Johann Joachim Eschenburg.

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cepts in rural economy. — The book De arhorihus, is supposed by some to have be-
longed to a work in four books, which formed the original of the one afterwards
published by him in twelve; and that, in this way, there was reason for the remark of
Cassiodorus, that Columella composed a work on agriculture in sixteen books.

ScKdU, ii. 468.— Bd/ir, IQo.—Raph. S( Pelr. Muludano, Histor. Lit. de Espanoi (ia vol. Stti). Midr. 1781. 4.— J. R. De Cat-
fro, (in 2d vol. rf ) BiUiotlu His,<anica (in Spaiiisli). Madrid, 1786. fot.

2. Editions.— Best, in Itie Collectious of Gtssner ^ Schiuider, cited § 489. 3 — /. B. Rest, Flensburg, 1795. 8. Ist vol. only exe-
cuted, including 4 boolis. — The 10th book, in the Poet, Lot. Min. by JVinudorJ, nad by Lemaire.

3. Translations. — German.— A/. C. Carlius (De re nisHca). Brem. 17b9. 8.—/. Rian (De artoribm). Dresd. 1791. 8.

Italian.— G. Pagianio. Ven. 1793. 8. — English; Lond. 1745. 4.

^ 500 b. Palladius Eutilius Taurus ^milianvs, probably a Roman, who lived about
the clo.^e of the second century, was a man of much information, especially in Grecian
literature. We have from him a work on Husbandry, in fourteen books, in which he
evidently makes use of the earlier writings of the Greeks and Romans on the same
subject. It is written with considerable, yet by no means uniform, correctness and
simplicity. The last book is in elegiac verse.

1. The critics have not been agreed either as to his native country or the time when
he lived. He bears, in the manuscripts, the title oi vir illustris. — Among the authors
from whom Palladius derived his materials are Columella, Martialis Gargilius, and
Vitruvius. The style is inferior to that of Columella, and indicates an author belonging
to a later age. The first book contains general precepts on the cultivation of land ;
the twelve following detail the various agricultural labors of the year, in the order of the
months, so that a book is devoted to each month; the 14th is a didactic poem, on the
grafting of trees {de insitione).

Bdltr. 706.— ScASa, iii. 243.— FaMicitu, Bibl. Lat. iii. 69.— CeHaniM (in the Proles, to his) Curse Posteriores. Jenae, 1735. 12.

2. Palladius seems to have been much read in (he middle ages. Two writers of the thirteenth century are mentioned particularly
as haviiiit drawn from him ; yinctns de Beavais, or f^inceiitivs, in his Speculum Histcriale. Ven. 1494. fot. ; and Cretcentitis,
in a work called Commoda Ruralia, in 12 books. Bas. 15)8. M.—Edhr, 'O'.—HarUs, Brev. Not. 782.

3. Eiiitions— P(iZ;arfit« is contained in the Collections cited § 489. 3.— Separately, Heidelb. I.i98. 8.

4. One of the lost works of il/ar<?o//s Gargilius, from which Palladius borrowed,
was entitled De horlis. A fragment of this was discovered by Mai, in a palimpsest
manuscript formerly belonging to the monastery of Bobbio ; it is entitled de arhoribus
pomipheris, and treats, in tour sections, de cydo?ieis, de persicis, deamygdalis, and de

It is published in the work entitled Classic .luctor. e eodd. Vatican (by A. Mat). Rom. 1S28. 8.— Another Fragment which has
been ascibed to Garglius, entitled De cura bourn, is usually joined with the veterinary treatise of Vegetius (cf. § 492. 4) j but the
critics now ascribe it to a later author.

•5> 501. Coelius Apicius, of whom very Httle is known, is named as the author of a
book still extant o7i coohery {De arte coquinaria), in ten books. Some place him in the
third century, and think that his name was simply Coelius, and that he put forth his
work, on account of the nature of the contents, under the name oi Apicius, who was a
famous Roman gourmand.

1. There were three known epicures by the name of Apicius. A\.her\?e\is(Deipno-
soph. iv. 19) mentions ]\larcus Apicius, a contemporary of king Nicomedes, and also
(Deipjios. i. 6. 12. cf. Flin. Hist. Nat. ix. 17) M. Gavius Apicius, who lived under
Augustus at^d Tiberius, and after whom certain kinds of cake bore the name 'AniKia.
A third of the name lived under Trajan.

