Johann Joachim Eschenburg.

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Censura Boeth. de Consol. Philosophia:. Gott. 1805. 8. also in his Opxac. Acad. (6lh vol. p. 143). Golt. 1812. 8.

3. The other works of Boethius, which belonged strictly to the class of philosophical, were
principally commentaries or translations; illustrating the works of .Aristotle, Cicero, and Por-
phyry, lie composed, however, several orisinal works pertaining to the subject of logic and
rhetoric. The piece entitled De Disciplina Scholarum, coiumor\\y ascrih-id to him, is the produc-
tion of Thomas of Brabant, a monk of the 13th century.— Boethius left some mathematical works,
chieflv translations or is litaiions of Greek originals ; as, .Brilhwetira, in 2 books ; Dt Jilt/sica, in
6 books ; and De Geomrtria, in 2 books, the first of which is a mere translation of Euclid ; the
second treats of the utility and applications of the science'. Boethius was not without cele-
brity as a Christian author, having composed several controversial works, among which were
treatises on the Trinity and the twofold nature of Christ. It has been said, that he led the way
to the introduction of the Aristotelean method of reasoning in controversial theology a.

1 Of. Bdhr, Gesch. Rom. Lit. p. 664, 675. 2 Clarke, 3S}mt cited above.

4. Editions.— W hole Works. Best ; (ex recens. Glareani). Basil, 1570. fol.— De Cons. P h i 1 o s o p h i ae ; of (he
very numerous editions we mention only the following; Gruninger. Argent. 1501. fol. "full of cu<s, and therefore may be
looked upon as a great curiosity."— P. Eertius. Leyd. 1671 ; Lpz. 1753. 8. considered very good.— rA. B. H Ifrecht. Hof. 1797. 8.
—B. Varchi. (Bodoni, pr.) Parma, 1798. 2 vols. 4. Lat. & Ital.— In ^alpy's Delphin Classics. Ang. Mai discovered in a Va-
tican MS. a sort of commentary on some of the metrical pass:iFes of the Consol. Phil. ;— also two previously unknown treatises
of Boethius ; they are given in the work entitled Clastic. Auclor. a Vatic, codicibus edit. (vol. 3d). Rom. 1831. 8.

5. Translations.- Of the Consol. of Philosophy.— German— fr. K. Ireytng Rig. 1794. i.—A. Kobureer or Coburger (printer),

Lat. & Germ. Norimb. 1473. fol. with a commentary ascribed to Thomas Aquinas. French.— 7o/m of Meun (metrical). Lyoni,

1483. This and two others are mentioned as existing before A. D. 1350; one by De Cis or Thri, an old French poet ; the other, in

prose, by John de Langref. Cf. IVarton, Hist. Eng. Poetry, ii. 204, 293, 343, 417. Enzlish.- King Alfred, " Augb-Saionice."

Printed (ed. Ch. Rawlinton). Oxf. 169S. 8. An ed. of Alfred's version of B. with an English translation was published by Mr.
Cardale of Leicester (Eng), 18-29; a work valuable to the student of Anglo-Saxon literature (on which subject, cf. Bibl. Repos.
Jul. 1841. p. 196-211).- Ger^. Chauctr. Printed by CozfOTi, at Westminster, without date; the Latin and English are given alter-
nately ; a period or p-art of a period in Latin being followed by the corresponding period in English, in smaller type.— /oAannc*
Capellanus, or John the Chaplain (John Walton), " The Bake of Comfort, called in Laten Boecius de Cons. Plains., trinslated into
Englesse Tonge ; in verse." &c. translated in 1410. printed in 1525. 4.— Richard, Lord Viscount Preston. Lond. 1695. Bepr.
Lond. 1712. S.—Phil. Ridpath (with notes and illust.). Lond. 1785. 8.— Many curious editions and translations are named by
I^ser, on the Poetry of the Middle Ages, cited § 348. 1.


