Johann Joachim Eschenburg.

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3. Besides the declamations of Seneca, we have some other specimens of the decla-
mations or discourses which the rhetoricians required of their pupils in order to train
their minds for argument and debate; and which were practiced by the most eminent
orators long after leaving the schools (cf. P. IV. ^ 125). Of this kind, are a declama-
tion in Ciceronem, and another in Catilivam, ascribed to 31. Dorcius Latro, who was
a professed rhetorician of some celebrity {Quint. Inst. Or. x. 5).

4. Ixutilius Lupus probably lived in the time of Augustus and Tiberius, and was,
perhaps, the son of the tribune and praetor of that name mentioned by Cicero. His


treatise, in 2 books, De figuris sententiarum et elocutionis is an extract and translation
from a Greek work composed by one Gorgias ; not the celebrated sophist of Leon-
tium (cf. '^ 114), but probably the teacher at Athens, whom the son of Cicero left at
the command of his lather. The work contains passages which were drawn from
Greek orators, and some which are not elsewhere preserved.

The first edition was by Nic. Rnsdus Ferrarienni. Ven. 1519. 8. (Bahr).—A better, by R. Stephanu). Par. 1530. 4.— The
best ; D. Ruhrihcn. Lugd. Bat. 1768. 8.— C. F. Frotscher. Lips. 1831. 8. with Ruhnken's notes.

§ 415. 3rarcus Fahius Qui?itil{anus, a contemporary of the younger Pliny (cf. ^ 405),
was a native of Calagurris in Spain, but was brought to Rome in hfs infancy. He was
for 20 years an eminent teacher of rhetoric. The most noble of the Romans were
among his pupils. He instructed them by example as well as by precept, being him-
self a speaker, although his chief merit as an author is founded on his attention'^to the
theory of eloquence. His work, entitled De Institictione Oraloria, in 12 books, is ex-
ceedingly valuable ; highly conducive to the formation of good taste ; compri'sino- at
the same time the best rules and a specification and critical notice of the best models.
The 10th is one of the most instructive books in the work. — There is a collection of
oratorical exercises, Dedamationes, consisting of 19 termed smaller declamations, and
145 called larger, which have been generally ascribed to Quintilian. They are very
unequal in respect of style and value, and are chiefiy unworthy of this author. 'J'hey
are probably the productions of several different writers, mostly of a later period.—
The dialogue, De causis coM-uptcs eloquenticB, by some ascribed to Tacitus, and by
some to Pliny (cf. % 405. 2), is by others referred to Quintilian.

1. Quintilian opened his school at Rome under Vespasian ; he was the first rhetori-
cian who received a salary from the imperial treasury. His Institutes were written
about B. C. 92, after he retired from the business of public instruction.

Cf. Schm, Litt. Rom. ii. 39S.— A fuller account of his life, in RoUin, as cited § 412.— Cf. Preface to Spalding's edition below
cited H).—Dodwdl, Annales Quintiliani, &c. Oxon. 169S. 8.

2. The Institutes of Oratory are designed to form a complete orator. The author
therefore begins with him in his infancy, and goes on with him through his prepara-
tory education, his professional practice, and his retirement from active life. The 1st
book is of special value as informing us respecting the manner in which children and
youth were instructed before entering the schools of rhetoric. The 2d book gives
rules to be observed iri these rhetorical schools. The 10th book, mentioned above as
very instructive, contains a notice of the Greek and Roman classic authors.

The only complete manuscript of this work preserved to modern times was one found by Po^aio of Florence, at the time of the
council cf Constance, A. D. 1417, in a tower of the Abbey of St. Gall j what has become of this MS. is not known; but a copy of it
taken by Poggio, is now in England. ScfiSll, Litt. Rom. ii. 400.

3. Quintilian says expressly ilnst. Or. vi. procem. viii. 6), that he wrote a treatise on the
causes of the corruption if eloqitence. This is one of the grounds, on which some nf the critics
have ascribed to him the dialoo've now extant on that subject, as Gravius, Henry Stephens
Saxius and others, have done. The title of the dialogue, however, in the manuscripts and early
editions, is simply de claris oraturibus ; the other part, sew de cait.^is corruptee eloquevti(f, was
added by Lipsius. Spal<ling (in his edition named below, 4) has cited passages which he thinks
prove that thp dialogue was not the work of Quintilian. — The principal writers who ascribe the
dialogue to Pliny are J^ast and Melmoth, aiuhors of the translations cited below (5). — The early
editions and the manuscripts ascribe the dialogue to Tacitus. Brotier and other critics follow
this authority.