2. The work is sometimes entitled De re culinaria, or De opsoniis et condimentis ;
those who consider the name Apicius as part of the title, would give it as follows:
C o e 1 i i Apicius, sive De re culinaria. — The books have each a separate title in Greek,
indicating in general the contents ; the titles are the following : 'ETnueXrjs, the careful;
Y.apKOTTTr]; , the carver; KrjvovpiKa, things pertaining to the garden; UavSsKTris , the all-
receiving; 'OoTT/jtof, relating to pulse; 'Acpone-ris, the flying; UoKvrtXng, the sumptuous;
TcrpuTToyf, x\\e four-footed; QaXaaca, the sea; 'AAjfuj, \he fisherman.

Scholl, Iii. 2i2.—Bdhr, lOS.—Fabricius, Bibl. Lat. ii. 3; 5.

3 fldiili, rii. -Besi; Th. J. abAlmeloveen. Amsl. \'09. S.— J. M. Bemfiold. Onold. (Ansb.) 1787. 8. 1800.8.

VIII. — Mythographers.

^ 502 tt. The system of gods among the Romans, and their fabulous stories, taken
as a whole, had a close resemblance and relationship to the mythology of the Greeks,


and indeed differed from it merely by some changes and additions. (See P. II.) The
Roman mythoaraphers accordingly drew chiefly trom Grecian sources, and theretore
they present htlle that is new or pecuhar, either in the tales themselves, or m the appli-
cation and interpretation made of them. The domestic mythology of the Romans, the
later additions to their system of deities, and their whole scheme of rehgion, may be
learned more correctly and fully from their historical and antiquarian writers than
from these collectors of fables. , . ,. , • i_ • i, i

<> 503 The few writers that are usually placed in this class, might with equal pro-
priety perhaps be ranked among the grammarians. And, in fact, only one ot them,
Hus'niu^^ falls within the time included in our present sketch; as the others whose
names are given below, lived after the close of the fifth century ; and no one of the three
mytholoo-ical works discovered by Mai in the Library of the \ atican (cf. % o06 2) be-
longs to a period earlier than that century.— The lost mythological writings of Varro
(cf.l> 4-23) would, it is beUeved, be of more value than all the \vorks of these authors.

The' following are the principal C o 11 e c t i o n 3.-r/.om. Muncktr. Mythoer. Lat. Amst. 16S1. 8. with fi?ures.-More
complete, Aug. F. Slaveren, Auct. My-hog. Latini. Leyd. 1747. 2 vols. 4.-The 3d vol. of .3. Mai's Class. Auctores e Codic Vat.
(Rom. 1831) contains the three mythographical works discovered by him as above mentioned. These were republished by G. 3.
Bodt, Myibographi Auct. Lat. e Vat. Codicibus, Zell. 1834. 2 vols. 8.

% 504. Caius Julius Hyginus, whose native country is not known, was a freedman
of the emperor Augustus, and the keeper of the Palatine Ubrary (cf. P. IV. % 126).
Little else is known respecting his Ufe. Perhaps the mythographer named Hyginus
was a later author, who lived in the time of the Antonines. The work ascribed to
him called Fahularum Liber consists of a collection of 277 brief mythological tales. It
is a mere compilation from ancient grammarians and scholiasts, and is written in a
style not entirely pure. The work seems to have contained a greater number of fables,
and to have been divided into two books. We have also, from the same author, a
work entitled Poelicon Astronomicdn, in four books, illustrating the constellations as
represented by the poets. Much of it is drawn from the Catasterisms of Eratosthenes
(cf. § 215).

1 The Hyiniis, who lived in the time of Augustus, was a distinsuished grammarian, and ia
named as the author of several other works ; particularly one en\n\pd De urbibushahas ; an-
other entitled /)e vita rebusque illiistrium virorum.—The laneuajre and style of the Fa6/es are
considered as evidence that the work was not written by this author. Some have supposed it
to be a compilation or a translation from Greek, made even later than the time of the Antonines.
—A mvlholo^ical Frasment discovered by Niehuhr (fracrmentum de rebus Thebanis mythologicis)
is coniidered"" by him as a section from the orisinal book'out of which, as enlarged by the addi-
tions of later tinies, the work now passins under the name of Ilyginiis was constructed. The
first of the three mythological works discovered bv Mai contains an intimation (hat it includes
the second book of Hyginus ; but notwithstanding this (cf $ 506. 2), Mai considers it as the pro-
duction of a writer iii the fifth century.