VII. — Mathematicians^ Geographers, and (Economists.

% 475 u. In regard to mathematical science the Romans cannot be said to have had
an> peculiar merit, although when they began to patronize and cultivate the sciences


generally, this was not entirely neglected. The practical applications of the science,
especially in architecture and the military art, were very favorably received and en-
couraged by them, because thereby their love of splendor and their desire for conquest
were cherished and strengthened.

f 476. It was not until B. C. 262, that a sun-dial or gnomon was introduced at Rome,
being brought from Catana ; and this very dial, although not adapted to the latitude
of Rome, was the only guide they had in determining the time of day, for nearly 100
years subsequently (PZmy, Nat. Hist. vii. 60). About the year B. C. 164, the firsc
dial for the meridian of Rome was constructed. And it was several years later that
the Romans received their first instrument for measuring the hours of night, which
was the clepsydra, imported by Scipio Nasica, B. C. 159 (cf. P. IV. '^ 23.S). In the
year B. C. 168, a military tribune, C. Sulpitius Gallus, announced to his army an
eclipse of the moon ; this occurring as it was predicted, Gallus was regarded by his
soldiers as a man inspired by the gods {Livy, xliv. .37). — These facts are mentioned
to show how little progress had been made in sciences and arts connected with ma-

^ 477. The Romans derived all their knowledge of mathematics from the Greeks;
and it was but shortly before the time of Augustus that the exact sciences seem to
have been much cultivated among them, although they must have known something
of the discoveries of Arcliimedes and of the mathematicians at Alexandria (cf ^ 204r.
In the period designated as the fourth in our glance (from the war of Marius and Sylla,

B. C. 88. to the death of Augustus, cf § 301), we meet with the first name specially
noticeable. Publius NigidiusFigulus, who joined the party of Pompey against Caesar,
and was afterwards exiled by the latter, is mentioned as an eminent mathematician
and astrologer, and a man of great learning'. — Marcus .Alanilius is known to us merely
by his poem on astronomy, or rather astrology (cf. § 369). — The three geometers com-
missioned under Julius Caesar to survey the Roman Empire (cf. § 480) must have had
some reputation in practical geometry. — But the most distinguished name is that ot'
Vitruvius, whose writings we shall more particularly notice in another place C^i 490).
His celebrity, however, was the fruit of his skill and success in architecture rather than
from any contributions made by him to mathematical science.

> Ni?idius was a friend of Cicero (cf. Ep. iv. 13), and is said to have composed a great number of works, all of which are lost.
(Cf. Aid. GfU. Noct. Atl. iv. 9 ; xix. 14.) The fotlowinj are amon? the titles preserved ; De Sphsera barbarica el ^scanica ; Dt
vent is ; De Diis ; Deauguriis. He is said to have predicied future events (Suet, in Aueust. 24, 94; Dion Cass. xlv. \).~Bd/ir,
Gesch. Rom. Lit. p. S66.—Biirigny, in the Mem. Acad. Iiiscr. xx'ix. where all that is known of him is collected.— Fragments of
Dis writiogs are given in /. Rutgersius, Var. Lectiones, Lugd. Bat. 1618. 4.

^ 478. In the period following the death of Augustus, mathematical science did not
flourish with any new vigor. The principal writer that is placed in this department
is Frnntinus (cf ^ 491), who appears to have been interested in mathematics chiefly as
applicable to architecture and mihtary science. Mention is also made of Hyginus, sur-
nanied Gromaticus, and of Siculus Flacus ; the former of whom left a book on castra-
metaiio7i\ and the latter some treatises pertaining to the survey of lands^.

1 The book Hyginxis is given in Grsvius, Thesaur. Antiq. Rom. (cited P. IV. § 179), vol. x. 2 The treat, of Flaccus,\>y J,

C. Schwartz, Cob. 171 1. 4.— The works of both by Goenz, cited § 4S9. 4.

"5> 479. In looking over the last period, which is included in our view of Roman letters,
we find but scanty gleanings in the department of mathematical science. The works
of Firmicus Maternus (cf ^ 493 and of Boethius (§ 474. 3) are the chief productions ;
but the treatise of the former is filled with the reveries of astrology, and those of the
latter are, as has been noticed, principally translations from Greek authors. Some
writers on military afi'airs belong to this period, of whom the most important is Vege-
tius(of § 492). There is a treatise, entitled De vocahulis rei militaris, composed by
one Modestus' ; and another, from an unknown author, entitled De rebus belUcis,
which contains also something on financial matters, and other subjects^.

