Johann Joachim Eschenburg.

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earlier J /. de Lad. {Elzevir, pr.) Amst. 1649. fol. with plates and the Lexicon ^'ilruvianum of B. Baldi. — The Princepi, by /.
SuLpicius, along with Frontinus, without name of place or date (probably Rome, before 1490) fol.— There is an abridjmeni of Fi-
truvius extant, Epitome Vitruvii, found in the monastery of St. Gall by Poggio ; published by Gidiel. PotUUta. Par. 1540. 4.—
Cf. Fabridm. Bibl. Lat. i. 483, 493.

4. Translations.— German -4i'?- Rode. Lpz. 1796. 2 vols. 4. French.- C. PerrauU, 2d ed. with orig. Par. 1684. fol. PeT'

rauU also published an abridgment in French ; which was reprinted Par. 1768. 8. ; and translated into English, Lend. 1703. 8.-^
Italian. — B. Galiani. Nap. 1758. fol. much commended. Spanish.—/. Ortiz y Sanz, Madr. 1787. fol. with platt-s. Eng-
lish.— S. Cd'tel, with orig. I^t. Lond. 1730. fol. with notes of Inigo Jones and others, and numerous plates. — fT. Newton. Lond.
1771. f..l. 1792. 2 vols, fol.— W. Vfnihins, as cited P. IV. ^ 243. 4.

5. lllustralrve.— H. Ch. Gentlli, Exegetische Briefe Qber Vitruv. Berl. IWl. 1804. 2 Parts, 4. with plates.—/. F. ». fl8«A,
Erliuierungen zu Vi'ruvs Baukunst. Stuttg. 1S02. 8.— C. L. Slieglitz, Archlologische Unlerhaltungen. Lpz. 1820. 8. (The 1st
Mtheiluns; is o;i Vitruvius, with plates).— Ktlruiniu, on the Temples and lotercolumniatioDS of the Aucieutg ; with a Dictionary of
Terms. Lond. l';94. 8. with ten plates.

% 491. Sextus Julius Frontinus, who was consul A. D. 74, and died in the office of
augur, A. D. 106, was the author of two works still extant. The one first written and
most celebrated is enthled Strategematica, in 4 books; containing notices of the mili-
tary manceuvres and remarkable "speeches of the Greek and Roman heroes; the 4th
Dook treats particularly of military science. The other was on the Aqueducts of Rome,
of which the author had the superintendence under the emperor Nerva.

1. The treatise on the Roman Aqueducts, in two books, is considered as a valuable
work on account of its description of those remarkable specimens of architecture ; it is
written with ease, but without elegance. — I'he other work (entitled sometimes Slrale-
geticon libri IV.) is a compilation, bearing marks of negligence, yet contahiing informa-
tion not elsewhere found.

There are some treatises attributed to Frontinus, which evidently belong to a later age ; e. g. the pieces entitled De azrorum qua-
lilate, De limititAis, and De Coloniis, found in the collection of Gromatic writers by Goesius (cited § 489. 4). Mention is a'so made
of a lost work, De tactica Homeri.—Schbll, Litt. Rom. ii. 453.— Polentis, Vita Fronlini, in his ed. and also that of Oudendurp, b».
low cited.— D. G. Moller. Diss, de Frontino. Alt. 1690. 4.

2. Editions.— B o t h Works; Frontini Opera. Bipont. I7SS. 8. " Editio accurala" {Harlit). D e Aquxductibus;

best, G. Ch. Adler. Alton, 1792. 8. with plates.- /. Polenus. Patav. 1722. 4.— Given also in Grarjius, cited P. IH. § 197.

Strategematica; best, F. Oudendorp. Lugd. Bat. 2d ed. 1779. 8.— A^ Schwetiei. Lpz. 1772. 8. — Given also in the C<^
kctian of m\]\tiry writers cited § 489. \.—Princeps. Rom. 1487 4.

3. TranslationF.- German.— Of the Strategetics ; /. Ch. Kind (with transl. of Polyasmis). Lpz. 1750. 8.— Better in the work en-
titled Kriegswisseiischaftl. Anecdolen von berUhmten Fddherren. Gotha, 1792. 8. French— 5ourrfon de S'grais, Strategetica,

Par. 1759. 8.—/. Rondelet, Aqueducts, with orig. Lat. and plates. Par. 1720. 8. English; unknown author, Lond. 1686. 12.

