Johann Joachim Eschenburg.

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2. The following are his philosophical works: De Ira, in 3 books; De consolaHone,
in 3 books; the 1st addressed to his mother Helvia, during his own banishment to
Corsica; the 2d addressed to one Polybius, who had lost a young brother ; the 3d ad-
dres.-ed to Marcia, a friend who had lost her son ; the genuineness of the 2d has been
questioned: De Provident ia, discussing the question, why evil happens to the good:
De animi Irantjuililate, in reply to a letter from Annoeus Serenus respecting the trials
of life ; it has been compared with Plutarch's treatise Ilfpi ivdvuia;: De Consfantia sa-
pientis, supporting the stoical paradox, that the wise man can suffer no ill : De Cle-
menlia. adtiressed to Nero, in 3 books, of which the 3d and a great part of the 2d are
lost : De brevifafe VilfB : De vita beata. on the manner of living happily, in which Se-
neca takes occasion to notice the reproaches cast on him by his enemies on account oi



p. V. PHILOSOPHERS. PLINY THE ELDER. 611

his wealth: De Otio sapientis, of which the first 27 chapters are wanting: De Bene-
Jiciis, in 7 books, composed in the last years of his life, and considered one of the most
valuable of his performances; it treats of the manner of conferring benefits and of the
duties of those who receive them.

On the philosophical writings ami opinions of Seneca, we may mention, besides the works named above, the following: /. Ltp"
t!«s, Manuductio ad Sloicam Philosophiam. Lugd. Bat. 1644 12.— £. /. Werner, De Senecae Pbilosophia. Berl. 1825. &
Vratislav. 1826. S.—Bdhr, Gesch. Rom. Lit p. 645 — J. G. Heinecdus, De philosophis semi-chrisiianis. Halae Sax. 1714. 4.

3. There is another work of Seneca which should be named here, entitled Quastio-
num naluj-alium lihri VII., and treating of various subjects of physical philosophy. In
the 1st book he treats oi fire; in the 2d, of lightning and thunder; in the 3d, o{ water;
in the 4th, of hail, snoio, and ice; in the 5th, of wifids; in the 6th, of earthquakes; in the
7th, of comets. This work is valuable as furnishing means to judge of the attainments
of the anrients in physical science ; it exerted an important influence in the middle
ages, holding a rank and authority second only to the treatises of Aristotle on physical
subjects, even down to the 16th century.

It has been asserted by a modem writer, that Seneca's theory of earthquakes " contains the germ of all that has been stated in otir
own times concerning the action of elastic vapors inclosed in the interior of the globe." (Cf. Humboldt & Bonplaiid, Voyage auz
contrees equinoct. Par. 1814. 4. vol. i. p. 313. — .See K< ler's Disquis. de Senecae Quaw. Nat. given in his edition below cited.

Several other works, not now extant, were ascribed to Seneca (cf. Quint. Inst. Orat. x. 1. Jul. Gell. xii. 2). S^nae fragments
of a treatise on friends^iip were found in the Vatican, and published (Rom. 1820) by B. G. Xiebuhr. Several works also have
been falsely ascribed to him ; as e. g. De virtutibus cardinalibus, De paupertate, Proverbia, and others, besides the letters lo Paul,
which have been before noticed (§ 442. 2).—Falricius, Bibl. Lat ii. p. 118, i23.—Bahr, Gesch. Rom. Lit. p. 648.

4. Editions.— The Philosophical Works {opera philosophica), by jB. F. Vogel. Lpz. 1830. S.—N. BouUlet. Par.

1829. in Lemaire's Bibl. Lat.— The Questicmes Naturales, by G. D. Koler. Gott. 1818 8. We notice here editions of the

Whole Works of Seneca.—?. E. Ruhkopf. Lpz. 1797-1811. 5 vols. 8 considered excellent; but it A'as not completed.—
P. R Fkkert is preparing a " new critical ed. expected to take the highest place.'— Among the best of preceding editions ; the
latest Bipoiit edition, Argentor. 1809. 5 vols. 8.— the edition cum notis variorum, AmsL 1672. 3 vols. 8 —that of /. Gruter (Com-
melin, pr.), Heidclb 1604. fol. containing the notie used by the Roman short-hand writers (cf. P. IV. ^ 117. 2). — and that of LiptiiUj
Antw. 1652. fol.— The ed. of Erasmus, Bas. 1529. fol. was celebrated.— The Princepi, Naples, 1475; cf. Harles, Brev. Not.
Supp. i. 506.