J. ScJiefftr. De Hygini script, tab. setate atque siylo, in his ed. below cited.— 77i. Muncker, De auctore, stylo et astale Mythologias-
qu£E C. J. Hydui no.i.en prsfert, in his Collection cited ^ 603.— Nielmhr, Orat. Cic pro Rabir. etc. Fragm. Rom. J820. S.—Bdhr
713.— >/o/iedajio. ciled § 500 a. I.

2. Editions. -Hy?>ni p e r a, bv /. Mycittus. Bas. 1535. fol. Lugd. Bat. 1608. 8. Liber Fab ul arum; best, in the

Collection of Stave^en, cited § 503.-/ Schefftr. Hamb. 1674. 8. P oel. Aitr onomicon; \n same Collection of Sta-

veren.— HlU. MoreU- Par. 1559. 4. with the Phenomena of Aratus.

<!> 505. Fahius Planciades Fidgentius, a native of Africa, of whom also Uttle is known,
probably hved in the sixth century. His most important production is a mythological
work, in three books, addressed to Catus, a Presbyter of Carthage.

L The work is entitled ^[ytholosicdn sen Mylhologiarum libri tres; also Mytholo-
gicum. The first book treats of Saturn, Neptune, Pluto, Cerberus, the Furies, the
Harpies, Proserpine, Apollo, the Muses, Mercury, &,c. The 2d of Minerva, Juno,
Venus. Hercules, Ulysses and the Sirens, Scylla, Bacchus, Ixion, &,c. The 3d, of
Bellerophon, Acteon, Psyche and Cupido, Myrrha and Adonis, &c.— There are two
other works, both of a philological character, ascribed to the same Fulgentius ; one
enlhledExpo.'^itio sermonum antiquorum, and the other, De expositione VirgiliancB con-
tinenticB, or De aUesoria Ubrorum Virgilii. Some, however, ascribe these to another
Fulgentius ; five different individuals of this name have been pointed out.

ScAoU, ill. 331.— Muncker, Prsf. ad Ful?ent. in his Collect, cited § 503.-6. /. Vosiius, De Philolog. c. 5.

2. Editions.— The three worki of Ful;entius are contained in the Colleciions cited § 503. Published also by /. Locher, under
the name of Philomums. Augsb. 1521. fol.— The Expositio iermmmni antiquorum by J. Mercer, in his ed. of Nonius, cited
§ 427. 2.

3 u. We have a mythological work by Albricus, which is almost entirely a compila-
tion from Fulgentius. The name of this author is sometimes written Alhericus, and
also AJfricus; he lived in England, at the commencement of the thirteenth ceiitury.
His work is entitled De Deorum imnsinihus, and in some manuscripts Poelnca or
Poetarium; it relates chiefly to the mode of representing the gods in images, and gives
brief explanations of the reasons for the various representations.

The Poetarium of Albricus is given in the Collection of Slaveren, cited § 503. It was first published in the 15th century, with
•he treatise De ma^islratibiu Ronwe, written by Fiochi, or Flocco of Florence, and falsely ascribed to FenuteOa, who lived and«
the emperor Augustus. Cf. Barks, Brev. ^"otit. p. 210. Suppl. u. p. 466.— Also, Rem. I5I7. 4.


§ 506. Lactanftus Placidus is also of an uncertain age. He is generally supposed to
have been tlie same person as Lutatius, a Chrisiian grammarian of the sixih century,
who wrote a commentary on the Thebaid of Statius. We have from him a briei
abridgment, in prose, of Ovid's Metamorphoses.

1. Editions.— 1 he Argumenta Metam. Ovid, are given in the Collect, cited § 503.— They are also found in various editions of
Ovid, introduced together by themselves, or separately as introductions to the several books of the Afe/amorpAo»M.— The Coinmm-
tary on the Thehaid is given m many editions of Statius (of. § 378. 3).— Cf. B'dhr, p. 790.

