Johann Joachim Eschenburg.

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advocate of Skepticism under the Roman empire, is Sextus Empiricus, who flourished
about A. D. 200, and wrote in Greek (cf. '5^ 197).

Enfield, Hist. Fhil. bk. iii. ch. 2. sect. 9.—Johna'j7i's Tennemann, \ 1S6-193.— r/wTrfcccJie, De discriniine inter Acad, et Sceptic
Lug Bat. 1820.

§ 462. It will be recollected that the four sects, which we have here mentioned first,
the Academic and Peripatetic, Stoic and Cynic, were derived through Socrates from
the old Ionic school (cf. § 171-173) ; and that the two last mentioned, the Epicurean
and Skeptic, descended from the old Italic or Pythagorean school (cf. ^ 170, 177).

As the Pythagorean school in Magna Greecia was so celebrated among the Greeks,
we might suppose that it would have attracted great attention among the Romans, as
soon as they learned any thing of the Hterature and philosophy of the Greeks. This
however does not appear to have been the fact, although the name of Pythagoras was
ever regarded with great reverence {Cic. de Senect. c. 21). The poet Ennius is said
to have embraced the doctrine of metempsychosis, and a friend of Cicero, by the name
of Publius Nigidius Figulus, is mentioned as an advocate of the doctrines of Pythago-
ras. But after the establishment at Crotona (cf. ^ 170) was broken up, no school was
farmed in Greece or Italy that adopted the principles and institutions of Pythagoras.

ScKoU, Lilt. Rons. ii. \il.—Buri^ny, Vie et ouvrages de Publ. Nigid. Figulus, in the Mem. Acad. Inscr. xxix. 190.

^ 463. There were however a number of philosophers, who are sometimes termed
the New Pythagoreans, and who professed to be supporters of the real Pythagorean
doctrines, although they in fact blended with them many notions derived from other
sources. A leader in this class of philosophers was Q. Sextius, a Roman of the time
of Augustus, who wrote in Greek. To the same class belonged Sotion, of Alexan-
dria, who was preceptor to Seneca at Rome ; and also the famous impostor ApoUonius
of Tyana, whose life is given by Philostratus (cf. 255 b). Moderatus of Gades was
another; he flourished in the first century; and in several different treatises he col-
lected and illustrated the remains of the Pythagorean doctrines.

Enfield, bk. iii. ch. 2. sect. 2. — To/inson's Tennemann, § ]S4.—PTideaux, Life of ApoUonius.

Some of these philosophers eu'ieavored to discover a sublime and occult science in the Pythagorean doctrine of Numbers. They
seem to have supposed thit an explanation of the system of the physical world was to be found in the mysterious properties of ma
Hiematical figures and numbers. An essay on this occult science is found in the works of Sextus Empiricus against the mathemct-
(icr'anj (x. 24*. cf. § 197).— The celebrated Kepler is supposed to have been influenced by such speculations, when he wrote his trea
tise entitled Mytterium Cosmo^aphicum, 1598.- Cf. Madavrin, Account of the Discoveries of Newtcn.

"5> 464. A school of New-Platonists also appeared under the Roman emperors (cf.
§ 181). Most of them wrote in (ireek, in which language we have fragments from a
few of the number. The principal Latin writer commonly referred to this school was
Lucius Apuhius, who flouri.^hed, as is supposed, about the time of the latter Anto-
ninus, and whose work entitled the Golden Ass has been mentioned under the head
of Romance. These philosophers blended with their Platonic notions many derived
from the Pythagoreans and the followers of Aristotle, and were therefore in reahty

Enfield, bk. iii. ch. 2. sect. 3 Johman'i Tennemann, § 185.

§ 465. The Eclectics, however, although often mentioned under the name of the
later Platonists, are usually distinguished from the last mentioned school. Their
founder (cf. "5i 181) is said to have been Ammo?iius of Alexandria. He was a man of
low birth, obliged to gain his livelihood as a porter, from which circumstance he de-
rived his surname Saccas. With much enthusiasm he and his followers labored to
reconcile the doctrines of Plato and Aristotle. We have in the Greek language the
writings of several of the most eminent philosophers of this school; but nothing Is pre-
served in the Latin, unless we except the commentary on Cicero's Dream of Scipio,
by Macrobius (cf. '5> 430. 1), who seems to have been a disciple of the Eclectics. The
emperor .Tulian was a warm patron of this sect, perhaps on account of the hostility of
its principal advocates towards the Christian religion.

