. Burmann. Amst. 1760. 4. the text of this followed by .i. J. falpy. Lbnd. 1S2I. 3 vols. S.— In Lemairt't
Bibl.— fl. Hcber (finished by H. Drury). Lond. 1S36. 2 vols. 12. also on large paper.—/. M. Gesmer. Lpz. I7i9. S. 2 vols.— G.
L. Kd'iig. Golt. 1808. 8. 1st vol. oniy published; containing valuable prolegomena.— More celebrated of the earlier editions; C.
Barthius. Frankf. 1650. 4. with a distinguished commentary.— .Vic Heinsius. Amst. 1665. !<. " the best variorum edition" (Dib
■im)—Princeps, B. Celsanus. Vinceotise, 1482. fol. not containing the epigrams ; which were first published by Thad. Ugoklus.
Farm. 1494. 4.

4. Translations.- German.— Cft. II. SchUtze, Raub der Proserpine (metrical). Hauili. 1784. 8.—/. F. Ratschky, Gedicht wider

Rufin (with Lat. text). Wien, 1^08. 8. Italian —N. Berengaiii. Ven. 1716. 2 vols. 8. also in the Corpus of Malarena ^ j9r?e-

'■aii, cited § 348. French.—// B. Merian. L' enlevement de Proserpine, avec un Discours, &c. Berl. 1767. '^.—.i. >I Del'cil,

CEuvr. diverses de Claudian, Ut. & Franc. Par. ISIS. 2 vols. 8.— /)£ la Tour. Par. I79S. 8. English.—/. G. StruU (De rapt.

Pros.). Lond. 1814. 8 —.i. Hawkins (verse). Lond. 1817. 2 vols. 9. — lVm. King (Sat. in Rufinum el Eutroplum). Lond. 1730. 8.
— Hughis. the two books against Rufinus, in his Miicellanie^, Lond. 17.'?7. 8.

5. The AntiClauiiianus is a Latin poem of 9 books, by Alanus I^Alain) of Lille, who died A. D. t2(S ; it was written In defence
of divine pioii.lence, in reply to a passage in Claudian's satire on Rufinus, and was a famous book in the middle ages. — IVarton,
Hi>t. Eng. Poetry, i. 169. U. 227. ed. Lond. 1824.

"Si 387. Aurelius Prudentius. surnamed Clemens, was a Christian poet of the 4fh
century, a native of Spain. His Hymns are not destitute of good poetical expression,
but are more distinguished for their pious and devotional contents.

1. He was born A. D. 348, at Calagurris, now Calahorra, or according to some at
Caesarea Augusta, now Saragossa. After practicing as a lawyer, and holding some
civil offices, he obtained a rnilitary rank, which brought him near the person of the
emperor. When above fifty years old, he retired from the world and passed the rest
of his days in habits of piety.

I'he Hymns or lyric pieces of Prudentius form two collections ; one entitled Ka9.
r/urptwoj/ liber, containing 12 hymns on certain days of festival or certain parts of the
day; the other, Uspi a-e^avMv, De coronis, containing 14 hymns in honor of as many
martyrs. — Besicles these, we have from him the following poems; Apotheosis, written
against the Sabellians and other heretics; Hamartisenea {'-f.iapnyhsa), on the origin of
Mn ; Psydiomachia, on the conflict between virtue and vice in the human soul ; Adver-
kus Symmnchiim, in 2 books, occasioned by the controversy between the Pagans and
the Christians respecting the altar dedicated to the goddess of Victory (cf. <i 444. 1).
To this author is also commonly ascribed the work entitled Diptychon seu Enchiridium
utriusque Testamenti. a metrical abridgment of the sacred history; although some have
referred it to a Spanish writer of the 5th century by the name of Prudentius.