1 The piece of Modestus is said to have been composed by order of the emperor Tacitus, A. D. 275 ; Harles says of if. "iftZuietf

putidus ;" it is given in the collection Ft(. de re mil. Script, cited § 489. 1. 2 The work de rtbus bell, is found in Sigifm. Gt-

lenius, Notitia utriusque imperii. Bas. 1552. foL

§ 480. In Geography, the knowledge of the Romans was extended by their con-
quests ; yet they accomplished in this science little compared with what we might have
expected. We find no Latin writer on geography until the time of the Emperors.
JuUus Caesar conceived the idea of a complete survey of the whole empire. For this
purpose three geometers were employed ; Theodotus, intrusted with the survey of the
northern provinces ; Zenodoxus, with the survey of the eastern ; and Polycletus, of
the southern. It is stated, that this survey was finished B. C. 19 ; and that the results
were laid down upon a sort of map or chart, by the care of 3f. Vipsanius Affrippa, who
was hindered by death from pubhshing a great work from the materials collected.

The survey of the eastern part is said to have occupied over 14 years ; that of the northern, above 20 years ; and that of the south-
ern, above 25 years. SchSU (Litt. Rom. ii 221) gives the numbers still hiiher— The materials collected by Aerippa were lodged io
the public archives and there consulted by Plii.y (cf. Hist. Nat. iii. 2, 3, 29, 126 ; iv. 24, 26). The chart or table is said to have
been preserved, an4 to have received from time to time marks and notes to designate the various changes in the provinces. T)te


numerous changes at length required the construction of another chart with corrected measurements, which was effected about
A. D. 230, under Alexander Severus. Of this chart the celebrated document called Tabula Peulingiriaiia (cf. § 497. I) is sup-
posed by sonje modern critics to be an imperfect copy.

§ 481. How much the want of some comprehensive work on geography was felt at
Rome may be conjectured from the fact that Cicero, as appears by a letter to Atticus,
once contemplated such a work himself. He had a deep sense of the magnitude and
difficulty of the task, and on that account shrunk from it. No Latin writer seems to
have attempted a work of such a character ; but we have something hke it in the geo-
graphy of Strabo in Greek (cf § 216). The first writer in Latin on this subject was
Pomponius Mela (cf '$> 494) in the reign of Claudius; unless we except Juba the
younger', who composed a geographical account of Libya and Mauretania, which is
quoted by Pliny in his Natural History. Pliny may be mentioned as the next author
in this department, as four books of the work just named treat of geographical sub-
jects (cf. § 470. 2). Tacitus, who falls within the same period, should also be mentioned
here, as his treatise on the Germans (cf. § 534) may be placed under the head of geo-
graphy perhaps as properly as under that of history.

» The Juba here noticed, who was king of Mauretania, wrote also a history of Rome, in Greek.— See Sevin, Recherches sur la
vie et les ouvrages de Juba le Jeune, in the Mejn. Acad. Imcr. vol. iv. p. 457.— Cf. G.J. k'ossius, de histor. Graac. (ii. 4) cited ^ 231.

§ 482. We find no other geographical works to notice until after the time of the
Antonines. In our ffth and last period (cf § 301) occurs the name of Julia7tus Titia-
nus, who at the commencement of the 3d century composed a description of the Roman
proviyicea, which is lost'. SoU7itis probably belongs to the same century, a considerable
part of whose Polyhistor (cf. § 495) consists of geographical notices. In the 3d or 4th
century, it is supposed the extant works called Roman Itineraries {Romanoruvi Itine-
rarin) were constructed (cf. § 497); those designated as Itineraries of Antonine being
ascribed by some critics to a writer named iEihicus Ister, the author of a work en-
titled Cosmographia. Sextus Rufus^ and Vibius Sequester (cf. § 496), of the 4th cen-
tury, should also be noticed, having left some geographical or chorographical writings ;
which are the latest that fall within the period included in our present sketch of Roman
Literature, except the poetical performances of Avienus (cf § 381. 4) and Rutilius (cf.
^ 389). — It would seem, therefore, that there existed in the Latin language no general
system of geography except that of I\Iela, unless the treatise of Pliny may be consi-
dered as entitled to the same rank. The earliest modern system appears to have been
that of Dicuil, an Irish monk of the 9th century''.