5. Translations.— French —ta Grange, whole works. Par. 1777. 1795. 6 vols. 8. German.— /T. Ph. Conz, philosophical

pieces. Stuttg. 1790-92. 3 vols. 8.— F. E Ruhkopf, "questions on nature." Lpz. 1794. 8. English.— .3. Golding, De Bene-

ficiis, Lond. 1558. 4. entitled '-The woorke — concerning Benefyling, that is lo say the dooing, receyuing, and requyting of good
Tumes."— r/win. Lodge. Lond. 1620. fol.

§ 470. Caius Plinius Secundus, surnamed the elder (major) to distinguish him from
his nephew, who was commonly called Phny the younger (cf. § 441), lived in the first
century, from A. D. 23 to A. D. 79. He was a native of Verona, or according to others
of Comum, and was one of the most learned men among the Romans. His Natural
History is rather a sort of encyclopaedia, a work full of erudition, and one of the most
considerable monuments of ancient lirerature. It is important to the geographer and
the amateur in art, no less than to the nafiirahst ; although it may not be throughout
entirely consistent or entitled to implicit reliance. According to his own account, it is
a compilation drawn from nearly 2500 authors ; of which the greatest number are now
lost. The younger Pliny justly calls it a work ample, learned, and scarcely less vari-
ous than nature herself {o\ius diffusum, erudilum, nee minus varium quam ipsa iwtura).

1. At an early age he went to Rome. About his 22d year, he resided for a time on
the coast of Africa. He also served in the Roman army in Germany, and held a com-
mand in the cavalry (Prcefectus alee) under Lucius Pomponius. Afterwards at Rome
he practiced the pleading of causes. Some time also he passed at Comum, where he
attended to the education of his nephew. He subsequently held the office of Procurator
of Spain, where it is supposed he remained during the wars of Galba, Otho, and Vitel-
lius. Returning to Rome he enjoyed ihe favor of Vespasian, and at the time of his
death, under Titus, was commander of the Roman fleet at IVIisenum. He lost his
life by the celebrated eruption of Vesuvius, A. D. 79 ; the particulars are described by
his nephew in a letter to the historian Tacitus. He maintained through life habits of
unremitted application to study.

Cf. Life of Pliny ascribed to Suetonius (cf. ^ 537. 2) —Plin. Min. Ep. iii. 5. vi. 16, 20.— ,/J joMon de Grandsagne, De la vie et
des ouvrages de PliLe, in his trans, cited below. — Univers. Biog. vol. xxxv. — J. Masscm, C. Pliuii Secundi Vita. Amst. 1809. S.

2. His principal work, the Historia Naturalis, was finished only a short time before
his death, and dedicated to Titus. It consists of 37 books. The first is a sort of index
or table giving a general view of the contents of the whole work ; its genuineness has
been questioned by some, but without sufficient reason. The 2d treats of subjects
belonging to cosmography and astronomy; the 3d. 4th, 5th and 6th contain a descrip
tion of the earth, its countries and inhabitants, forming a sort of universal geography
the next 5 (from 7th to 11th inclusive) relate particularly to animals or zoology; the
following 8 (from 12th to 19th) treat of plants or botany; with the 20th begins a de-
scription of medicines, which is continued through 13 books, treating first of the vege-
table kingdom (from 20ih to 27th), and then of Ihe animal {from 28th to 32d) ; the re-
maining 5 books (from 33d to 37th) are devoted to the mineral kingdom, comDrising



C12 HISTORY OF ROMAN LITERATURE.

notices of the medicinal properties of metals and stones, and to the Jlne arts, painting,
sculpture, &c. with notices of the principal ancient artists and their productions.

Respecting the value and character of this work, cf. Biifir, Rom. Lilt. p. 653. — Schbll, Lilt. Rom. ii. 463.—Cayhts, Memoir io
the Mem. .Scad. Inscr, et Bellee Lettres, vol. xxv.— ffei/ne, Autiquar. Aufs.1lze. Lpz. 1779. S.—Ajasson de Grandsapie, as below
citerl. — For a very ample commentary on the works, see (Ant. Joseph, comes a Turre {Rezzcnico, Disquisitiones Plinianae. Parma,
1763. 2 vols. fol. containing a view of the question respecting Pliny's birthplace, with notices of manuscripts, editions, iic.—Ji. L.
A. Fie, Commentaires sur la Botanique, &c de Pline. Par. 1S33. 3 vols. 8.