Sch'U, Litt. Rom. iii. 72.—/. P. Lwlomcus, Diss, de vita Prudentii. Viteb. 1692. 4. also found in his Opusc. M-sc. Hal. 1720.—
Teoli. SfArevalli. in Proleg. to their editions below cited.— ijoi/in, Polite I^earuiog, art. ii. sect. 3.— £a/ir. Die christlich-romische
Literatur. Carls 1836. 8. p. 41.

2 Editions.— Best ; F.Artvalh (Arevalus). Rom. 1789. 2 vols. 4. These two volumes in connection with three others, in the
same form and by the same editor, contain the works of the Ancient Christian Poets.— Variorum in Valpy's Latin Classics.— This
Parma ed. is splendid and valuable, by Teoli. Farm. 1788. 2 vols. 4.— Noted among the earlier; Ch. Cellarius. Hal. 1703. 8. —
A'. Hemsiut. Anjst. 1667 12. the Elzevir.— Aldus. Ven. 1501. 4. forming the Isl vol. of his Pnetas Christ. Vete,-es. ha»
been called the Princeps; but those of /J. Langius were earlier, the 2d, Djivent. 1495, the 1st, ib. about I49i5. 4. (Dibdin and UarUt

3. Translations —German.—/. P. Silbert, the Hymns (Fdergcsdnge und Sicgtskronen). Wien, 1820 8



^ 388. Ccellus SeduUus, who lived in the 5th century, was probably a native of Scot-
land, or rather of Ireland, which at that time was included under the same name. He
was an elder or presbyter in the church. His poems are ranked higher in respect to
religious and moral worth than in respect to poetical merit.

1. The principal work of Sediiliiis is entitled JUirabilia divina, or Carmen pasehale, a poem of 5
cantos in hexameter. It is preceded by a letter in prose addressed to the Abbe Macedonius, in
which Sediilius explains his design. — There is also a piece in elegiac verse entitled CiUatio vete-
ris et vovi Testamenti, marked by the structure called epavalepsi.-; in which the first words of the
hexameter lines are repeated at the end of the pentameters There is likewise a hymn to Christ
in 23 strophes, each of which begins with one letter of the alphabet. — Another piece, a fragment
in 12 lines, under the name of this poet, is preserved by Dicuil, a monk of Ireland in the 9th cen-
tury ; the fragment is interesting only as it refers to a map of the world derived from materials
furnished by officers employed by Theodosius 2d.

Schmi, Hist. Litt. Rom. iii. 103, 2i'<.—ArevaUi, Preface to ed. below cited —BaAr (as died § 3?7. 1), p. 54.

2. Editivjiis.— Best ; F. ArevaUi. Rom. 1794. 4. Cf. § 387. 2.—H. F. Arnlzm. Leuwarden, 1761. 8.— Containei also in the
Poet. Christ. o( Aldus. Ven. 1501. — The Hymn (in natalcm Chrisli) is contained also in M. J fVtitzius Heoriologium, s. Hymni
festivales. Francof. 1643. 8. — The writings of Sedulius are supposed to have been »iven to the public afler his death, by J\tTciu3
Riifinus Afroniamis Asteriiu, who was consnl A. D. 494 ; there was formerly in the library of Rheims a manuscript of Sedulius
corrected by Asterius.— Cf. Scholl, i. 363. ArevaUi, p. 71.

§ 389. Claudius Eutillus Nnmalianus, a poet of the 5th century, was a native of
Gaul, and a consul at Rome under Honorius. He at length returned from that city to
his own country. This return, by a voyage along the coasts of the Mediterranean, he
described in a poem, entitled Itinerarium, or De HedUu, consisting of 2 books in ele-
giac verse. It has come to us in a defective state, but is not without intrinsic value.

1. Tolosa {Toulouse) is supposed to have been the birthplace of Rutilius. His
Itinerary confessedly entitles him to a high rank among the later Roman poets. Gib-
bon honors him with the designation of " an ingenious traveller;" but the infidel his-
torian seems always ready to praise an author who affords him an opportunity for a
thrust at religion; and he quotes, with manifest pleasure, this poet's "hideous por-
trait" of the monks of Capraria. Rutilius is also violent against the Jews.