Cf. § 182.— En/eW, bk. iii. ch. 2. sect, i.— Johnson's Tennemann, § 203-221,

^ 466. A species of philosophy also grew up gradually among the Christian Katneis,
although the study of philosophy was at first deemed superfluous and even dangerous


by some of them (cf. P. IV. § S3), especially some of the Latin church. The chief Latin
writers illustrating this Christian Philosophy are Terlulliaji, Arnobius, Laclanlius,
Ambrose, and Augustine.

Cf. § 1 ^2.— Johnson's Teunemanu, \ 222-235.— On the writings of the Fathers above named, cf. CUarht, Murdoch, &c. as cited § 29%

§ 467. In accordance with the method followed in this work, some general sources
of information respecting the Roman philosophy should be mentioned before noticing
the individual authors.

1. The principal ciri^nal sources are the same as those from which is learned the philosophy of the Greeks, cf. § 183. To the

modem works on the history of philosophy there cited we also refer.

2. More particularly on the Roman, »e add the following.—^ F. Renner, De impedimentis quae apud veteres Romanos Phi-
losophJE negaverint successum. Hal. \t25.— Pa^anintis Gaudcntius, De PhilosophiEE apud Romanos origiiie et progressu. Pisa,
1643. 4. Reprinted in the Nova rariorum Colhclio, Hal. 1717.— 7. L. Blessi^, Diss, de Orizine Philosophic apud Romanos. Strassb.
1770. i.—Bdhr, Gesch. ROm. Lit. p. 604-664, as cited 5 299. 8— See also references under § 449, § 456.

§ 468 f. 31. T. Cicero, chief among the orators of Rome, was also eminent in philo-
sophy. He was a Platonist, and is commonly considered as a disciple of the New
AcatJemy, although in questions of morality he preferred the more rigid principles of
the Stoics. In his philosophical writings he sets forth the notions of all the various
sects, and seems to be favorable to them all excepting the Epicurean. I'hese writings
are a most valuable collection, and have proved a mine of information to succeeding

1. "The general purpose of Cicero's philosophical works was rather to give a his-
tory of ancient philosophy than dogmatically inculcate opinions of his own. It was his
great aim to explain to his iellow-citizens, in their own language, whatever the sages
of Greece had taught on the most important subjects, in order to enlarge their minds
and reform their morals. — He was in many respects well qualified for the arduous and
noble task which he had undertaken of naturalizing philosophy in Rome, and exhibit-
ing her, according to the expression of Erasmus, on the stage of life. — Never was a
philosopher placed in a situation more favorable for gathering the fruits of an experi-
ence employed on human nature and civil society, or for observing the effect of vari-
ous qualities of the mind on public opinion and on the actions of men. — But he appears
to have been destitute of that speculative disposition which leads us to penetrate into
the more recondite and original principles of knowledge. He had cultivated eloquence
as clearing the path to political honors, and had studied philosophy as the best auxiliary
to eloquence. But the contemplative sciences only attracted his attention, in so far as
they tended to elucidate ethical, practical, and political subjects, to which he applitid a
philosophy which was rather that of life, than of speculation. — His philosophic dialogues
are rather to be considered as popular treatises, adapted to the ordinary comprehension
of well informed men, than profound disquisitions, suited only to a Portico or Lyceum.
They bespeak the orator even in the most serious inquiries. Elegance and fine wrinng
he appears to have considered as essential to philosophy. — Although it may be honor-
ing Cicero too highly to term his works, with Gibbon, a Repository of Reason, they
are at least a Miscellany of Information, which has become doubly dear from the loss
of the writings of many of those philosophers whose opinions he records." — The greater
part of the philosophical writings of Cicero were composed during a single year; and
this rapidity of execution has led many to suppose that they must have been chiefly
translations from Greek works, an idea that is thought to be sanctioned by a passage
in a letter to Atticus {Ep. xii. 52, " a-Toypwpa sunt").

Dunlop, Hist. Rom. Lit. ii. 218. ed. Phil. 1827 On Cicero's philosophical writings, see also £ahr, as cited §299. 8.— Also

references given below ( 3 & 4).