SclioU, Litt. Rom. ii. iOi.— Murphy, Trans, of Tacitus (cited § 534. 5), p. 258. vol. vi. ed. Best. 1S22.— FT. Melmoth, Letters of
Sir Thos. Filzosborne ; with a Dialogue on Oratory, 6th ed. Lond. 1763. S. 1st Am. ed. Bost. 1815, 12.

4. Editions— De Ins tit. Or.— Best; G. L. Spalding. Lpz. I798-1S16. 4 vols. 8. The 4th vol. prepared by Bu«man7i after
Spalding's death. These vols, contain the text. A 5th vol. containing notes and index, by C. F. ZumpI, and a Lexiccji Qidntilia-
neum fnrming a 6th vol. ty E. Bonndli, have been since added.— G. H. LUnemann. Han. IS26. 2 vols. 8.— Q.'s Wo r k s are

given in Ltmaire's Bibl. Class. Earlier celebrated editions ; P Burrnann, De Inst. & Declam. Lugd. Bat. 2 vols. 4. Cappe-

ronim, De Inst. Or. Par. 1725. fol.—/. M. Gesmer. Gott. 1738. 4. Oxf. 1806. 2 vols. 8.— C. floJZ.n, De Inst. Or. 2d ed. Par.
1734. 2 vols. 8. Altenb. {Harles ed.) 1772. Oxf. {Ingram ed.) 1809. valued for the preface of Rollin.— />. PithcBus, Declam. Mix
Par. 15S0. S.— Extracts ; by J. Aldtn, M. F. Q de Inst. Or. e Libris Excerpta. Bost. I&40. 12. Cf. A^ .imer. Rev. vol. lii. p. 266.

De causis cot t. e^oq— Good ; J. H. A. Schulzs. Lpz. 1788. 8.—J. Seebode. Gott. 1815. 8.— ff. £oHif/icr. Berl. IS32. 8.

— ^ F. RitUr. Bonn, 1836. 8.— C. S. Pabst, Dial, de Orat. Lips. 1841. 8. pp. 128 —It is given in most editions of Tacitus, and of
Quintilian. In Brolier's edition (cited § 534. 4) a chasm in the dialogue is elegantly supplied by that editor.

5. Translations.— French.— jjtie Gedoyn. Instil. Orat. Par. 1718. 4. 1803. 4 vols. 12. English.— r^arr, Declamations. Lond.

1686 8 —IK G. Guthrie. Instit Orat. 1756. 2 vols. 8.—/. Palsall, Inst. Or. Lond. 1774 8 — fT'. Melmoth, De caus. corn eloq.
Lond. 1754. 8. Cf. his Letters, above cited.— jJrfAur Murphy. De caus. corr. El. (with valuable notes) in his transi, of Tacitus, cited
§ 534. 5. German.— £f. P. C. Hencke, Inst. Or. Helmst. 1775. 3 vols. 8.—/. J. H. Nasi, dialogue de catuis, &c. Halle, 1787. S

IV. — Grammarians.

^ 416 u. The language of the Romans gained in copiousness, refinement and ox.
cellence, as the arts and sciences began to find patronage among them (cf. P. IV. ^ 114).


Patriotic and acute men, who had studied and admired the Greek language, now ap.
plied themselves to a more particular investigation and improvement of their native
tongue. These were the Grammarians, who made the study of language their prin-
cipal business, and gave the Roman youth instruction in respect both to accuracy and
to beauty ot style. And subsequently, when Roman taste was declining, these men
endeavored to sustain the classical reputation and influence of the older writers, espe-
cially the poets and orators, by exhibhing them as models, and illustrating their
beauties. In the later periods, the grammarians and philologists were almost the sole
possessors of the literature. Their industry, however, did not always take the best
direction. They often deviated into useless speculations, prolix discussions, and arbi-
trary technicalities, which gave to their pursuits a dry and forbidding aspect. Some of
them put their researches into a written form, and various essays from them have come
down to us.

