Johann Joachim Eschenburg.

Manual of classical literature : from the German of J.J. Eschenburg, with additions online

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3. Translations— German.— r. A. Schiifer. 2d ed. Erlang. 1824. 2 vols. 8 — F. A. Schott, in the Coll. of Osiander, &c.

French.— iOT/is de Sncy. 3d ed. Par. 1711. 3 vols. 12.— This and his trans, of the Panegyric given with the Latin text, by /. F.
A-lry. Par. ISOS. 3 vols. 12. and by/. Pierrot. Par. 1833. 3 vols. 8. English.— /oAn Ear! of Orrery. Lond. 1751. %.— Wil-
liam Melmoth. 5th ed. Lond. 1763. 2 vols. 8. Ist Amer. ed. Bost. 1809. 2 vols. 12,

^ 442. Lucius Annc^ts Seneca, named among the poets (<5> 374). is here introduced
on account of his epistles. They are 124 in number, addressed to Lucilius, who was
Prcetor in Sicily, and was himself an author (cf. § 335). These letters are very in-
structive ; they" refer chiefly to practical philosophy according to the Stoical principles.


The 8Sth epistle especially deserves the attention of young students. They are less
valuable in point of style, being composed with a tiresome and artificial beauty, and
abounding with sententious antithesis. It is probable that these letters were composed,
at least in great part, with the design of making them public.

1. The letters of Seneca were written in the last years of his hfe. Many are sup-
posed to have been lost {Aid. Gell. Noct. Att. xii. 2). The 88th letter is entitled de
studils liberalibus. They are all of them philosophical or moral treatises or declama-
tions, rather than actual letters. But some of the pieces usually placed among his
philosophical writings seem to have been letters addressed to relatives or friends (cf.
§ 4G9. 2).

2. There are extant 14 letters purporting to be a correspondence of the Apostle
Paul, which were once considered as genuine. There was a tradition that an acquaintance
and intimacy existed between the apostle and the philosopher. Some writers have
pointed out what they consider as remarkable coincidences of thought and expression
in the writings of Paul and Seneca. Certain words are also said to be used by Seneca
in their Biblical rather than their classical sense.

Cf. Schmi, Lilt. Rom. ii. 4io.—Fabricius, Bib). Lat. lib. ii. c. 9. vol. ii. p. 120.— fr. Ch. Gelpke, Tractatiuiicula de Familiarilate
quae Taulo cum Seneca intercessisse traditur. Lips. 1813. 4.

3. Editions.— Given in the editions of Seneca's Works, (cf. § 469. 4).— Separately, F. Ch. Matthix. Fnnkf. 1S08. 8.-7.
Schweighiiuser. Strassb. 1S09. 2 vols. 8. the best.— The spurious epistles (£pi»« (%) Senecs ad Paulum et ifi) Pauli ad Seriecam)
are given in Fabricitu. Cod. Apocryph. Nov. Test. ; also in the ei. of Seneca's works by Erarmus (§ 469. 4), and in others.

4. Tran^laiinns.— German.— y. W. OUhausen. Kiel, 18M. 2 vols. 8.— C. G. fV. Uhmann, ('he S8ih letter). Quedl. 1816. 8.
French.— f. Sablier. Par. 1770. 12. English.— TTiomoj Morell, Seneca's Epistles, with large Annota'ions, wherein parti-
cularly the Tenets of the ancient Philosophers are contrasted wiih the Precepts of the Gospel. Lond. 1786. 2 vols. 4.

^ 443*. 3Iarcus CorneUus Fronto, a native of Corta, in Numidia, was born probably
in the reign of Domiiian or Nerva. He is supposed to have studied at Alexandria
before he commenced business as a pleader and teacher at Rome, in which character
he has been already mentioned (§ 400). By a remarkable discovery of ISlai. in the
present century, considerable parts of a collection of letters by Fronto were brought
to light.