2. The following may be properly ranked among the philosophical works of Cicero.
— (a) Academica, or Qucfsfiones Academicce, in two books; so called probably, be-
cause the work relates chiefly to the Academic philosophy. These two books are
supposed by many critics to be parts of two difierent works of Cicero, or rather of two
different editions of the Academica. The first edition is said to have consisted of two
books, inscribed Catulus and Lucullu^ ; the former of which is lost ; the latter is one
of the books now extant. The second edition is said to have consisted of four books,
the first of which is one of the two books now extant, while the other three are lost;
in the extant book, Varro is the chief speaker and gives an account of the origin and

progress of the Academy. (b) De Finibus bonorum et malorum, in five books, an

account of the various opinions entertained by the Greeks respecting the supreme good
and extreme evil ; and considered one of the most subtle and difficult of Cicero's phi-
losophical writings. (c) Tusculance Disputatiu7ies, in five books ; they are so named

by Cicero, from having been held at his favorite seat near Tuscidum. On a certain
occasion, Cicero spent five days at this villa in company with friends taken with him
from Rome, and on the afternoon of each day, held a conference, or rather gave a sort
of discourse on some topic suggested by them; these were afterwards committed to
writing, and formed the Tusculan Disputations. The first book or dialogue is entitled,
De co7itemnevda morte ; the second, De tolerando dolore ; the third, De agriludine le-
nienda ; the fourth, De reliquiis animi perturhationibus ; in the fifih Cicero maintains


that virtue alone is sufficient for perfect hajrpiness. (d) Z?e Natura Deorum, in three

books; containing an exposition of the doctrines of three of the celebrated sects of phi-
losophers, viz. the Epicureans, the Stoics, and the Academics, respecting the Essence
of the Divine Being, and his government and providence. In this work Cicero betrays
a melancholy degree of uncertainty and doubt in reference to the administration of

God in guiding and controlling human affairs. (e) De Divinatione, in two books;

forming a sort of supplement to the treatise on the nature of the gods. In the first
book, Quintus, the brother of Cicero, states the considerations urged by the various
philosopliers in defence of the art of divination; in the second, Cicero refutes all the

argumeius, and shows the complete absurdity of the pretended science. (f) De

Falo, one book, or rather a fragment. The part now extant contains a refutation of

the doctrine of Chrysippus the Stoic, which was that of fatality. (g) De Legihus, in

three books. It has been supposed that the work originally consisted of six books;
Macrobius quotes a fifth {Satumal. vi. 4) ; in the three now extant considerable chasms
occur. In the first book, Cicero speaks of the origin of laws and the source of obliga-
tion ; and in the others, sets forth a body of laws conformable to his plan of a well
ordered state. The work seems to have been intended for a supplement to that en-
titled De Repuhlica. (h) De Eepublica, consisting originally of six books, of which

considerable fragments are now extant. [See below under 3 (h).] This work was
begun by Cicero in the fifty-second year of his age, before any of his other philosophi-
cal writings ; it was made public previously to his departure fur the government of
Cilicia, and appears to have met with very flattering success at Rome (cf. Cic. Epist.
Famil. viii. 1. Ep. ad Att. vi.). In this work Cirero presents a discussion supposed to
have been held between Scipio Africanus, Quintus Tubero, P. Ruiihus Rufus, and
others, "in which," says he, "nothing important to the right constituuon of a com-
monwealth appears to have been omitted." According to Mr. Dunlop, the chief scope
of Cicero was a eulogy on the Roman government, such as it was, or as Cicero sup-
posed it to have been, in the early ages of the commonwealth; the same writer re-
marks, " although the w^ork will disappoint those who expect to find in it much
political information, still, as in Cicero's other productions, every page exhibits a rich
and glowing magnificence of style, ever subjected to the control of a taste the most
correct and pure." — In this work was inserted the beautiful fiction entitled Somnium
Scipionis, which implies, and seems indeed to have been intended by Cicero expressly
to teach, the doctrine of the soul's immortality. (i) De Ojjiciis, in three books, ad-
dressed to his son. In this Cicero treats of moral obligations and duties ; and in some
parts of it he is supposed to have closely followed a treatise entitled Xl^pi KadfiKovTo^,
written by a Greek philosopher named PancBtius, who resided at Rome in the time of