"5> 492. FJavius Vegetius Renatus, probably a native of Rome, lived in the 4th cen-
tury at Rome or Constantinople. It has been supposed that he was a Christian. He
wrote a work on the military art, in five books, addressed to Valentinian II. It is
drawn from earlier writers, and from the constitutions and ordinances of some of the

1 . Vegetius is styled, in the manuscripts, vir illustris, and comes. His work, written
about a! D. 375, is entitled Epitome institutionum rei miJitaris. The first book treats
(if the forming and training of soldiers; the 2d, of the discipline and rerrulaiion of an
army ; the 3d. of the various arts brought into requisition in military affairs ; the 4th,


of machines employed in attack and defence ; the 5th, of naval affairs. Cato, Celsus,
Paternus, and Fronlinus are among the authors from whom matter is collected.

B'dhr, Gesch. Rom. Lit. 671. — {I'aldeke, Index militaris, ciled § 4S9. 1. — Comte Turpin (U Criiit, ComineDtaires sur les institu-
tions militaires de Vegece. 2d ed. Par. 1783. 2 vols. 4.

2. Editions —Best.— A'. Schuxbd. Norimb. 1767. 4. with plates.— The Bipontint. Argentor. 1806. S.—B. Giamboni. Flor.
1815. S.—Priticeps, either that printed at Rome, 147S. 4, or one, without date or name of place, but supposed, Oxf. I4ti8. 4 —Con-
tained also in the Collections of writers on military alfairs cited § 189. 1.

3. Translations.— German.— iJ. Meinehe. Halle, 1799. 8. French.— Chevalier de Bongan. Par. 1772. 12. English J.

Clark. Lond. 1767. 8.

4. There is a work extant, entitled De Mulomedicina, seu de arte veterinaria, in four boolts,
whicii lias someiiines been ascribed to tliis author. It is now referred, however, to a latet
writer, named Publius Vegethis.

Cf. Schmi, Lilt. Rom. lii. 222.—Fabricius, Bibl. Lat. iii. 177.— First printed, Basil. 1548. 4.— Contained in Scltneidcr^a Collection,
cited § 489. 3.— A French translation is given in the Collection of Didot, cited § 4S9. 3. English translation j Lond. 174S. 8.

^ 493. Julius Firmicus Maternus, a native of Sicily, lived in the first part of the 4th
century, and was a lawyer under Constantine. He wrote a work entitled Mathtstos
lihri VIII. ; which is an astrological rather than a mathematical performance. There
is also a treatise on pagan errors, composed by him after his conversion to Christianity.

1. Some have considered the works above mentioned as the productions of two
diiTerent authors by the same name. The author of the mathemaiical or rather astro-
lo^ical %vork seems to have been evidently a pagan at the time of writing it. The time
when this was composed is fixed by an allusion to an eclipse that occurred A. D. 334.

Cf. ScAo//, Litt. Rom. iii. iib.—Falricius, Bibl. Lat. iii. \\i-\2l.—Mo)igitor, Bibl. Sicula, as ciled by HarUs, Brev. Not. Lit. Rom.
Supplem ii. 226. — Munler, in his ed. helow ciled. — Heriz, Diss, de Julio Firinico, &c. Havniae, 1817.

2. Editions.— M a t h e s i s ; best. A'. Pruckner Bas. 1551. fol. with other astronomical writers.— Pnncqsj, by Petcennius Fr.

Niger. Ven. 1497. fol.— Conlained in .?M«s, cited § 4S9. 1. DeErrore profanarum religionum; best, J". JlUnler.

Havn. 1826. 8.— Cum notis Fa>io>-um. Rotterdam, 1743. 8.

•S 494. Pomponius Mela, who lived in the first century, was a native of Spain. His
geographical work, entitled De Situ Orbis, in three books, is commendable for the
good style, and the union of brevity and accuracy by which it is characterized. It is,
properly, a compend, after the system of Eratosthenes, and is drawn chiefly from
Greek sources.