3. Several other works were written by the elder Pliny, which are lost. The followine are
mentioned: Dejaculatione equestri ; Stzidiosus, in 3 bonks, treating of the studies and discipline
requisite to form a perfect orator; Dubii sermonis, in 8 books, a graniniaiical work ; Vita Pom-
ponii, in 2 books ; also a History of his own times, in 31 books (cf. $ 518). Besides these he wrote
160 pieces or books termed Excerpla or Commentarii, which were left to his nephew.— 5a/tr,
p. 650.

4. Editions.— Best ; An^ird. Par. 1829. in Ltmaire's Bibl. Class.—/. Saiig. Lpz. 1831-36. 6 vols. 12. in Teulner>i Classics.—
Dnder the care of Sillig (of Dresden;, who has devoted many years to the study of P.'s Nat. Hist, a large and splendid edirion is in
progress, by the Deutsche Nalurforschungsversammluns — T. G. Frajizius. Lpz. 177S-91. 10 vols. 8.; iiiaccuralety printed, yet
pronounced by Dibdin "excellent and critical." — The Biporit, I7S^3. 6 vols. 8. is good. — DaUcamp. Lugd. 178". fol. and espe-
cially ffardwm, Par. 1723. 3 vols. fol. had celebrity.— The P/tnceps, by John de Spira (priuter). Ven. 1469. fol. lauded by Dib-
din as a beautiful specimen of ancient typography. — That of Feyerabendt, Francof. 15S2. fol. is ornamented with woodcuts, "as

bold and spirited as they are singular." Select portions have been published ; Ch. G. Heyne, Ex. Flin. Hist. Nat. excerpta, &c.

Gott. 1790. 8. with another volume (de pictura). Golt. 1810, 8.—/. M. Gessner, Chrestomathia Pliniana. Lpz. 17-23. 1776. 8.—
/. AMn, Selecta qusedam ex PUn. Hist. Nat. &c. Lont. 1776. 12.

5. Translations.— German.— G. Grosic Francf. 1781-88. 12 vols. 8. French.— i. PoinsincK de Sicr^ (with the orig. Latin).

Par. 1771-82. 12 vols. 4.— C. B. Guerolt. Par. 1802. 3 vols. 8. Better, but containing only the part of Pliny pertaining to zoology.

—Ajasson de Grandsagne, with the Latin, and notes of various authors. Par. IS29. 8 vols. 8. English.— PAiZ. Holland. Lend.

1611. 1634. 2 vols. fol. a copy of this is valued at IL 10s. on the catalogue of 0. Rich (London) for U37.

^ 471. Lucius Apuleius, a native of Madaura, a Roman colony in Africa, lived
about the close of the 2d century. He was lawyer at Rome, and a philosopher of the
Platonic school. From circumstances connected with his extensive travels, he ob-
tained the reputation of a magician and performer of miracles. His writings, although
characterized by a style deficient in accuracy and often unnatural, contain frequent
turns of wit, and are on the whole very entertaining. The principal work is the Golden
Ass, in 11 books, a sort of satirical romance, of the class called Milesian Tales (cf.
$ 150). His other productions relate chiefly to the Platonic philosophy.

1. Little is known of the life of Apuleius besides what is drawn from his own
writings. He married a rich elderly w-idow, of Oea (Tripolis), where he was taken
sick on a journey from Carthage to Ale.xandria. He was afterwards prosecuted by a
brother of her former husband, on the charge of having employed magical arts to ob-
tain her affections. His defence or apology on the trial is e.xtant.

SrMll, Litl. Rom. iii. p. 202.— Bdhr, p. 581.— D. G. MoUer, Diss, de L. Apuleio. All. 1691. 4.— .3. Rode, Leben des Apuleiuj,
in his translation below (5) cited —il/ongei & Visccnti, Iconograph. Anc. cited P. IV. § 187.