Scipio. (j) De SemctHte, entitled also Cato, because Cato the Censor is represented

as delivering the discourse. It was written in Cicero's 63d year, and is addressed to
his friend Atticus. The supposed evils of old age are considered under four heads ;
and the refined pleasures, which may be secured notwithstanding all the losses and
deprivations resulting from advanced years, are pointed out. It is an exceedingly in-
teresting piece, containing examples of eminent Romans, who passed a respectable
and happy old age. — It is the model of the dialogue by Sir Thomas Bernard, entitled
Spurinna or the Comforts of Old Age, in which illustrations are drawn chiefly from

British history. (k) De Amiciiia,ca\\ed also LcbUus, who is represented as holding

a conference with Fannius and Scaevola his sons-in-law, shortly after the death of his

very intimate friend Scipio Africanus. (1) Paradoxa, a piece containing a defence of

six pec\iliar opinions or paradoxes of the Stoics ; designed perhaps merely as a humo-
rous effusion, rather than a serious philosophical essay. (m) Cicero composed seve-
ral other works that would fall under the head of philosophical, which are lost ; as, De
Consolatione, written on the death of his daughter Tullia ; De Gloria, in two books,
written while sailing along the coast of Campania on a voyage to Greece ; De Philo-
Sophia, or Hortensius, on the comparative value of eloquence and philosophy, a piece
often cited and highly cominended by Augustine. — Some of the works falsely ascribed
to Cicero might also be named among the philosophical; e. g. Orpheus, or De adoles-
cente studioso, purporting to have been addressed to his son while at Athens.

3. Editinns.— For Whole Works, see ^ 404. 5.— Here we notice only the Philosophical Worio.— ,A) Coi/ec-
tively.—Bes', R. G. Rath (and Ch. G. Schutz). Halle, IS04-II 6 toIs. 9. li^ed on the editions of separate tracts by DavUs, arid
containin' the text and commentary of Davies, with additional notes.—/. A. G'ortnz. Lpz. 1809-13. 3 vols, designed to be com
pleted ill 6 vols. 8. The first 3 vols, (con'.ainin; the pieces noticed under the letters a, 6, e, aw! g-,) are highly commended. —

The Princef^, by Sweynhtym & Pannartz. Rnni. 1471. 2 vols. fol. There is a French translation of the Phil. TVorla hf

B'^rett, Bcxihier and others. Par. I7P6. 10 vols. 12. — A German translation, by Jacobs and others, has been named § 404. 6. — -
(B)Sepa^aldii; wp must not omit to notices me of the works sngly ; but to avoid repeating the titles, they will be designated merely

by the letters prefixed to them severally in the descriptions given in the preceding paragraph (2). (a) /. Daoies (Dnvisius)

Camb. 1736 ».-J C. OreUius. Turici, 1827. 8. Translations.— French ; O. Pwrand. Par. 1796. 2 vols. 12— English; fV

Gutftrie (The Morals of Cicero). Lond. I"44. 8. Illustrative.— .4 C. Ranilz, De libr. Cic. Academicis Commer;tstin. Lpt

1809. 4.-.S. Pnrker, Disputationes de Deo et providen'is. Ox 17(3. 4 =(b) / Daviis. Camb. 3d ed. 1741. S. Repr. 0»f.

1809. i.—Fr. G Cito Lpz. 1831. 8 Translations -English ; S Parker. Lond. 1702. 1812. 8.=(c)7. Davies. Camb.

4th ed. 1738. 8. Repr. Oxf. IS05. 8.—R. Kilhner, Jen. 1829. 8 good. rev. by J. C. Orelli, Jen. 1835. 8.— * G. H. Moser. Haa
1836-38. 3 vols. 8. Translations.— Enslish . /. CoHman/i. Lond. 1561. S.—Jlnonymous. Lond. 1758. 8 — G. A. Olit, Boi»

77 ' .