1. His name, according to some, should be Mella. The place of his birth is men-
tioned by him, lib. ii. c. 6 ; but the critics do not agree as to the genuine reading; Tin-
aentera, or Ci?iseulera, is perhaps the most authorized. He is supposed by some to
nave been the third son of the rlietorician I\Iarcus Seneca; and to have belonged only
by adoption to the family of the Fompo7iii, who traced their origin back to Numa.
A passage in his work (lib. iii. c. 6) is considered as evincing that he lived in the reign
of Claudius. — His geography, which is entitled in some manascnpts Be Chorosraphia,
commences with a brief glance at the world in general, and the three ancient divisions,
Europe, Asia, and Africa. The author then proceeds to notice particular portions, in
the following order; Mauretania, Africa Propria, Cyrenaica; then Egypt, which he
includes under Asia; next Arabia, Syria, Asia Minor; then, in the 2d book, he no-
tices Scythia, Thrace, Macedonia, Greece, lUyria, Italy, Gaul, Spain, and the isles of
the Mediterranean ; in the 3d, he again touches upon Spain and Gaul, and proceeds to
Germany, Sarmatia, the Northern and Eastern Oceans, India, Persia, and then passes
to Ethiopia and finally to the western coast of Africa.

Bdhr, Gesch. Rom. Lit. 67^- G. /. rosi, lib. i. c 25, as cited § 527. l.—Tzschiuhe, Diss, de Pomp. Mela, in his ed. below cited.
—FiUirman, Kl. Hindb. 776, and references there given.—/. A. MilUer, Animadversiones in Pomp. Melam. Misn. 18.2. 8. — G.
G. Kirich. Progr de vera Africae figura secundum Pomp. Melam. Hofae, 1791. 4.

2. Editions— Best, K. H. Tzscliucke. Liiz. 1807. 3 vols. 8. with maps. A reduction of this for use of schools by A. fVeichert.
Lpz. 1816. 8. — The Bipontine, Argentor. 1809. 8. is good, and contains also yibius Seijuesler, Claudius Rutilius, Sc— Of previous
eJitions, the betler; J. Kapp. Hof. 1781. S.—Abr. Grcniov. Leyd. 1748. 8.—/. Reinold. Lond. 1748. 4. (1st ed. 1711.) Repr.
Eton. 1761. 4. and Lond. 1814. 4. with maps.— /M/ictpj, Milan, 1471. 4.

3. Translations.— German.-/. Ch.. Dietz. Giessen, 1774. 8. French.— C. P. Fradin. Par. 18:4. 3 vols. 8, English.— v3.

Goldiug. Lond. 159a 4.

§ 495. Caius Julius Solinns, of an uncertain age, although probably of the 3d cen-
tury, wrote a collection of miscellaneous curiosities, to which on the second publication
he gave the title of Poli/histor. It consists chiefly of geographical accounts, and is
taken almost entirely from the elder Pliny (cf § 470). Many passages are in ihe
exact words of that author; and the extracts are not made with remarkable judgment
or taste.

1. The author is supposed to have published two editions of the work ; the first un-
der the title Collectanea rerum memorahilium. It consists of fifty-six chapters. — There
is extant a small portion of a poem entitled Fragmentum Ponticdn, which has some
times been ascribed to Solinus.

Scdmasi^is, Prolegomena to his ed. below cited.— C G. Moller, Diss, de Solino. Altorf. 1693. i.—Bdhr, Gesch. Rom. Lit. p. '557
2. Editions.— Best ; CI. Salmasiut (Saumaise). Plinian. Exercitat. in C. J. Solini Polyhist. 2d ed. (cura S. Piti'ci). Trairol

id Rhen. (Utr.) 1689. 2 vols. {o\.~A. G6lz. Lpz. 1777. 8.— Bipont. 1794. S.—Princeps, by iV. Jeiuon (printer). Van. 1473. fc..

—The Fragnunlum Ponlicon is given in Lemairt's Poet. Lat. Min. vol. i.


§ 496. Vibius Sequester, whose native place is unknown, is supposed to have lived
towards the close of the 4ih century. He composed a geographical catalogue of rivers,
lakes, monntains, forests, &c. for the use of his son \'irgihanus. Many illustrations
of other authors, particularly the poets, may be derived from this performance.

1. Tliis author is placed by Oberlin (in his ed. below cited) much later. The title of his work
is Deflnminihus, fiinlibus, lacubus, vtevioribiis, paludibus, montibus, gevtibus, quorum mevtio apud
poelas Jit. — Boccac'xo composed a similar work, in preparing which he made use of Vibius, al-
though without acknowledgment. — Scholl, Lit. Rom. iii. '262.

2. Editions.— Best. Jer. J. Obaliru Argentor. {Strasfb.) 1118. 8.— Fr. Hessel. Rotterd. 1711. S.— The £!>ona'ne, with Mela,
as cited § 494. 2.—Pniiceps. Pisaur. 1512. fol. with Solinus.