Schbll. Hist. Litt. Rom. iii. S3.— Gibbon, Dec. and Fall Rom. Emp. eh. xxiv. cf. his MisaU. Works, vol. iv. p. 345.—/. Jartin,
Tract?, Plulolosical, &c. Loud. 1790. 2 vols. S.—Lemaire, as below (2) cited.

2. Editions — Best; Wemsdorf. in vol. v. of his Poet. Lat. Min.— L«maire, in vol. iv. of his Poet. Lat. Min. The poem has

been published separately often; one of the latest and best,/. G. Gruber. Narnb. 1804. i.—The PrincefS, (probably)/. Bapt.
Piiu. BonOQ. 1320. 4.

II. — Orators.

^ 390. In tHe earliest ages of the republic, the Romans had many occasions for the
exercise of eloquence. The Antiquities of Dionysius (cf ^ 247), and the History of
Livy, present us with debates and harangues of inany speakers ; but we cannot consi-
der them as accurate specimens of the early oratory of the Romans; they are chiefly
the productions, so far at least as respects style and manner, of those historians them-
selves. Whatever eloquence was exhibited in these ages was the gift of nature, and
not acquired by study or practice in schools.

We find no speaker mentioned as having any peculiar charms of oratory until the
second period of Roman literature (cf. 301), beginning with the close of the first Punic
war, B. C. 240. One of the earhest thus celebrated was Cornelius Cethegus, who
flourished during the second Punic war, and was consul about B. C. 224; he is lauded
by the poet Ennius his contemporary as a speaker of great sweetness of elocution
{orator sitaviloquenli ore). Cato the elder is said to have been an energetic, although
unpolished orator ; many of his orations were extant in the lime of Cicero, who valued
them highly, although they were not much read by others.

'$> 391. In the time of Cato, the Roman youth were first specially drawn to study
the art of speaking, under the influence of the philosophers and rhetoricians connected
with the famous embassy of Carneades, about B. C. 155. Cato and others anticipated
fatal results from the introduction of Grecian principles and manners ; and in a short
time the schools of the Greek teachers were prohibited (.4mZ. Gelt xv. 11). The pro-
hibition was renewed subsequently in the year B. C. 92. in consequence, it is stated, of
the aouse of eloquence on the part of the sophists. It was however impossible to check
the ardor awakened among the young Romans to imitate the Grecian speakers ; and
before the close of the period now under notice (the second, ending with the war of
Sylla and Marius, B. C. 87), we find a number of eminent speakers who had availed
themselves of the Grecian models, and whose oratory and rhetoric were modified by
the Grecian systems and rules.

•5> 392. Sergius Galba and Laelius are named as the first who made important ad-
vances upon the style and manner of previous orators, in respect to embellishment and

p. V. ORATORY. 5S7

elegance. Scipio JEmilianus, called also Africanus the younger, and M. jEmilius
Lepidus(who was consul B. C. 137), departed still farther from the ancient diction,
and more sedulously cultivated smoothness and harmony of language and the grace?
of style. In the same age with Lepidus were otiier eminent men whom Cicero repre-
sents as distinguished orators, particularly Scipio Nasica and Mutius Scaevola. In

Rome, as at Atheris, eloquence was a means of gaining preferment, and we find that
scarcely an orator is named, who did not rise to the highest offices of the state.