1839. 8. prepared on the susgeslion of J. Q. Adanis.==(d) /. Davie!. Cantab. 1718. 8. Repr. Oif. 1807. S.—L. F. Hdndorf.
Lpz. 1815. 8. critical and good— G. H. Meter. Lips. 1821. 8. good.— ff. E. Mien. Lond. 1S36. 12. from a collation of several

MSS. of the Brit. Museum. Translations.— German ; J. F. von Meyer. Fraukf. 1806. 8— English; Thorn. Franklin (with

notes). Lond. 1741. 1775. 8. Illustrative.— CA. I'. Kindervatir, Anmerkangen und Abhandlungen, &c., Qber Cic. Bacher von

der Natur der Gotter. Lpz. 1790-92. 2 vols. 8. commended by Harlts, Suppl. to Brev Not. i. 287. partly incorporated, in Latin,
in Kiiiilervaters edition of these Books. Lpz. 1796. 8.— G. S. Franhe, Geist und Gehalt der Cic. Bilcher von der Nat. der Gutter.
All. I8C6. 8.— Perhaps here ought to be named a fabrication, purporting to be a fourth Book of Cicero's De Nat. Deorum. It was
published by an unknown author (.IV. M. L. de IVelte has been conjectured), under a fictitious name, with the following title : M.
T. Cic. de aat. Deor. liber quartus; e pervetusto codice ms. membranaceo nunc primum edidit P. Seraphinua. Bononias, 1811. 8.
Republ. Oxf. 1813. The real design of the author is not apparent; the purity and elegance of Cicero are not preserved in ths

style.- Cf. IhcJilop, Hist. Rom. Lit. ii. 250. (e) /. Daviei. Camb. 1741. S.—H G. Moser. Franc 1828. 8. Translations.-

French.— R. Desmarais. Par. 1710. 12. also lS!0.^=:(f ) H. G. Moser, in the ed. of De Div. just cited. =(g) /. Davies. Camb
2d ed. 1745. 8.— f. F. IVagner. Golt. 1804. 2 vols. 8. The 2d vol. a commentary.— G. H. Moser if F. Crcuzcr. Frankf. 1824. 8.
the ed. with the notes of Davies »id others.==(h) jJ. Mai. Rom. 1S22. 8. also in fol. and in quarto. It contains a facsimile
of the palimpsest in which the work was f^und. Repr. Stuttg. 1822. Lond. 1823. 8. (Also Bost. 1823. but without the introduc-
tory mailer.) It is also in the 1st vol. of the work entitled Cloisic. .Sudor, e codd. rat. edit. Coll. (curante A. Maio.) Rom.

1828. 4.— G. H. Moser If F. Creuzer. Frankf 1K6. 8. Translations.— French ; f'illeinain, with original Latin, and Notes and

Dissertations. Par. 1823. 3 vols. 12.— English; G. W. Featherstonhau^h. New York, 1829. much censured in the South. Re-
view, No. vii. The whole work De Republica was extant, it is said, as late as the Uth century, after which it disap-
peared, and ihe loss became a theme of constant lamentation among the admirers of Cicero and all lovers of classical literature.
About the vear 1821, Angelo M 'i. in examining the palimpsests (cf. F. IV. § 84. 2) of the Vatican, discovered a considerable por-
tion of it, which had been expunged (in the 10th century, it is supposed) and crossed by a new writing, that contained Augustine's
commentary ou the Psalms. Mai published the portion thus recovered, in the ed. just cited. — Of the^rJf book, we now have
about two-thirds in the part recovered by Mai and two fragments preserved in Lactantius and Nonius; we have about the same
proportion of the second, drawn from the palimpse-t ; of the f'ltrd, the part obtained is interrupted by many chasms ; only slight
fragments were found of the fourth and fijth ; and of the sixth, the palimpsest presented nothing ; but this book contained the Som-
nium Scipionis, which is pre'erved by Macr. bius (cf. 5 430) ; we have also a Greek version of it, which has been ascribed to Theo-
dore Gsza, and with n ore propriety to Planudes. For an analysis of the Republic, see Southent Review, No. vii.— Cf. also, N.