§ 417. It has been before remarked {§ 407), that the grammarian gave instruction
respecting language and style generally, while the rhetorician confined himself to the
style and other qualifications of the orator. The Romans at first applied the term
liieratus to the grammarian, meaning just what the Greeks did by ypa^aariKog (cf. P.
IV. § 71), one who was well instructed in letters. Afterwards the term grammaticus
was introduced by the Romans in the same sense. We translate it by the word gram-
mnrian. but the term philologist would be more appropriate ; because the studies and
instructions of the grammaticus were not limited to the mere forms and syntax of lan-
guage in accordance with the modern Umitation of the term grammar, but were ex-
tended over the whole field of interpretation and literary criticism.

^ 418. It is commonly stated, that the first who awakened any interest at Rome in
the studies of the grammarian was Crates of Mallos, who came to Rome in the embassy
of Attains, B. C. 168. His lectures probably were in reference to Greek authors, but
served to direct the attention of the Romans to productions in their own language.
Latin grammarians soon appeared ; among the earliest Suetonius mentions two Roman
knights. They were, however, generally slaves or ireedmen, and probably of Greek
origin. Some of the more eminent of the early grammarian? were the following;
Aurelius Opilius, who composed a commentary in 9 books on different authors ; Vale-
rius Cato, authoi- of a poem before mentioned [^ 344) and of various oiher works; An-
tonius Gnipho, who left a treatise on the Latin tongue. These flourished in the time
of Sylla; Gnipho continued to teach for a long period and seems to have finally opened
a rhetorical school, where Cicero attended on his lectures (cf. § 413). Nothing of their
grammatical works now remains.

In the opening of the next period, which extended from the war of Sylla, B. C. 88,
to the death of Augustus, we find one author of special value and celebrity in this
department, M. Terentius Varro (cf. ^ 423), who was celebrated as the " most learned
of the Romans;" he made most extensive researches in grammar and philology,
of which some valuable remains are preserved to us. — Another grammarian of some
note was Verrius Flaccus, who was employed by Augustus to teach in the imperial
palace ; of his principal work we have an abridgment (cf. ^ 42S). — Julius Hyginus, a
freedman of Augustus, and keeper of the Palatine Library (cf. P. IV. ^ 126). was also
a professed grammarian, and left a commentary on Virgil with other writings ; his
philological works are, however, all lost.

§ 419. In the next period, extending from the death of Augustus, A. D. 14, to the
Antonines, there were many writers belonging to the class now under notice. In the
preceding period, a chief object of attention among the grammarians was to inquire
into the origin and structure of the Latin language. But in this, their attention was
directed to the interpretation and criticism of authors, especially of the works, which
appeared in the age of Augustus; as the grammarians of Alexandria employed them-
selves much in commenting on the classic authors of Greece. Asconius Pedianus in
the 1st century (cf. § 424) gained some celebrity by commentaries on Virgil, Sa'llust,
and Cicero. There were two grammarians by the name of Valerius Probus', one
under Nero and Vespasian, and the other under Adrian. Rhemnius Palaemon^ was a
celebrated teacher of grammar in the reigns of Claudius and Nero. Annaeus Cornu-
tus, who has been mentioned as author of a treatise in Greek (§ 227), is supposed to
have exerted a considerable influence on the literature of his age by his instructions at
Rome, and by his writings, among which was a lost commentary on Terence ; he
taught philosophy as well as grammar, and was finally banished by Nero. Velius
Loneus'' is the name of another grammarian of this period, w^ho left a treatise on ortho-
graphy, still extant, and a commentary on the .^neid, which is lost. We have hke-
wise a treatise on orthography ascribed to Terentius Scaurus^, who lived in the time
of Adrian, and was preceptor to the emperor L. Verus ; he wrote also a grammar and
a commentary on Horace's Art of Poetrj'. Cornelius Fronto, named among the episto-
lizers (§ 443), should also be mentioned here, as he was an eminent grammarian and
teacher, and left a treatise, still extant, on the different meanings of words commonly
vailed synonymous.

But one of the most valuable and interesting authors in the department before us is


Aulus Gellius, who flourished at the very close of this period ; his miscellaneous pro-
duction, entitled Nodes Alticas, will be noticed below (^ 425).