§ 393. The incessant struggles between the patrician and the plebeian parties
gave frequent occasions for the efforts of popular oratory. The two Gracchi acted
a very important part in this controversy, and theirs are the names ne.xt to be noticed
in a glance at the history of Roman oratory. They were both speakers of extraordi-
nary power. Tiberius, the elder, in boyhood, was instructed carefully in elocution by
his mother Cornelia; afterwards, he had the instruction of the best Grecian masters,
and diligently practiced exercises of declamation. His manner was bold, decided, and
composed ; a slight specimen is given by Plutarch (in Ttb. Grace). Caius was more
vehement and full of action; he is said to have been the first of the Romans who in-
dulged in such freedom as to walk to and fro in the rostrum while speaking. Cicero
(De Ora'. iii. 56) cites a passage of great pathos from a speech uttered by him after
the death of his brother. But Aulus Gellius {Nod. Att. x. 3) quotes a passaore from
him, which he censures as cold and tame. Caius is said to have always kept a slave
behind him with a flute, to give him notice when to raise or lower his voice.

^ 394. The names of a great number of public speakers beloneing to this ao^e are
recorded ; but it is not iinportant to repeat them here. The two most illustrious, who
fall within the period now before us, were Marcus Antonius, the grandfather of Antony
the triumvir, and Lucius Licinius Crassus. The latter commenced his oratorical career
at the age of 19 or 20, about the time of the death of Caius Gracchus, B. C. 121, by
a speech highly celebrated against C. P. Carbo ; he closed it, B. C. 92, liy his speech
in the senate against Philippus, which was still more celebrated, but which, from the
great excitement attending it, threw him into a fever that in a few days terminated his
life. Antonius, surnamed Orator, was the contemporary and rivalof Cra?sus. and
survived him only to be a victim in the proscription of Marius, who (B. C. 87) affixed
his head to the rostrum, where he had eloquently defended the republic and the lives
of many of his fellow-citizens {Cic. de Orat. iii. 3). I'hese orators are commemorated
as having first raised the glory of Roman eloquence to an equality with that of Greece.

"^ 395. The repeated interdiction of the schools taught by Greek masters has been
mentioned (§ 391). Crassus, the orator just noticed, is said in one instance to have
used his authority as censor against them. But the art of speaking had come to be
universally regarded as an essential requisite in preparation for public life and civil
office. It was already a custom, that if a youth had public life in view, he was com-
mitted, at the age of 17, to the special care of some eminent orator, on whose perfor-
mances at the bar and in the assemblies, he constantly attended. Other means of
improvement were also employed (cf. P. IV. § 125). Schools for instruction in rhetoric
were opened by Roman freed inen, in the place of Grecian masters, towards the close
of the period now before us (cf. § 409). The study of rhetoric and eloquence soon be-
came a part of regular education, and continued to be so in subsequent times.

Of ttip oratnry nf this period we have no remains, except a few scattered passages quoted by later authors. A frajment of a speech
of Cams Gracchus (Dt legibus promulgatis) is said, however, to have been found, at a recent period, in the Ainbrosian library at

^ 396. There were two younger orators who rose to distinction before the death of
those just named; these were PubHus Sulpitius and Caius A. Cotta. Sulpitius was a
violent partisan of IMarius and is charged with having greatly abused his political
power. He lost his hfe when comparatively young, on the ascendancy of Sylla, the
same year in which Antonius was beheaded by the opposite party. Cotta was banished
at the same time but was recalled, after Sylla assumed (B. C. 84) the authority of
dictator, and subsequently held the office of consul; he lived, it is said, to an advanced
age. Cicero, in his Bni'/us. describes the oratory of these speakers. Sulpitius was
vehem_ent, yet dignified and lofty, with a voice powerful and sonorous, a rapid elocu-
tion, and action earnest and impressive. Cotta had a feebler voice, and in his manner
was mild and calm, with an invention remarkably acute, a diction pure and flowing,
and a peculiar power of persuasion.