Am. Rev No. xl — For the Greek version of Scipio's Dream, see the ed. of Cato by Got;, cited below.— Cf. Tlie Ttieolofy and Phi-
losophy In Cicero's Somnium Scipionis explained ; or a brief attempt to demonstrate that the Newtonian System is agreeable to the
Notions nf the wisest Accien.s. Lond. 1751. 8. = (i) C. Beier. Lpz. 1820. 2 vols. S.—J. M. 4- /. F. Heusinger, Bransw. 1820. 8.
ed. by C. Hnninger, Oxf. 1821. 12. Lond. 1824. 12. since also rev. by Zumpt.— There have been many school editions.— ^sAn-
ton. Lat. & Engl. Lond. 1828. 8.— C. K. milaway- Bost. 1837. 12. Cf Bibl. Rcpos. No. xxviii. p. 497.— Translations : Gei^
nian ; CA. Gnrve. Brest. 6ih ed. 1S19. 4 vols 8. wi'h a commentary ; conimended by SchM, LitL Rom. ii. 174.— English ; fV, M.
Carlney. Lond. 1798. 8.— »'. Guthrie. Lond. 1755. 8. = (j & k) J. A. Gotz. Lpz. 1816. 8. with Somn. Scipionis.— C. K.
Dillaway. Bost. 1837. 12 —Tian'hiions.— English ; W. Guthrie, as just cited (i).— IF. Melmoth. Lond. 1777. 1807. 8. in-
cluding a!so Paiadoxa (I) and Scipio's Dream.—/. Denham, Cato ( j), a Poem, in 4 parts. Lond. 1648. 12. :^(ni) Attempts were
ni.ade, after the revival of letters, to collect the scattered fragments of the lost works.— C. Sigotiiiu, Fragmenta Ciceronis. Ven.
1559. 8. Han. 1606. 12.— The same .Siyojitiu published the fragments of De Consolatioiu connected together by sentences interpo-
lated by himself. Bon. 1583. 8.— An English translation, in the work entitled Paracusis, or Consolations deduced from Natural
and Reve-iled Religion ; two dissertations, the first supposed to have been composed by Cicero; the last originally wri'ten by Thos.
S'nckl ck, D. n. Lond. 1767. 8.— Cf. C. F. Kolbe, Programni. de frajmcnt. libror. Cic. incertorum. Lpz. 1827.— The work enti-
tle.! Orpheus was first published, Ven. 1593. 8. republished by /. A. Folierini. Ven. 1793. 4.— Respecting lost works of Cicero,
and works falsely ascribed to him, cf. Bdhr, p. 630.—Hailes. Brev. Not. Suppl. i. 247.— fafcriciiu, Bibl. Lat. i. 212-216.

4. There are works (besides those already mentioned) illuurative cf Cicero's philosophical writings, loo numerous to be cited
here ; we name a few — /. CA. Brie^litb, De philosoph. Ciceronis. Cob. 17S4. 4.— CA. F. Hulsemann, De indole phil. Ciceronis.
Luneb. 1799. 4.—R. Kllhner, Cicer. in philns. ejusq. partfs merita. Hamb. 1825. S.—H Dodweli, Apology, &c., in Parker's trans-
lation, cited above (b).—Gautier de Sibert, Examen de la Philos. de Ciceron, in the Merru Acad. Inscr. xli. 466. xliii. 101.

^ 469. L. AnncEus Seneca was a zealous adherent of the Stoic philosophy, although
he had previously made himself acquainted with the doctrines of all the schools. In
his philosophical writings there is much acumen, and much matter to nourish a reflect-
ing mind. The style, however, like that of his epistles (cf. § 442), is too elaborate,
and on account of the frequent antitheses, is tiresome.

1. Seneca v.-as born at Corduba in Spain. A. D. 2 or 3. In the reign of Claudius
he was banished to the island of Corsica, where he remained eight years. After he
became the instructor of Nero, he obtained great wealth (cf. Tac. Ann. xiii. 42), and
was charged with practicing exorbitant u.sury (Dio Cass. Ixi. 10). His death, by the
sentence of Nero (cf. § 374. Tac. Ann. xv. 60-64), occurred A. D. 65.

J. Lipsius, Vita Senecae, in his Opera Omnia. Anfv. 1637. 4 vols, fol — Diderot, Ess. sur la vie et les ecrits de Seneque. Par.
1779. 12. given in La Grange's trausl.— C. /'. Conz, Qber Seneca's Leben, &c., in his translation below (5) cited.— TVi. F. G. Rei}i
hard, de Senecse vita et Script. Jen. 1817. S.— Enfield's Hist, Phil. bk. iii. cb. ii. sect. 7. — Mongez, Iconographie Rom. i.
p. 419 (cf. P. IV. § 187).

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