2. The full title of the romance of the ,^ss is as follows : Metamnrphosedn seu de Asino aureo li-
bri XT. Apuleius paints in this work, with great spirit and keen satire, the vices and crimes and
the wide-spread superstition and delusions of ihe age. Respecting his real design, there has
been a difference of opinion. "The hero of the tale is a youth named Lucius, who wishes to
learn the magic arts of Thessaly, but in punishment for his curiosity and lusts is changed into
an ass. Sunk in vice, he passes through various adventures, until at lenglh, di^^covering the
deep degradation of his state, he resorts to the Mysteries for relief, and again becomes a man,
renewed and improved. The work is rich in episodes, and closes with a description of the Mys-
teries of Isis." — One of the episodes is the beautiful allegory oi .Amor avd P.-<yche (cf P. II. } 50.
P. IV J \98.— JVarburton conceives the work to have been written in opposition to Christianity,
and intended to represent the pagan Mysteries as a remedy for vice. Bayle and others have
considered it as merely a satire upon the frauds and tricks practice<l by the priests and other
pretenilers to superiiatiiral power. Those who hunted after the philosopher's stone imagined
this work to contain valuable secrets.

See Le Beau, sur I'ane d'Apulee, in the Mem. Acad. Tnscr. xxxiv. 48.— Zicg-Zcr, Disp. de L. Apuleio jEgypliorum mysteriis ter
initiato. Argentor. 17S6. 4 —IVarburton, Divine Legation of Moses, ii. m.— Bayle, Dictionn. histor. et crit. article Apulee.

3. The works of Apuleius, which are more strictly philosophical, are the follow^ing:
De Deo (or dcEmonio) Socratis, treating on the question, to which of the various classes
o( damons or genii that of Socrates belonged: De dogmate Flatonis, or, as sometimes
given. De habifudine, doctrina, et nntivitate Flatonis, in three books, a sort of intro-
duciion to the Platonic philosophy: De mundo, a translation or paraphrase of the book
vepl KoojioM, ascribed to Aristotle.

There are two works ^^ hich mijht properly be called rhetorical ; Apologia seu Ora(«o de Magia, spoken in his own defence when
prosecuted for using magical arts ; Florida, a sort of anthology, consisting of selections from his speeches and declamations, in 4
books.— We have the titles of many other works by hi.-n, now wholly lost.— The treatise De herbis and Ihe piece enlilled Hermetis
trismegisli Asclepius are not accounted genuine. Schill, LItt. Rom. ii. 21 1.— SaA>-, p. 660. cf. p. 569, ^82.

4. Editions.- Whol e Works; the best, Fr. OudmdorpS,- J. Boscha. Leidse (Leyden), 17S6-1823. 3 vols 4. Oudendorp
4ied just after completine the first volume, which coniains 'he Mttamurph.ses with the notes of various critics, and a preface by
Ruhiiktn. The 2d and 3d volumes were edited by Boscha ; they include the other u-orhs of Apuleius and a valuable Appendix
Apuleinna.—G. F. HiMehrand (commenced, and 1st vol. execute'). Lips. 1842. 8— The more important of preceding editions;
tlieB;po?jr, 17S8 2 vols 8 — /. /V'Jn:fus (Fleurv), in usum Delphini. Par. 16S8. 2 vols. 4.— rartorum. Gourfse, 1650. 8.— Tlw

Princeps. by Sweynheym fy Panuariz (print. J. Andrea ed.). Rom. 1469. fol. The treatise De herbia, by /. C. G. Achermann.

AliTt i'SS. S -Cupid fy Ptyche, by J. C. Orellius. Turici 1S33. 8.



p. V PHILOSOPHERS. PETRONIUS ARBITER. CAPELLA. 613

6. Translations.— German.— J. Rode, the Golden Ass. Berl. 1690. 2 vols. 8 J. J. v. Linker, the fable of Psyche, in •irse.

Jen. 1805. 4. French.— .^iic Compain de St. Martin, the Ass (retouchee pAT Bastien). Par. 1787. 8.—J.F. C. BlanviUain,

Psyche. Par. 1796. with the original and notes. English.— C. Monde, Lond. 1724. 8 Taylur. Lond. 1795. S.—Animy.

mow, Cupid and Psyche, in verse. Lond. 1799. 8.

§ 472. Tifus Petronius Arbiter, a native of Massilia, might be classed with the
entertaining writers (cf. ^ 439) perhaps more properly than with the philosophers. He
received the surname of Arbiter, as director of public amusements. His Satyricon is
a representation of the prevailing licentiousness of his age ; often offensive in its
pictures, but not destitute of wit and animation. It is interspersed with metrical pas-
sages, of which the most remarkable is a poem on the civil war.