1. Some of them were found by Mai in the Ambrosian library at I\Iilan, in 1S15, on
a pallmp.iext or rescript manuscript, which contained the acts of the first council of
Chalcedony. Among these are letters of Fronto to the A^tonines and several other
persons, and also letters of Marcus Aurelius to Fronto. Most of them are in Latin,
but several of them are in Greek. The state of the manuscript was such that there
are many chasms in the letters. Mai, having subsequently the charge of the library
of the Vatican at Rome, discovered in that another part of the effaced manuscript of
Fronto. containing above a hundred additional letters. — Some fragments of orations
were also found by Mai. The grammatical treatise, de differenliis vocabulorum, was
previously known.

2. Editions. — .3ni;elus Mai. M. Com. Frontonis Opera, &c. Mil. 1815. 2 vols. 8. containing the letters found in the Ambmsian
palimpsest, parts of a few orations, the treatise de diff. vocafndorum, and various fragments. Reprinted Frankf. I8I6. — B. G. Nie-
buhr, M. C. Front. Reliquis, &c. Berl. 1816. 8. containing also fragments of the orations of Symmachus, (cf I) 406. 4). — After his
discovery of the Va'ican MS., Mai published another edition of Fronto. Rom. 1823. 8.— Cf. KlUgling, Suppl. to Harles, p. 320. —
ScfiSU. Hi't. Litt. Grecque, vol. iv. p. 259.

3. Translations.— French.— jj. Cassan, Lettres de M. Aurele et de Fronton traduites, &c Par. 1830. 2 vols. 8. with the latin
test and notes.

. S* 444. Quintu.t Aurelivs Symmachus, a native of Rome, lived at the close of the 4th
century. He held the office of Proconsul for Africa A. D. 370, of Praefect of Rome
A. D. 384, and of Consul A. D. 391. He was a warm opposer of Christianity. His
remaining epistles were collected by his son in 10 books. We observe in them an
imitation not altogether unsuccessful of the younger Pliny, but discover also many
traces of the more degenerate taste of the age in which the author flourished. The
Gist letter of the 10th book is the most worthy of notice.

1. Symmachus was a speaker of some reputation, and fragments of several of his
orations were discovered by Mai along with the letters of Fronto (^ 443. 1). — The
letters of Symmachus are nearly 1000 in number. Gibbon remarks that "the luxu-
riance of Symmachus consists of barren leaves without fruits and even without flowers ;
few facts and few sentiments can be extracted from his verbose correspondence."

Symmachus witnessed the downfall of Paganism, notwithstanding his very zealous
efforts to sustain the sinking cause. The 61st letter of the 10th book {relatio pro ara
VicloricB)ha!i special reference to this subject; it is a sort of argum.ent or petition to
the emperor Valentinian, urging that he would allow the statue and ahar of Victory
to stand in the hall of the senate. Ambrose, bishop of Milan was a successful anta-
gonist of Symmachus, and one of his epistles is a formal reply to the petition. The
poet Prudentius also wrote aga'nst him (cf. ^ 387).

Cf. Ambrose, Episl. 17, 18, in S. Ambrosii Opera, cura Mon. Benedict. Par. 1690. 2 vols. M.—B. Fr. Schmieder, Des Sveb-
machus Grande firs Heidenthum und des Ambrosius GegengrQnJe. Hil. Sax. 1790. 8.—Lardner, Heathen Teslimonies, vol iv

p. 372. ss. On Symmachus, cf. SchSU, Lilt. Rom. iii. 201.— SaAr, p. 599— £. Gilbou, Decl. aud Fall of Rom. Emp. ch. xiviii

(vol. iii. p. 214. ed. N. Y. 1822).— C. G. HeyJie, Censura ingenii et morum Q. Aur. Symmachi, &c. GotU ISOI. fol. also in UN
Opttt. Acad. Gott. 1812. 8. 6th vol.


2 Edi'.ions.— Tlie best ; /. P. Pareas. Frankf. 1651. 8. first published at Neustadt, on the Hart {Neapoli Nemetum), 1617.—
Pnnceps, accordiug to Fabricius, ex officiana /. Schotti. Argentor. 1510. 4. Others mention as earlier, a dateless ed. printed at

§ 445. Sidonius Apollinaris, horn at Lugdunum in Gaul, flourished after the middle
of the oth century. He is known as the author ot a series of letters, and also as a poet,
and is worthy of notice, especially considering the age in which he hved. In his poems,
among which are four eulogies, there is mach animation and spirit, although there is
also much that is unnatural and overstrained. We have from him 9 books of letters,
which are more valuable for their historical matter than for their style. We find in
the collection an address by him on the occasion of the election of a bishop of Bouro-es.