^ 497. The Boinan Itineraries it may be proper to mention here. These were
either topographical delnieutio7is, a sort of chart {itinerariapicta), or descriptions or spe-
cihcatioiis of the most important places {itineraria scripta or adnotala). The monument
called Tabula Ptntingeriana is a specimen of the former: and the Itifieraries of An-
ionme are examples uf the latter. Besides these, which are the most important, we
have what is called the Itinerary of Jerusalem, and another called the Itiiierary of

\. The Tabula Pentingeriava " may be considered, probably, as a specimen of the painted roads
of the ancients. It forms a map of the world, constructed on peculiar principles. Its dimensions
being twenty feet in length and one in breadth, an idt^a may be formed of tlie correctness with
which the proportion of the different parts is exhibited. The high road which traversed the
Roman empire in the general direction of east and west is made the first meridian, and to this
every other part is sutijected. The objects along this line are mituitely and faithfully exhibited ;
of those lying to the north and south of it only some general notion can be conveyed ; these are
all represented, of course, most enormously extended in length and reduced in breadth." — The
Peutingerian Table has commonly been considered as the copy of a chart or table constructed in
the tinre of Theodosius the Great, and from that circumstance it is sometimes called the Thendo-
sian Table.— B\tl it is siippo.=ed by some modern critics, particularly Manvert, to hie an imperfect
copy of a chart constructed in the beainning of the third century, under Alexander Severns (cf.
$ 480); they think it was executed by some monk of the thirteenth century, and taken not from
the ordinal chart of Severus but from another copy, with omissions and additions-— The Italian
portion'of this table is given in our Plate on page 58; the reader will notice that two portions of
the length are given, each with their whole width ; what is called in the plate the J\''orth Part
being a portion extending from Rome in a northwest direction, and that called South Part a por-
tion extending Ironi Rome in the opposite direction; for explanation of the figures, <Stc. see De-
scription of Plates, p. XXV.

It was found in a German library in the fifteenth century, and came into the possession of Conrad Peulinger o( Augsburg, who
died A. D. 1547. It was sent to the fanious geographer Orlelius, who died at Antwerp, A. D. I59S. After a various forlune, it was
lodged. A. D. 1738, in the Inifierial Library at Vienna, where it still remains. It is upwards of twenty-one German feet in length

and about one foot in breadth, formed by united pieces of parchment. It was fiist published (afri iiiciia). by F. Cfi. de Schcyb.

Vien. 1753. fol.— Republished, with an Introduction by C. Mannert. Lpz. 1S24- fol.— Also in M. P. Katanisich, Orbis Antiquus.

Buda, 1825. 4— Cf. SclwU, Lilt. Rom. iii. 251 J G LolUrus, De Tab. Pcutin»er. Commenlarius. Lpz. 1732. 4.— G. Mtermann,

Conmientar. in eiigramnia Sedulii, given in Burmann's Anthol. Lai. vol. W.—Mamurt, as just cited, and also in his treatise enti-
tled Ra Trajani ad Dauub. ges'ae. Nori[iib. 1793. 8.—F>irtt, in the iV/tm. Jicad. Itiscr. xiv. 174. xviii. 249.

2. The Itineraria Jlninvini are two; one designating routes by land, and the other routes by
sea. They merely specify the distances between the different posts. It is well known that they
are not the work of the emperor Antoninus ; nor were they composed by his order; they were
posterior to the time of Constantine the Great. Yet it is not improbable that they grew out of
official sketches or draughts, which were preserved in the imperial archives, and successively
changed as new routes or new stations were established. There are two authors to whom these
Itineraries have been ascribed; one is Julius Honurius, from whom we have an insisnificant
fragment usually joined with the Itineraries; the other is .Mthicas Ister, a Christian of the 4th
cen'tury. The latter is also the supposed author of the work entitled Cosmographia, which pre-
sents a geographical table or nomenclature of the ancient world, under four divisions, styled east

and toest, north and south. The Jtinerarium Hierosolymiianum was constructed by a citizen of

Bordeaux, in the fourth century ; it traces the routes of travel from Bordeaux to Jerusalem, and
from Heraclea by Rome to Milan. It is called also Itinerarium Burdigalense.