1. The author of the Satyrico7i is commonly supposed to be the Petronius, who is
described so graphically by Tacitus {Ann. xvi. IS). Tacitus gives him the praenomen
of Caius, while Pliny {Nat. Hist, xxxvii. 7) calls the same person Titus. Although
born, according to some, at Marseilles, he was educated at Rome. He rose to the
rank of consul and held the office of governor of Bithynia. He was a favorite of Nero,
who, according to Tacitus, cherished him as a chief and leader among his chosen
companions {inter paucos familiarum assumpttis, elegantiae arbiter). This ex-
posed him to the envy of 'I'igellinus, who accused him of treachery, and thus Petro-
nius was constrained to destroy his own life, which he did by a gradual letting of blood,
A. D. 66. — Some writers have thought the author of the Satyricon to be a different
person, who is by some placed in the reign of Augustus, but by others in the time ot
the Antonines.

Gyraldus, De Petr. Vita.- ScASH, Litt. Rom. ii. 416-427. The account of SchM is given in AnthonU Lempriere.— ^SAr, Gesch
Bom. Lit. 577. — Jiddison, in his translation below (4) cited.

2. The Satyricon (or Satyricdn liber) belongs to the class of writings called Menip-
pean or Varronian Satire (cf. § 345). The work purports to be an account of the love-
adventures of a certain Encolpius, a young freedman whose story enables the author
to portray the character of the times. We have only some fragments which formed
episodes of the work, although it is said to have existed entire in the 12th century. The
poem on the Civil War consists of 295 verses, describing the fall of the Roman
republic. The other most noted parts are the Matron of Ephesus, and the Banquet of
Trimalcion.

The latter was found in 1662 at Trau in Dalmatia, In a private library, and was first published
at Padua iti 1664. The manuscript, after being sent to Rome, was conveyed to the Royal Libra-
ry at Paris. The genuineness of the piece was at first denied by some critics, but isnow uni-
versally adiTiitted. — Cf BiLhr, p. 579; Fabricius, Bibl. Lat. vol. ii. 157.

3. Editions.— Best ; P. Burmann. Utr. 1709. 4. (ed. by his son Casp. B.) Leyd. 1743. 4. It contains the Dissertations of
fT'a?e)i*eiZ S/- De foifij, o( P. Petit (under the assumed name of Statileius) , & Scheffer, respecting the authenticity of the fragment
discovered at Trau {fras;men1um Traguriie invent.), besides the notes and comments of several editors. — AT. G. Anton. Lpz. 1781.
8. coiisiiered best by Dibdin —That of Renouard, Par. 1797. 2 vols. 12. is said to be accurately printed.— Earlier ; Gcmfalis de
Solas. Francc.f. I«29. 4 —Goldasti. Helennp. (Francof.) 1610. 8.— The Pnnceps, by Putcolanus, 1476, with Pliny's Panegyric,

as cited § 406 3. The poem on the Civil War (De Mutatione Republics) is given in the 2d vol. of the Poet. Lat. Min. of Le-

rnaire (cited § 348. 2). Fr. Nodot, a French officer, published a volume (Par. 1693. 12. it. 1694. 8.) which purported to be a

complete and perfect copy of Petronius, said to have been found at Belgrade in 16S8 ; the fraud, was, however, soon delected. Cf.
Fabricius, Bibl. Lat. ii. 160.— In ISOO, a Spaniard, by the name of Marchena, published a pretended fragment said to have been
found in the library at St. Gall. Cf. ScholVs Repertoire de Litt. Anc. i. 239.

4. Translation?.— Ger/i an.— .4. Groninger (including the interpolations of Nodot). Lpz. 1804. 8. French.— Ci«. D. Par.

1803. 2 vols. 8. followed by " considerations sur la Matrone d'Ephese et un conte Chinois sur le meme sujet").— iauaur, Banquet

of Trimalcion. Par. 1726. 2 vols. 12. English.— /oAn Addison, The works of Pet. Arb. in prose and verse, with his Life,

Lend. 1736. 12.

M73. Marcianus Capella, ofMadaura or Carthage, lived m tde 5th century, and
was a grammarian rather than a philosopher in the strict sense of the word. In ad-
vanced age, probably in the reign of Leo the Thracian, he wrote the work entitled
Satyra or Satyricon, consisting of nine books, of miscellaneous contents. The first
two books contain an amusing allegory, in mingled prose and verse, describing the
marriage of Mercury with Philology. The remaining seven contain a view of the prin-
ciples and the value of Grammar, Logic, Rhetoric, Geometry, Arithmetic, Astronomy,
and Music. The language is unpolished and inaccurate ; yet this author is not to be
altogether condemned in regard to the ornaments of taste and wit.