1. His lull name was Cants Sollius Apollinaris Modestus Sidonius. He married the
daughter of Avitus, who was named emperor A. D. 455. Amid the changes of the
times he repeatedly rose to office and rank at Rome, and again repeatedly retired to
Gaul. At length, A. D. 472, he became bishop of Clermont {Augustunometum), and
died in that station A. D. 484.

Scholl Litt. Rom. i;i. 96 — Gibbon, Decl. and Fall of Rom. Emp. ch. xxxvi. p. 37S. vol. iii. N. T. 1822.— C/a>*c, as cited § 293.
vol. ii. p. 256.

2. Editions.— The best, /. Sirmond. Par. 1652. 1. contaiuing the letters and the poems — The Poems are also given in Mattair^$
Corp. Poet. Lat. cited § 348. 2.

VI. — Philosophers,

M_46?/. The Roman philosophy was derived from the Grecian. Antecedently to
Grecian influence, the traces of philosophical speculation among the Romans are of no
great importance. During the first five centuries, such pursuits in general were not
regarded with favor, being considered as at variance with the prevailing desire of con-
quest and destructive to military zeal and prowess.

§ 447. During the first of the periods, which we have regarded in our glance at
Roman Literature, the only name which can have the least claim to be admitted to
the list of philosophers is that of Numa, the second king of Rome. He is supposed
by some to have borrowed the wisdom displayed in his civil institutions from Grecian
sources (cf P. HI. % 202). He seems to have cultivated a sort of religious and poh-
tical phir sophy, like Lycurgus and Solon among the Greeks (cf % 167) ; but like each
of them must be considered as a lawgiver of practical sense and wisdom, rather than
a philn.anplier in the strict meaning of the word. — There may have been other men in
this period, who were (not unlike the seven sages of Greece) distinguished for their
prudence, and able to propound useful maxims for the conduct of others.

On llie iristi<ulinns of Numa, Plutarch, Vit. Vnm.—Niebukr's Rome (cf. 5 299. 7), vol. i. p. I?l. of Am. ed. Phil. IS35. 2 vols. 8.
—Dicmyt. Hal. ii. 59.— Cf. A. Smith, On the Character and Theolog)' of the early Romans, in Sill. Repos. Apr. 1K3.

•^ 448. The first distinct intimations of any considerable inclination to philosophical
studies at Rome, we find shortly after the conquest of Macedonia by Paulus jEmilius,
B. C. 167. This conqueror took with him to Rome the philosopher IVIeirodorus, to
aid in the instruction of his children ; and other philosophers, who had been patronized
a. ...e Macedonian court by king Perseus, are said to have followed Metrodorus into
Italy. The Stoic philosopher Panaetius, from Rhodes, was also introduced to Rome
by Scipio Africanus. Yet a few years after the arrival of the philosophers from Greece
and the east, they were banished from Rome by a formal decree of the senate,
B. C. 162.

§ 449. The rise of philosophy at Rome is. however, commonly dated from the em-
bassy of the Athenians, already mentioned in our remarks on the Roman orators and
rhetoricians (§ 408). This embassy was sent by the Athenians to deprecate a fine of
500 talents which had been inflicted on them for laying waste Oropii, a town of Sicyo-
nia. The three envoys employed on this occasion were at the time the heads of the
three leading sects of Greek philosophers ; viz. Diogenes, the Stoic ; Critolaus, the
Peripatetic; and Carneades, the Academic, considered as the founder of what is called
the Nfw Academy (^ 175). The display of eloquence and wisdom made by these men
served to excite in the Roman youth of all classes an ardent thirst for knowledge, and
turn their minds to the study of rhetoric and philosophy. Cato and others were alarm.ed
ot the influence exerted by these philosophers; and insisted that they should depart
from Rome. But the love for such studies now awakened could not be destroyed,
and philosophy began to make progress in the city ; and ere long most of the Grecian
sects found followers or patrons among the higher class of Romans. The library of
Aristotle, which was brought to Rome by Sylla on the capture of Athens, B. C. 147,
contributed to promote the study of philosophy.