» Tilianus is sometime? named among the historians ; see G. /. Vosniu, de hist. Lat. (ii. 1) cited § 527. I. ^.S^xhtJ Rufus, or

Festus Rufii.1 as he is sometimes called, is also placed among the historians ; we have two works by him ; one styled BTcvinrium
rerum geslarwn pop. Romani, or otherwise Eremarium de victcrriia et provinciis pop. Romani, composed, it is said, by order of the
emperor Valentinian ; the other, De resicmibus urbis Roms, a topographical description of Rome. The former of these works is
given in some editions of Eutrapius ; e. g. in VerheyVs, cited § 540. 3. Both separately, by C MUnnich, Hannov. 1815. 8. with a
map of Rome, and forming the I5th vol. of the Corpus IRstor. Lat. by Ruhhopf and Seebode (cf. § 527. 2). The description of
Rome is commonly joined with a piece under the same title by Publius Victor, De regionibus Rums, and another, entitled LibtUtis
promncitirum Romanarum, by some writer in the time of Theodosius; given in GnevinSy Thesaur. Antiq. Rnm. cited P. UI.

§ 197. I. 3 The work of Dtciirl, entitled De Mensura orbis terrx, was published by A. Letronne, Par. 1814. S. consiJered better

than the ed. of IVatken'dr, Par. 1807. — In the same century with Dicuil (ihe 9th) probably lived the writer called Geographux Ra-
venvx, author of a work of little value, with the title De Geographia seu Chorographia ; it is appended to the ed. of Mela by Gro-
nov, cited § 494. 2.

^ 483. Under the name of CEcojiomists are included a class of writers, who treated
particularly of the subject of Husbandry or Agriculture. Agriculture was from the
beginning an honorable employment among the Romans. Patricians and the most
distinguished citizens engaged in it. Cincinnatus was laboring in his fields when
informed of his election to the dictatorship. Regulus asked leave to retire from the
senate to cultivate a little farm suffering from neglect. The names of some illustrious
families are said to have originated from the agricultural employments of tb.eir founders;

e. g. the Fahii, Leiituli, Asinii, &c. This attention to the actual cultivation of the

lands by the ablest and best informed men occasioned an advancement in the art of
agriculture such as the Greeks never attained. It is indeed stated that there were
numerous works written in Greek on the subject ; Varro mentions about fifty authors ;
ahhough of the Greek works composed before his time, we have now only the CEco-
nomics of Xenophon (cf § 186. 2). and the JVorhs and Days of Hesiod (cf. ^ 51); the
pieces in the collection of Greek Geoponics (cf. § 268) were' of later origin. But what-
ever might have been written by the Greeks, the Romans were not in this branch
mere imitators or borrowers. The maxims and precepts which are given by the Ro-
man oeconomical writers were drawn from the experiments and observations of the
Romans themselves. The principles are not extensively applicable in modern agri-
culture ; yet the writings abound in useful hints and remarks, and have always been
regarded as curious and^ interesting compositions.

^ 484. The earhest Roman writer on husbandry, so far as we know, was Cato the
Censor (cf. § 498), whose history belongs to the first part of the second period in the
division adopted for our present glance (cf § 301). The next author in this department
was Varro (cf. § 499) ; he was born many years before the close of our second period.


but his treatise on agriculture was not written until after the middle of the following
period, when he was above eighty years old.