§ 397. In our next period, we have to notice the speakers, who eclipsed the fame
of all preceding orators of Rome. Cotta continued to shine in this period; but the
palm was soon taken from him by Hortensius. The first appearance of the latter in
the Forum was at the age of 19, in an important case, in which Scaevola and Crassus
were judges, a few years before the close of the period at which we have just taken
our glance. He gained immediate celebrity, soon rose to the head of the Roman bar,
and continued the acknowledged master of the Forum for 13 or 14 vears. He is said
to have possessed almost every quality essential to a distinguished speaker. His ima-
gination was fertile, and his language rich even to exuberance ; his industry and aijpli-
cation iii the former part of his Ufa intense, his acquaintance with literature extensive.



his memory powerful and ready. He indulged in a showy species of rhetoric, and in
artificial and studied gesture. He acquired immense wealth, and lived in great extra-
vagance and luxury, being peculiarly fond of ostentatious display. None of his
speeches are preserved ; and were they extant, they would give but an imperfect idea
of his eloquence, as much of his excellence consisted in action and delivery.

Horiensius was for many years without a rival' at Rome. Licinius Calvus, already
mentioned as an author of satirical epigrams (§ 339), was an orator of some distinction,
but died at the age of 30; had he hved longer, it is not probable that he could have
surpassed Hortensius; he left a number of orations^, which were studied as models by
the younger Pliny. Juhus Caesar exhibited talents for speaking^, which probably
would have .secured to him very high celebrity as an orator had he pursued the pro-
fession. Other individuals, of the same times, are mentioned as eminent speakers ;
and some years later were Messala, Brutus, and others, who are said to have displayed
great oratorical powers.

But Cicero alone was able to emulate Hortensius with success. The first oration
pronounced by him (the first at least of those now extant, cf. ^ 404) was in a case, in
which Hortensius was his opponent. It was in the year B. C. 72, when Cicero was
about 26 years old. It is worthy of remark, that Cicero and Hortensius, although
rivals, seem to have been always on terms of mutual friendship. Cicero was several
years younger than Hortensius, and ultimately bore away from him the honor of being
the greatest orator of Rome ; yet Hortensius generously used all his influence in pro-
curing Cicero's recal from banishment. It is needless to say that the name of Cicero
is always coupled with that of Demosthenes as synonymous with eloquence, or that his
orations and other works are imperishable monuments of genius, learning, and refine-
ment. Wiih him, Roman eloquence and oratory gained the highest degree of cultiva-
tion and power; the age of Cicero was emphatically the golden age of the art of

1 Sallier, La vie de Q. Hortensius, in the Mem. dt VAcad da Inter, vol. vi. p. 500. a Cic Brut. 82.— ZKa/. dt Caut. corr. doq.

2l.—»''eicherl, De Licinio Calvo. oratore, et poela. Gimm. 1825. 4.—Burigny, De Calvus, in the Mem. de PAcad. Inicr. vol. xxiL
p. 122. 3 quint. InsL Or. x. 1.— Cic. Brut. 72. •

§ 398. It may be remarked, that the Grecian division of oratory into three kinds
(cf. j> 98) was recognized among the Romans; Cicero (De Oral. i. 31. ii. 10) specifies
distinctly that of trials {judicia), that oi deliherafio?is {deliheraliones). and that oi pane-
gyric Quudationes). It is in the two former kinds, that the Roman orators in the period
now under notice had most frequent occasion to display their ability. The constitution
of the Roman courts of justice and their method ol jiujicial procedure (cf P. III. "c* 261)
were better adapted to exerci.^e the powers of eloquence than to secure the administra-
tion of justice; they were such, that law, truth, and equity, might be loo easily over-
come by the skill, wit, or pathos of the orator. The questions broucrht into trial also
were often of a character that furnisiied grand opportunities for the displnv of oratory;
such especially were the accusations against high civil and provincial officers for mal-
administration. Highly exfiting occasions for the deliberative argument or harangue
were constantly presented in the Senate, and the comitia. The circumstances of Ci-
cero's life brought him fully under these and other influences calculated to stimulate
his efforts, and he has left splendid performances in both judicial and deliberative

§ 399. The history of Roman eloquence may be said to have ended with Cicero, or

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