1 The extant (realises ascribed to Valerius Probua are, (1) a grammar, grammaiicarum instil, lib. duo ; (2) an account of Roman
stenography, de 7io<is iJumajioru/n ; (3) Scholia on the Georiics and Bucoiicsof Virgil, found in the collection o( Putsch, cited
below (§ 422) ; separately, H. Ernst. Sorae, 1647. 8. The scholia on Virgil (with other couinienlaries), by A. Mai. Mil. 18IS. 8.

-^'» The only work of Palaemon extant is his Summa Grammaiices, or sketch of grammar; given aiso by Putsch. 3 The

grammatical pieces remaining from Longus, Scaurus, and Fronto, are giveo by the same; that of Frouto likewise by Mai (cf.
§ 443. 2).

"$> 420. In the last period included in our glance, the studies of the grammarian and
philologer continued to be held in honor. In the eastern empire an imperial ordinance
in the beginning of the 5th century contained the provision that all Greek and Latin
grammarians, who had been employed in teaching their science for twenty years,
should hold the rank of Vicars {vicarii). The Vicars were governors of extensive pro-
vinces, and belonged to the class of dignitaries who were styled Speclabiles, and were
addressed in the words Vesfra Spectabilitas or Vestra Clarilas.

% 421. Of the numerous grammarians of this period, the following may be named as
the principal ; Nonius Marcellus, Censorinus, and Pomponius Festus of the 3d century ;
^Hus Donatus of the 4th century; Macrobius, Diomedes, and Charisius of the 5th
century ; whose works are mentioned in the following sections (§•$> 423 — 432). Mar-
cianus Capella may properly be named here, although the peculiar character of the
work left by him to posterity is such as may justify our placing him among the philo-
sophical writers (cf. ^ 473). There were others, of whom some remains are preserved ;
as Flavins Caper, Victorinusi, already mentioned as a rhetorician, Lucius Ampelius'^,
Mallius Theodorus^, Pompeius'*, Servius the commentator on Virgil^, and Acron and
Porphyrio^, commentators on Horace.

Priscian of Caesarea (cf § 433) does not fall chronologically within our glance, as he
lived after the overthrow of Rome, A. D. 476 ; but he must not be omitted, being one
of the most celebrated of all the Latin grammarians. Isidore of Seville, who lived
still later, is also deserving of mention here on accoum of his labors in grammar and
philology (cf § 434).

I The remains of Caper, and the grammatical pieces of Fictorinus are given in the collection of Putsch (cf. § 422). 3 From

Arnpelius we have a work entitled itfccr memorialis, in 50 chapters, on various topics, many of them historical ; it is commonly
given in the editions o! Fimtis (cf § .136. 5) 3 Mallius Theodoras, at the close of the fourth century, left a work De Metris; pub-
lished first by/. F. Htusirigcr. 1755. Repr. Lugd. Bat. 1766. 8. * The works of Pompeius are two pieces which are cora-

icentaries on Donilus (cf. § 429) ; first published by Fr. Liiidemann. Lpz. 1820. S. s The purely grammatical pieces of Ser-
vius are given by Putsch (cf. § 422). The commentary on Virgil is given in Ltmairt's Virgil (cf. § 362. 4) and other editions.

6 The comments of Acron and Porphyrio are given in sorae of the editions of Horace (cf. § 363. 4) ; these grammarians are placed
by some as early as the second century. — See Scholl. Litt. Rom. iii. 311, ss.

^ 422. We give here some references on the subject of the Latin grammarians col-

1. Collections.—/. Theod. Sellovacus, Gmmmatici illustres, xii. Par. 1516. (ol.—Dimys. Gothofred, Auctores Latinse LingDse,
in unum redac'i corpus. Genev. 1595, 1622. 4.—H. Pvischius (Putsch), Gramnia'icje Latinas auctores antiqui. Han. 1605. 4. in-
cluding the remains of about thirty writers. — An account of the contents of these Collections is given by Fabricius, Bibl. Lat. iii.
318, ss. Cf. also F. A. Erbert, Allg. bibliograph. Lexicon, i. 700, ss.— P. Lindemann, Corpus Grammaticoruin Latinorum. 1831. 4.
commenced and to be continued ; Ist vol. said to be well executed.— We may add here, T. Gaisfcrd, Scriptores Latini rei metrical.
Oxf. I *37. 8.