On the fuhipct cf eJiication among the Romans, see P. IV. §5 123-136, and references there given ; to which may be added the fol-
lowing :— /. G. Wnlch, de variis modis lileras colendi apud veleres Rnmanos. Jen. 1807. 8.— C. Budde, De studiis liberalibus apod
Ronianos. Jen. 1700. 4.— Hcgewi ^ch, Qber die Entslehung des gelehrten Standes bei den ROmern, in his Klein. Scliriftm. Schleisw

me. 8.


^ 450. It is worthy of notice, that the Romans seem never to have made philosophy
the business of Hfe, as did many of the Greeks; but they pursued it either as a part of
elegant and refined culture, or as adapted to promote their advancement in the state.
Hence, although they applied themselves to Grecian philosophy, and transferred into
their own language some of the Grecian treatises, and improved by this means both
their jurisprudence, their rhetoric, and their general literature, they yet made no ad-
vances in discovery. They cherished no ambition to start new sects, or theories, but
willingly adopted those already formed by the Greeks.

^ 451. The number of Roman authors in the department of philosophy is also conri-
paratively small, for the same reason. The names of the principal votaries of phi-
losophy, in the time which forms our second period of Roman Literature, were the
following : Scipio Africanus, Caius Lajlius, L. Furius, P. Rutilius Rufus, Sextus Pom-
peius, uncle to Pompey the Great, Quintus Tubero, and Q. Mucius Scaevola. The
last four were distinguished jurisconsults. We have no written remains of the philoso-
phy of this period.

§ 45-3. Early in the next period, beginning B. C. 88, we find the celebrated Lucullus
patronizing and encouraging very zealously the study of philosophy. Whilst he was
Quaestor in Macedonia, and afterwards while conducting the war against Mithridaies,
he became acquainted with some of the Greek philosophers, and acquired a strong
relish for their speculations. On his return to Rome, B. C. 67, he established a cele-
brated library (cf P. IV. § 126), with galleries and schools adjoining, and made it a
place of free resort to all men of letters, where they could enjoy the benefits of reading
and conversation ; and here, as well as at the house of the philosopher Antiochus, he
frequently engaged with ardor in philosophical discussions. Among those who culti-
vated philosophy in this period, we find the names of Marcus Junius Brutus, M. Te-
rentius Varro, Piso Calpurnianus, Lucretius, and Pomponius Atticus. To this place
belongs also the name of Cicero, who must be considered as altogether the most emi-
nent of the Romans in philosophy.

?! 453. In the period following the reign of Augustus, from A. D. 14 to A. D. 160,
philosophy was still considered an important study as a part of hberal culture. But
the progress of despotism under the emperors was not propitious to any branch of
learning, and philosophy of course did not escape the blighting influence. In the reign
of Domitian, the philosophers were actually banished from Italy, under a mock decree
of the senate. The principal Roman philosopher of this period was Seneca; Pliny
the elder is also worthy of particular noiice; and the younger Pliny and Tacitus may
properly be mentioned in the list of philosophers. PUny in one of his letters (Ep. i. 10)
mentions in terms of high commendation a philosopher by the name of Euphrates, who
gave public instruction at Rome.

In this period Oriental notions obtained currency at Rome. " The vain superstitions
of the east, the magic and the occult sciences which have such charms for the ignorant,
found at Rome more zealous friends than did the abstractions of speculative philoso-
phy, or those principles of morality which are the proper end of all true philosophy.
Every religion that existed on the globe, found a residence at the imperial capital ; the
mysteries of Egypt and of Svria were introduced, and the titles of Mystagogi and Magi
were in higher estimation than that of philosopher." SchdJf, Litt. Rom. ii. 4-27.