^ 485. Columella, who was a contemporary of Seneca, in our third period, seems to
have been less regarded among the ancients than his two predecessors; but he has so
adorned his subject by the purity and elegance of his style, that his work (cf § 500 a) is
still agreeable to the man of letters. One of the books is an hexameter poem on gar-
dening, a topic which was purposely omitted by Virgil (cf. 'i 362), whose Georgics may
properly be adverted to as illustrating the agriculture of the Romans. — Partialis Gar-
gilius was a writer on agriculture and gardening, who probably belonged to the same
period ; only slight fragments of his works remain (cf '^ 500 b. 4). — The last author we
have to name is Palladius, whose treatise, although consisting of 14 books, is chiefly
drawn from previous writers. The time when he Uved is differently stated by the

§ 486. The modern writers on Roman Literature have usually placed in the class of
oecononiists an author called Coelius Apicms of whom httle is known (cf § 501), but
to whom is ascribed a curious work on the culinary art, or what may perhaps be
termed the oeconomy of the kitchen. It is perhaps worthy of remark here, that direc-
tions as to domestic affairs are not unfrequently introduced by the writers on agricul-
ture. Cato gives recipes for making cakes and puddings; and indeed a considerable
part of his work is chiefly appropriate to the housewife.

% 487. There is another class of writings, which may be spoken of in this place per-
haps as properly as elsewhere; although from their peculiar character, it may perhaps
be a question, whether they should be noticed under the head of agriculture, of juris-
prudence, or of mathematics ; we refer to the works of the Roman Agrimensores or
measurers of land. These writings are sometimes termed Gromatic iGrotnatici), as
Gromatice was a word employed to designate the art of surveying.

The Romans had peculiar laws and customs in respect to the division of their lands,
and the determining and marking of boundaries. Ample business was furnished for
professional surveyors, in dividing and measuring districts assigned by the state for colo-
nies ; in measuring lands belonging to the public domain ; and in setthng the limits of
private estates (cf P. II. '^91. 1). It is obvious, that these men would need an acquain-
tance with practical geometry, with former and existing agrarian laws, and with all the
ancient customs in the distribution and use of lands. In the latter periods of the em-
pire, if not before, they held a high rank in the state, and received a handsome public
salary ; and schools existed expressly for their education.

^ 488. It would seem that numerous treatises were written on the different branches
of the art of the agrimensores. A body of curious but obscure and difficult fragments
prill exists ; some of them are ascribed to Siculus Flaccus and Hyginus (or Hygenus)
Gromaticus already named (>5i 478) ; but there is much uncertainty respecting their
authors. The collection now extant (cf § 489. 4) is considered by Niehuhr to be an
aiistract from an older collection, with additions, made by an ignorant compiler of the
7th century. — Niehuhr, the distinguished author of the History of Rome, was led by
his speculations respecting the agrarian insthutions among the Romans, to study these
remains. " We lose ourselves." says he, "in the contemplation of the destinies of
Rome and the changes that Italy has undergone, in reading these singular books. All
the epochs of Roman history stand here side by side ; the ancient aruspicy and religion
and Christianity; ordinances of the plebs, and sections of the Theodosian code, and
the Pandects ; the Latin of the earhest ages and the embryo Italian of the seventh

Niebuhr, Diss, on the Asrimemorei, in Appendix to liis History of Rome, vol. ii. p. 474. Eng. Transl. republished Phil. 1835.

^ 489. Our prescribed method requires here a specification of works pertaining to
the classes of authors just reviewed.

I. Mathematical writers.— MmfucZa, Hist, de Math. p. iii. 1. \.—Biihr, Rem. Lit. p. 665, ss. Collections.— ^W?;t, Astrono

Biiconim Latin. Opera. Ven. 1499 fol. Rhe?ii Lingnbirdias, 1503. fol. containing Greek and La'in astrologers —£. Bernard,
cited § 208. On military affairs ; P. Scriver, Script. Rei Milit. Lugd. Bat. 1644. 12.— Ve'eres de Re mil. Scriptores, with com-
ments of /. Stewechiux, &c. Vesalias (Wesel), 1670. S.—J. IVcddehe, Index mililaris Scriptor. Vet. Gneco-Latinorum. Sorose,
1752. 4.

2 Geoeraphers.- £. L. W. DacheiMen, Vnn den Verdiensten der Romer um Ausbreitung und Berichtlgung der Erdkunde Oder

Gengraphie. Erlang. 1780.— fi. Mamiert, as cited § 7. 7 (i).—Sdhr, ROm. Lit. p. 675. Collections.— .?idi«, Geographi Latini.