The best edition of these Itineraries is that of Pt'er fVtssding, Vetera Roraanorum Itineraria. Amst. 1753. 4.— The best edition

cf the CMinop-apliia is in A. Gronoo") Pomponius Mela, cited § 491. 2. I he first ed. was by/. SirrUtr. Bas. 1575. 12. CL

SchUl, Litt. Rom. i i. 258, ss.

3. The Itinerarium Mezavdri is a curtailed account of the route of Alexander the Great in the
invasion of Persia. It was constructed by an unknown heathen author, about A. D. 340 or 350,
for the benefit of the emperor Constantitis, in his war with the Persians. A part of this work
was inserted by Muratnri, in his Italian ..Antiquities; but the whole was first published by Mai,
from a manuscript found in the Ambrosian library at Milan.

Bdhr, Ges. Rom. Lit- eSl.—Fuhmiann. Kl. Hindb- 779— Murafort, Antiquit. Ilal. medii .a^vi, vol. iii. Diss. lUv.—A. Mai,
Itinerarium A.cxaudri, ad Conslantium Augustum, &c. Mil. 1817. 4. Reprinted. Frankf. 1818. 8.— This contains also a treatise
found in fne same manuscript, wilh the following title ; Julii Valerii .Res ?€itffi Alexandri Macedonia translals ex
JBSsopo Grsc.—Ci Class. Journ. xix. 374.

^ 498. Marcus Fortius Cato, of Tusculum, was illustrious in the earlier times of the
Roman republic, about B. C. 200. He was distinguished as a general, consul, and
cpnsor; as an orator, civilian, historian, and ceconomist. He is discriminated from
Cato of Utica, who was his great-grandson, by the epithet elder {major); and, on
account of his rigid moral principles, he was also called Censor. Of his numerous
writnigs we have merely fragments, excepting the book on Agriculture. Respecting


the genuineness of this there have been doubts ; and if it be his work, it must have
been greatly mutilated and marred by transcribers, as it does not correspond to the
genius of his style nor to the testimony of the ancients.

1. He was born B. C. 235, and died B. C. 149, according to the common statements.
He is said to have been present in a battle against Hannibal, at the age of seventeen,
and to have behaved with great valor. He was called to all the more uiiportant offices
of the sta'e. But when not kept abroad by military duty, or employed in civil and
forensic business at Rome, he chiefly spent his time at a larm in the Sabine terrhory,
which he inherited from his father. His opposition to the learning and refinement of
the Greeks has often been noticed (cf. 'S 391); yet in his old age he took pains to
acquire the Greek language. — VV^e have his life by Nepos (cf. § 530) and by Plutarch
(cf % 249).

2. The book Be Agricultura or De re rustica, is destitute of method. It consists
of 162 chapters, and seems to be merely a sort of journal containing rules and obser-
vations recorded in the order of accidental suggestion.

3. Of the lost works of Cato, the one most regretted is that entitled Origines, or De Originibus,
in seven books; a work treating of the history and antiquities of Rome. The 1st bonk con-
tained the history of the kings of Rome; the '2d and 3d gave an account of the origin of the
states of Italy ; the 4ih and 5th described the first and second Punic wars ; and the 6tti and 7th,
the Roman affairs down to the victory of Servius Galba over the Lusitanians, B. C. 152. The
work was held in high estimation; Cicero {Brutus, c. 17,87) praises the corjciseness and sim-
plicity of the style. We have a few genuine fragments of it; those publiihed by J<'anni are

Among the lost works of Cato are mentioned 150 orations, which were extatu in the time of
Cicero. Nearly a third of them are said to have been spoken in his own defence ; accnniing to
Plutarch he was accused about fifty times and as often acquitted. — Cato also wrote a book De re.
viililari, of which Vegetius (cf. $ 492) made a free use. He also left a treatise on medicine (cf.
$ 547 a). The following titles of works by him are likewise given ; Carmen de moribus, a prose
performance, which must not be confounded with the verses called Disiicha de JMuribns (cf.
$ 382) ; Libri Quatstianum Epistolicarum (cf. jJuZ. Gell. vii. 10) ; De Orature, ad fiHuiii (cf. Qujn-
til. iii. 1); Deliberis educandis (cf. Macrob. iii. 6); Aputhegmata (cf. Cic. de OlT. i. 29;.