1. He was probably educated at Carthage, thence styling himself the "foster-child
of the city of Elissa." He is said to have composed his work at Rom.e. He held the
rank of proconsul {vir proconsularis) ; and by some he is supposed to have been a
Christian.

Scholl, Litt. Rom. iii. 9S.—Bdhr, p. n28.— Fabricius, Bibl. Lat. iii. 215.— Life of Capella in Barth, Adversaria, L. cxx. c 13.

2. The title of Safyra may have been given to his work on account of the variety of
its subject matter, rather than because the two first books which form the introduction
to it, are in the form of the Menippean Satire (cf '5» 345). The seven sciences or hberal
arts treated in the other books constituted the whole course of education for a consi
derable period in the middle ages. This work was used in the schools as a classic,
was often transcribed, and made a subject of expositions and commentaries. It is sup

3F



614 HISTORY OF ROMAN LITERATURE.

posed to have exerted no small influence on the state of science and learning. Coper-
nicus is said to have gathered from it some hints of his system of astronomy.

3. Editious.— The best ; H. GroMxu (in the 15th year of his age). Leyden, 1599. 8.— C^. F. Kupp. Franc, ad M. U37. 4. pp. 636.

with a commeutary and notes of various eds. The earliest, by Fr. ViX. Bodianus. Vicent. 1499. fol. The firit two books

(the Allegory, rfcnupdw/'AiioZojiascfAfcrcurn; L. IValthard. Bern. 1763. 8.-^. .4. G'dtz Norimb. 1794. 8.— The ninth book

(rfe Musica) is given also by Meibninius, cited § 208 t. 1. Manuscript copies of some of the commentaries above alluded to are

preserved ; one of the 11th century, by Duncant, an Irish bishop, is in the British Museum. Of fVarlon, Hist. Eng. Poetry, ii. p. 384.

^474. Aricius JSIanlius Torquatus Severinus Boeihius, a native of Rome or
Milan, flourished at the close of the 5th century. His education was finished at
Athens, and he became highly celebrated for his learning and integrity. He was a
poet, a philosopher, and a theologian. Of his numerous theological and philosophical
works, that which has gained him the greatest celebrity, is the one entitled De couso-
lalione philosophic, in 5 books, partly in prose and partly in verse ; composed while he
was in prison. His style is not perfectly pure, but far better than that of his con-
temporaries.

1. Boethius was born A. D. 470, and lived until A. D. 526, considerably beyond the time which
we have inclnded in our glance at Roman Literature. He was raised to the highest hnnors and
offices of the empire, by Theodoric, king of the Ostrogoths ; but finally, through the artifices of
enemies who envied his reputation and hated his virtues, he lost the favor of tliis monarch, and
was imprisoned in the tower of Pavia, and at length beheaded by the king's order.

E. Gibbon, Decl. and Fall of Rom. Emp. ch. xxxix. oa the character, studies, and honors of Boethius.— Cf. Le Clerc, Bibliot
Choisie, tonje xvi. p. t6S-275.-C7a7*e, as cited § 293, vol. ii. p. 284.

2. The work on the Consolation of Philosophy is a dialogue between the author and Philoso-
phy, who appears to him in prison. In the Istbook, Boethius utters his lamentations, comparing
liis former with his present state ; in the 2d, Philosophy portrays the folly of complaining of For-
tune, who has no valuable or durable blessings to bestow ; in the 3d, she shows in what true
honor and happiness consist ; in the 4th, it is proved that virtue alone can make happy; the 5lh
treats of the sulijpct of an overruling Providence, and the agreement of God's omniscience with
man's free agency. — The work was held in great estimation in the middle ages. At the com-
mencement of the 14th century, there were but four classics in the royal library at Paris ; viz.
one copy of Cicero. Ovid, Liican, and Boethius. It was early translated into French, German,
and English: the earliest was the Saxon translation by king Alfred, who died A. D. 900. A
Greek translation e.xists, which is said to have been made by Ma.ximus Planudes, a monk of
Constantinople, in the 14th century.

Schdil, Litt. Rom. iii. 2l3.—Warton, Hist. Ene. Poetry, i. cxiii. cxxvi. ii. 342. ed. Lnnd. 1824.— Cf. Cottle's Alfred. Eeynt,



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