^ 454. At the commencement of the last period, A. D. 160, IMarcus Aurelius re-
ceived the imperial throne, and was himself a zealous philosopher of the Stoic school
(cf. "Ji 196), a circumstance which might give a new impulse to philosophical studies as
well as impart a temporary importance to that school. After his reign philosophy was
still cultivated, and new sects began to be formed, by philosophers who professed to
make improvements by rejecting the errors and retaining the valuable truths and prin-
ciples of others; such were the New-Platonists and the Eclectics. The progress

of the Christian religion, in the 3d and 4th centuries, exerted a considerable influence
on the character of Roman philosophy ; and the Latin fathers employed themselves in
studying the pagan philosophy for the purpose of opposing the pagan religion and sup-
porting Christianity. This occasioned a singular admixture of notions, drawn partly
from the pagan sects and partly from the sacred writings. The principal Latin au-
thors, who mav be classed among the philosophers of this period are Apuleius (?> 471)
and Boethius (§ 474). The Latin father Augustine, bishop of Hippo, who died A. D.
430, at the age cf 76. may also with propriety be named here. Petronias Arbite*"
(i 472) and ]\farcianus Capella (§ 473) are sometimes ranked among the philosophers.

§ 455. It seems desirable, in addition to the rapid sketch above given of the progress
of philosophy among the Romans, to elance separately, although slightly, at the prin-
cipal sects, which found advocates and follower? at Rome.

It has been mentioned (^ 449) that Roman philosophy, as the subject is commonly
viewed, had its origin in the embassy of the three philosophers from Athens, who were
at the rime leaders in three of the Greek sects, the Stoic, Peripatetic, and Academic.

^ 456. The Academic was represented and advocated by Carneades, who was the
most able man and the most popular sneaker of the trio ; and of course awakened a

3 E 2


partiality for the doctrines of his sect. — The inimedia:e successor of Carneades in the
Academy at Athens, CHtomachus (who, according to Cicero, wrote 400 treatises on
philosophical subjects), is said also to have given personal instruction at Rome. CH-
tomachus was succeeded by Philo, who in the Mithridatic war fled from Athens to
Rome. Here Cicero attended on his lectures, and imbibed the principles of the New
Academy, which were maintained by the followers of Carneades. The doctrines of
the New Academy had been favorably received at Rome from their first introduction;
the example and choice of Cicero no doubt gave them greater vogue among those wlio
cultivated oratory. — But the peculiar tenets of the Old Academy had their advocates,
among whom were Brutus, Varro, and Lucullus.

Dunl,p. His! Rom. Lit. vol. ii. 21 1, ss. ed. Phil. ]S2-.—Enfidd, HpsI. of Philosophy, bk. iii. ch. ].—MiddUt(m, Life of Cicero,
»ol. iii. p. 328. el. Bost. 1818.— C. .1. Brandis, Handbuch d. Gesch. d. griech. — rem. Philos. Berl. IS35. 8.

% 457. The Slok school had many disciples at Rome. Its rigid doctrines were suit-
ed to the stern civil policy of the Romans, and the most distinguished jurisconsults and
magistrates of the repubhc were generally inclined to this sect ; thus Rulilius Rufus,
Q. Tubero, and M. Scaevola (cf §562), were Stoics; as were also Laslius and Scipio
Africanus. Especially must we mention Cato of Utica as a zealous Stoic; he carried
his principles into full practice, and finally, after the defeat of Pompey at the battle of
Pharsalia. despairing of the liberiies of his country, he put an end to his life with his
own hand. — The ardent patrioiism manifested by many who were professedly of the
Stoic sect, tended to promote its popularity. Some of the poets, particularly Lucan
and Persius, embraced and commended its doctrines. The prevalence of Christianity
is also supposed to have contrit)uted to the success of the Stoic philosophy, as the views
of the later advocates of Stoicism agreed better than the doctrines of the other pagan
sects with the high morality of the gospel.