Schneider, De M. P. Catonis vita, studiis et scriptis, in his Collection, cited § 489. 3 — /. Hu!;o Van Bolhuis. Diatribe in M. P. Ca-
touis sciipla et fragn.enta. Ulrecht, 1S26.— f^. E. Wtier, De M. P. Cat. vita et moribus. Brem. 1831. 4.— J. Fosriu!, De Hist. Lat.
i. 5.—Bahr, Gesch. Rom. Lit. p. 347, lOO.—Dunloji, Hist. Rom. Lit. ii. U.—SchSll, Litt. Rom. i. 18S.— Plutarch, and Aepos, Vit
Cat. Cf. Cic. Brut, c 20.— Plin. Nat. Hist. six. \.—Liv. xxxix. 40.—Fakr. Max. viii. 7.

4. Editions. — The Book De re rustica is given in the Collection cited § 4S9. 3. — First published in that of N. Jenscm. — Separately,
Alls. Popma (with pref. by Meursius) Franequer. 1620. S. — /. Ch. Hayniich. Schleiz. 1743. 8. — Fragments of lost worts, by
Alts. Popma, in his ed. just cited.— The fragments fabricated by Nanni, or Annius Vitfrbieiisis, were published in his Antiqui-
tales Vans. Rom. I49S. Cf. Fabricius, Bibl. Lat. i. 35.

5. Translations.— German.— G. F. Grosse. Halle, 1787. 8. French.— Saiouretu: de la Bonruterie, in the collection of IHdot,

cited § 489. 3. English, of considerable portions, in Dickson, cited § 489. 3.

6. The following works are mentioned here as illustrating passages in the work on agriculture ; L. F. Meisier, De torculario Ci-
tonis. Gott. 1765. 4. Cf. Schneider's coll. above cited, vol. ii. — J. A. Markussen, Des M. P. Cat. Beschreibung eines Wein- und
Oel-Kellerhauses, &c. Lpz. 1805. 8. with plates.

§ 499. M. Terentius Varro, who has already been mentioned among the Gramma-
rians (§ 423), wrote, in advanced life, three books 07i Hushandry, which deserve the
highest rank among the similar works of antiquiiy. They contain muchthat is valuable
not only as pertaining to the particular subject of agricuUure, but also in reference to
Uterature in general.

1. The first book of Varro's work treats of the object and the rules of agriculture ;
occasion is taken to speak of the soil, climate, and productions of Italy, of the proper
situation and construction of villas, and of the culture of flowers. The 2d book dis-
cusses the proper management of flocks and herds (De re pecuaria). The 3d treats of
poultry, fish, and game, which are all included under the denomination Villiccc pastio'
nes. — 'The work is constructed in the form of dialogue. Varro treats his subject much
more methodically than Cato, exhibiting less of the practical farmer and more of the
scholar and antiquary.

See Bahr, Gesch. Rom. Lit. p. 703.— References given § 423. I.

2. Editions. — The treatise on Husbandt-y is given in the editions of V.'s works, cited § 423. 2. — Also in the agricultural collee
lions citc-d § 4S9. 3.— It was published separately, Halle, 1730. 12.

3. Translations.— German— G. Grosse. Halle, 17SS. English.— Ow>e?i. Oxf. 1800. 8.

"§ 500 a. L. Junius Moderatus Columella, a native of Gades (Cadiz) in Spain, lived
in the first century. He composed a work o7t agriculture, in twelve books, to which
is added a thirteenth book on the cultivation of trees. The latter book may have been
originally an appendix to the work, or it may be the remnant of another distinct pro
duction. The tenth book is in verse, and contains rules for gardening. The work
possesses value both from the beauty of the style and the richness of the" matter.

1. Little is known respecting his life. He was born in the reign of Augustus or 7i
berius. He speaks (iii. 3) of Seneca as a contemporary, and is repeatedly named by
the elder Pliny. Some critics (particularly the two Spanish brothers by the name of
Mohedano, cited below) have maintained, that he was the same person with the 3Io-
deratus, who wrote in Greek on the Pythagorean philosophy (cf § 463).— In the first


of the twelve books De re ruslica, Columella treats of the utility and the pleasures of
husbandry; in the 2d, of fields, of sowing, and of harvesting ; in the 3d and 4th, of
vineyards; in the 5th, of dividing and measuring time ; in the 6th, of cattle and their
diseases; in the 7lh, of sheep and swine ; in the «ih, of the inner-yard ; in the 'Jth, of
bees; in the 10th, of gardening, as above noticed ; in the 11th, of various duties of the
farmer; the 12th, which is the longest, contains miscellaneous instructions and pre-

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