2. Respecting the grammarians; Suetonius, De illustr. grammaticis (cf. § 537).—Quintilian, Inst. Or. lib. i.— Bo«tn, of Gram-
marians and Philologers, in Anc Hist. p. 457, ss. vol. ii. ed. N. Y. ]SZ5.— Scholl, Litl. Rom. i. 164. ii. 237, 485. iii. 307.—/. E,
Im. IValchius, Diss, de ortu et progressu artis crit. apud veleres Rominos. Jen. 1747. A.—Dunlop, Hist. Rom. Lit. ii. 35.— Biihr,
p. 709.

§ 423. Marcus Terentius Varro, who was born B. C. 117 and died B. C. 27, was
an uncommonly fruitful writer. In his youth he followed the profession of war and
was on the side of Pompey ; he afterwards went over to the party of Caesar, who gave
him the charge of his library. By Antony he was banished; but under Augustus he
returned with the other exiles. He closed his life in literary ease, at the age of 90.
His work on the Latin totigue consisted originally of 24 books ; but we have now only
the 4th, 5th and 6th, which treat of etymology, and the 7ih, 8th and 9th, which treat
of the analogy of language ; of the other books merely detached fragments remain.
On account of the antiquity and the accuracy of these writings, they doubtless are
worthy of the first rank among the grammatical productions of the Romans. Varro,
however, often went too far in his etymological speculations, and was too partial to the
domestic derivation of Latin words.

1. Varro was an historian, poet (cf. $ 345) and philosopher, as well as erammarian. His works
are said to have amounted to nearly 500 in nuiriber. Of theye nothing remains but the parts of
the work already named de Lin<rua Latina, a treatise on husbandry (cf $ 499), and some slight
fratriiienls of other performances. — The titles of many of the lost treatises indicati^ that they be-

iDiieed to the class properly denominated critical or philolocriciil. Others were on niythnloa-ical

subjects; e 2. the treatise Dc cultu Deorum (cf $ 503) .—Others were biosrapbical and historical;
amotiij which were a work entiiled ./f/i??aZes, and -Annxher De initiis urbis Rovke ; also a work
enlilled Hebdomudum or De imaffinib^is, containins notices of seven hundred eminent men. Cf
jiiil. Gell. Noct. Atl. iii. 10. xvi. 9; Plin. Hist. N. xxxv. 2.— A few were philosophval; that de
Philugophia contained a comprehensive view of all the ancient sects with tl^eir eubordinate


schools and parties. He wrote many satirical pieces (cf. J 345). There is a collection of maxima
extant, which is said to have been drawn from the works of Varro; they are given in Schnei-
der's collection cited $ 489. 3. — Augustine in his work Decivitate Dei, ofien refers to the work of
Varro ; and there was a groundless story that Pope Gregory caused the writings of Varro to be
burned in order to shield Augustine from the disgrace of having borrowed too freely from them.

For a view of the life and writings of Varro, see Dunlop, HisL Rom. Lit. li. 23-53.— Schneider, de vita T. Varronis, &c., in his
Collection just named. — V. Maurus, De vita Varrnnis, &c. Lugd. 1563. 8.

2. Editions.— W hole Work s.—Princep!, by H. Stephanus Par. 1569. 8. — Most complete, Dordrecht (Dort, Dordracum),
1619. Repr. 1623. 8.— D e Latina Lingu a.— Best; BiponI, 1788. 2 vols. 8.— Cf. G. D. KSler, Literae Cril. iu Var-
ron. de L. L. (ad V. C. Heyne). Duisb. 1790. 8.

§ 424. Asconius Pedianus, a native of Padua, was a grammarian of the 1st century.
He wrote annotations on some of the orations of Cicero ; fragments of which are still

1. These fragments or extracts were found by Poggio in the convent of St. Gall near
Constance ; they are styled Enarrationes in M. T. Cic. Orationes. Some additional
notes were discovered by Mai in the Ambrosian library at Milan. The commentaries
of Asconius on Virgil and Sallust are entirely lost. There is an historical work entitled
Origo genlis Bomance, which has by some been ascribed to him ; but is usually ad-
mitted to belong to Sextus Aurehus (cf. % 539).