One of the most distinguished philosophers of the Stoic sect at Rome, and the only
one who has left any philosophical writings in the Latin tongue, was Seneca (cf "ji 469).
But there were other eminent teachers and advocates of the system ; as, Musonius
Rufus, Annseus Cornufus (cf. % 227), Chaeremon, a preceptor of Nero, Dion Chrysos-
tom (§ 118), Epictetus {% 193), and Sextus a native of Chaeronea, who became preceptor
to Marcus Antoninus. The name of Antoninus is the last which is specially worthy
of notice ; at the early age of 12, he manifested a partiality for the Stoic philosophv,
and when emperor he zealously patronized it. He wrote in Greek (cf <^ 196). as did
the others just named. Public schools of the Stoic sect were continued from his time
until that of Alexander Severus, A. D. 230; but they greatly declined under the in-
creasing prevalence of the Eclectic system.

Enfidd. Hist, of Phil. bk. iii. ch. I. and ch. 2. sect T —Ti-nnemnnn's Manual of Hist, of Phil, translated by A. Johnson (Oxf.
1S32. f-). \ ]Si.—Bdhr, Gesrhichte der Rom. Lit. ^ 306, 207.— G. P. Hollenberg, De Praecipuis Stoicae Philosophiae Doctoribus et
Patrouis apud Roni-inos. Lips. 1793. 4.

§ 458. The Peripatetic philosophy does not appear to have found very warm admi-
rers amonrr the Romans. The writings of Aristotle and Theophrastus were brought
to Rome from Athens by Sylla ; they were, however, very difiicult for the Romans
to understand. Yet this sect had its advocates ; and its doctrines were taught in the
public schools under the emperors, and numerous commentaries and treatises were
written upon the works of its original founder. These writings, however, seem to
have been entirely in the Greek language. The most eminent Peripatetics after the
Chris'ian era, did not reside at Rome; Themistius, who illustrated several of the
treatises of Aristotle, gave instruction at Constantinople (cf § 125) ; Alexander Aphro-
diseus. author of several works still extant, and called by distinction the Commentator,
taught at Athens or Alexandria, about A. D. 200.

Enfield, bk. iii. th. I. ch. 2. sect. 5. — JohmonU Tennemann, § 183.

"Js 459. The Cyiiicx seem never to have enjoyed any reputation at Rome. The
opinion of Cicero respecting them, was. that the whole body ought to be banished from
the state. Julian (§ 127) pronounces the Cynics of his day to be troublesome and mis-
chievous. In the reign of the Antonines philosophers of this sect were forbidden to
maintain any public schools. Lucian treats them with great severity, particularly in
the piece on Peregrinus (cf. % 121).

Enfidd, bk. iii. ch. 2. § 6.

§ 460. The Epicurean philosophy had sunk into great discredit on account of the
improprieties indulged by its advocates, before its introduction to Rome. Notwith-
standing this disadvantage, it soon obtained admirers. The free indulgence of the in-
clinations which it allowed, greatlv conduced to its popularity. Cicero condemned
and opposed it ; but Atticus, his intimate friend and correspondent, embraced it.
Horace, if not an Epicurean entirely, yet found the lightness and gayety which it
cherished very congenial to his feelings. The poet Lucretius (cf. § 357) was the first
who gave the Romans, in their own language, a full account of the doctrines of Epicu-
rus ; and the reputation of his poetry no doubt contributed in an eminent degree to
p^ive currenc " to these doctrines. Pliny the elder (cf § 470) is sometimes ranked among


the Epicureans, but he did not rigidly adhere to any sect. Lucian the satirist, and
Celsus the early adversary of Cfirislianity, are also included by some. Diogenes
Laertius (cf. § •255a) Ukewise is thought to manifest plainly his predilection for the
iiloctrines of Epicurus.

Enfield, bk. iii. cti. 2. sect. 8.— /oAnJon'j Tennemanu, § 181.— Account of the philosophy of Lucretius, in the translations oi Biishy
and Good, cited § 357. i.—ScKoU, Litt. Rom. ii. 155.

^ 461. The school of Slippliat or Pyrrhonhts gained no celebrity among the Romans,
The peculiar doctrines of the Skeptics corresponded, in some degree, with those of the
Academy. Pyrrhonism, however, had avowed abettors and supporters; among them
were particularly several physicians. — We have no written remains from any of them
in the Latin language ; and the only author that specially deserves notice here, as an

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