Ven. 1518. 8.

3. CEcinomisls.- ;>«nZpp, Hist. Rom. Lit. ii.— B. Bradley, Survey of ancient Husbandry and Gardening; from Calo. Varro, &c
I,ond. 1725. 8.— jj. Dickson, Husbandry of the Ancients. Edinb. 1788. 2 vols. 8— fioMiu. Arts and Sciences of Ancients, in Anc.

Hist. ed. N. Tnrk, 1835. vol. ii. p. 357. Collections— ft-i/icepj. by G. Merula (ed. iV. Jenson, pr.) Ven. 1470. fol.— Several

others bef )re that of /. M. Gessrter. Lpz. 1735. i.—Gesmer's. republished (Ernetti ed.) Lpz. 1773. 2 vols. 4— J. C. Sch7ieider

Script, rei rust. vet. La'. &c. Lpz. 1794-96. 4 vols. 8. considered the best. Didot (print.), Traduct. d'anriens ouvrages La»

relatifs a I'agriculture, &c. Par 1775. 6 vols. 8.

4. Groma'ic writers, or A^imensoret.—Nitlnihr, as cited 5 iSS.—SchSU, Litt. Rom. iii. 221.—Bnhr, ROra Lit. p. 6-2. C).

lections.— Pnncfpj, by A. Tumebus. De agror. condit. et constit. limit. Par. 1554. i.—N. Ri?aUius, Auctores finium regund
1613. i.—Gvl. Goensius (or Gaetiiis). Rei agraria- auctores, &c. Amst. 1674. 4. The contents of this are given by Fabricius, Biht
Lat. iii. oil, "ho remarks that these writings were first found in MS. in the monastery of Bobbio, A. D. 1493.

78 3f2


^ 490. Marcus Vitruvius Pollio, of Verona, flourished about the time of the Chris-
tian era. He performed military service under Caesar. By Augustus he was appointed
to the oversight of military engines and public edifices. The city of Rome is said to
have been greatly adorned by the buildings projected by him. His work on Archi-
tecture, in 10 books, has been preserved eniire, with the exception of the plans, which
originally belonged to it. Only the first 7 books treat of Architecture, properly speak-
ing ; the Sth is on Aqueducts ; the 9th on Dials ; and the 10th on Mechanics. His style
has often been censured as wanting in elegance ; this charge is made without adverting
sufficiently to the peculiar nature of the subjects treated by him. The text also needs
various corrections.

1. Newton, in his translation, cited below, places Vitruvius in the rei»n of Titus. NewlonU arguments are answered by Hirt, at
the close of his Disserlatiou on the Pantheon.— See IVolf k Suttmann, Museum der Alierthumswiseenschaft, vol. i. Berl. 1S07. 8.
—Also Scholl, Litt. Rom. ii. 1S9.— The Prolesomena in the ed. of Schneider, cited below.

2. The work of Vitruvius, entitled De Architectura, is said to have been the first
written on that subject in the Latin language ; and is the only one on the subject which
is preserved to us from ancient times. Its contents are drawn in part from Greek
authors now lost. It is therefore a work of the highest importance in the history of the
art. The loss of the designs, which originally accompanied it, is much to be regretted.
The 1st book treats of the art in general ; the •2d, of the materials employed in building;
the 3d, of temples ; the 4th, of the several orders of architecture; the 5th, of public
edifices; the 6th, of villas and country residences; the 7th, of decorations. — Cf. Bdhr,
p. 667.

3. Editions.— Best— 7. G. Schneider. Lpz. 1S07-8. 4 vols. S.—Aug. Rode. Berl. 1?00. 2 vols. 4. to which be!ons:s a volume
of plates (Kupfer zu Vitmvs X BUcher, &c.) publ. Berl. 1801 . fol.— S. Stralico. Utini. 1825-29. 6 vols. fol. with the excrcitations
of Poleiius (Erercit. ntruvianx, kc. Patav. 1739. 4), and notes of various others, and 140 plates. — More celebrated amnn; the

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