Cf. SchoU, Litt. Rom. ii. 485. iii. 160.— SaAr, Gesch. ROm. Lit. p. 539.

2. Editions.— Princ«pj (cura Pogsii). Ven. 1477. fol.— Latfst named by E^hr (cum not. Crenii). Leyd. 1698. 12.— Given with
C.'s orations in the ed. of Grxviut (cited § 404. 5). — The fragments discovered by Mai were published by him in 1814 (cf. § 404. 5).

^ 425. Aulus Gellius, born at Rome, lived in the time of the emperor Antoninus
Pius. His work entitled Nodes AtliccB, is a collection of various observations, which
he had gathered from the best Greek and Latin authors for the improvement and en-
tertainment of his children. The collection was made in the winter nights, during his
residence at Athens. It consists of miscellaneous remarks chiefly on grammatical,
historical, and antiquarian topics, and contains much valuable matter for the philologer
and critic. There were originally 20 books ; the 8th and the beginning of the 6th
are lost.

1. He is called Asellitts in some manuscripts, and the French write his name Aulu-
gelle Cornelius Fronto (cf § 443) was one of his early teachers before he went to
study at Athens. After his return to Rome he was appointed one of the Centumviri,
or member of the centumviraJ court (cf. P. HI. % 262). His death is supposed to have
occurred before A. D. 164. The Nodes Atticce contain a number of extracts from lost
works. The arrangement of the contents is not methodical, and the style is not free
from impurities.

Schmi, Li't. Rom. iii. 309.— Prefaces and Eicurs. in the editions of Longoliut ^ Conradi below cited. — On the age of Gellios,
Hen. Dodw II, in the Diss, de sstate Peri|)li maris Eiixini, given in Hudson's Minor Greek Geographers, cited § 2081 2.

2. Editions.— Best ; A. Lion, Gatt. 1824. 2 vols. h.—Gronovim, Lugd. Bat. 1706. 4 —J. L. Conradi. Lpz. 17: 2. 2 vols. 8. a
reimpressinn of Gronrrv's. — The Bipont ed. 1784, is based on the same ; as is that of P. D. Lon^oliw. Curias Regnil. 1741. 8. —
Princrpf. by Swfynheym fy Pannartz (printers). Rom. 1469. fol. ed. J. Jindrias Aleriensis, bishop of Ateria ; " esteenied
among the rarest of the Edilioms Principen.'' — An improved ed. of Aul. Gell. seems to be a desideratum. Cf. Foh'iciiis, Lat.
iii. \0.—Dibdi7i, Intr. Gr. & Lat. Class, i. 342.— P/iiJ. Caroltis, Animadversiones in Agellium, &c. (Ch. .Arnold, ti.) Norimb.
1663. 8.

3. Translations. — German. — B. fV. von WalUnttem. Lemgo, 1785. 8. French.— JoJ. Douze de Vertevil. Par. 1789. 3 vols. 12.

English.— >r. Belot. Lond. 1795. 3 vols. 8.

§ 426. Censorinus, a grammarian of the 3d century, is known by his work entitled
De die natali. It was addressed to his friend Quintus Cerellius on the occasion of his
birthdav, and contains much learning. It treats of the diflerent periods of human life,
of the divisions of time, days, nights, months, years, &c. mostly in a philological
manner. He wrote also a work on accents, which is lost excepting a few passages
quoted by Priscian.

1. The work of Censorinus treats also of music, astronomy, of periodical games
and celebrations, and other topics. It consists of 25 chapters ; and is of considerable
value in determining various questions in chronology and antiquities. — The early edi-
tions of Censorinus contained 15 additional chapters, which Louis Corrio. in his edi-
tion, first separated from the rest as forming a separate work, entitled De naturali
instititlione, and probably not belonging to the same author. They treat of geometry
and versification.

Schmi, Litt, Rom. iii. 3\2.—Fal>ricius, Bibl. Lat. iii. i\l.—B'<ihr, p. 661.

2. Editions.- The most complete; S. Havercamp. Leyd. 1743. (with new title 1767.) S.—J. S. Grilber. NQmb. (Norimb.)

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