2. To LactanUits Plaridus, Mai ascribes by coiijettiire thf second of the three mytholosical
works discovered by him in the Vatican library. The firtt ofihese works consists of -234 fables,
Greek and Roman, promiscuously thrown together and divided into three books ; at the end of
the 2d book stands the following note ; Explicit liber secundiis C. Hygini fabularum, i. e. Here
closes the second book of the fables of C. Hyginus. Cf. !> 504. 1.— The second work consists of
225 chapters, besides a proem ; the contents oftt-n aeree verbatim with those of the first-n)en-
tioned, although they are also frequently very different ; this Mai conjectures to be the work of
Lactantius.— The third writin? bears the title De Diis genfivm et illorum aUegonis ; it consists
of a number of sections, which were found in diff'(-rent nianiiscripts ; each section treating of a
single deity or mythical personage. It is ascribed by Mai to a Christian writer of the ninth or
tenth century, by the name o( Leontius.

'1 hese works are given in the pijblication of Mai, cited § 503 ; which also contains some other mythological fragments.

3. The Lactantius here noticed must not be confounded with the eminent Christian Father
named Firmiavus Lactantius, who lived in the fourth century, and in some of whose writings,
especially in his Divine Institutions and in the Epitmne of the same, ancient mythology is con-
siderably illustrated. In the first two books of the former (treating de falsa religiune) are long

quotations from the lost work of Euhemerus (cf. $ 222. 4) on the gods. There is also a kind of

niyihological poem e.\tant, which is ascribed to Firniianus Lactantius, entitled De Phanice ; and
the subject of which is the Egyptian fable respecting the bird called rheni.x. The mythus is
given by Herodotus (ii. 73) with a declaration of his disbelief of the story. A modern writer,
Jifarcoz, has attempted to resolve the whole into an astronomical fiction, intended to describe
the Great Year (.'Snni/s Magnus) of the fixed stars, or period of nearly 26,000 years that elapses
during the precession of the equinoxes through the circle of the ecliptic.

A. Martini, Lactantii carmen De PhcEnice. Lunaeb. 1825. S.—Marcoz, Astronomie, &c., cited § 204.— Mem I.iHilut. Royal,
Classe d'Hist. et Lit. Anc. vol. i. p. 166. "sur le Phdnix, ou Recherches sur les Periodes astron. des Egypliens."— wfl/it. Mclral, Xat
Pbenix, ou POise au du Sobeil. Par. Ib24. containing the accounts of all the ancient authors.

IX. — Historians and Biographers.

% 507 ?«. The Romans, even in the earliest periods of the state, began to record in
writing the most remarkable events. These first historical writings were, however,
merely dry registers of the principal circumstances, although they were sometimes
composed in a metrical language and arranged in the form oi Aniials.

^ 508. The following are among the earliest historical records of the Romans of
which we find any notice; the Aimules or Commeiilarii Pontijicum, the Fasti Ma-
gistraluum, and the Lihri Lintei. — The first mentioned were the records which it was
the duty of the Pontifex Maximus to make of the leading events of each year, upon
tablets that were to be hung up in his house for the use of the people. I'hey were also
termed Annales JMaximi ox PuMici. The custom was commenced as early at least as
the time of Numa, and according to Cicero {De Or. ii. 12, 13), with the very founding
of the city. It was continued, with some inierruptions, until the Pontificate of IVIucius,
B. C. 125. — The Fasti Magistratuiim (Liv. iv. 7. ix. IS) were the hsts of magistrates,
especially of the consuls, whose names it was customary to insert in the Calendar of
each year, which it was the business also of the Pontiff and his college to construct. —
The Lihri Lintei {Liv. iv. 8, 23. x. 38) were writings on linen, kept in the temple of
Juno Moneta, containing public records, which were of comparatively minor value;
as the more important were inscribed on tablets of lead.

M. Kalm & C. A. Gruuer, Diss, de libris linteis. Abose. 1815. 4. Cf. Dodwcll, de libris liuteis, &c in his Pralect. Acad. p. 651,
as cited § 542. 7.

<5i 509. We may also mention, as a sort of historical documents, the laws of the
kings (leges region), which were collected by Papirius (cf § 561). There were like-
wise the treaties of the kings {foedera regum, Her. Ep. ii. 1), which were kept in the
temple of Jupiter Capitolinus {Poh/b. iii. 22, 25, 26). The laws of the twelve tables
i^ 561) ought perhaps to be named here also. — At a comparatively early period there
were memoirs of the ce7isors {Commentarii censorvm), which were journals of persons
who had held that office ; they were but a variety of the class of writings termed fa-
mily memoirs, which ere long became common, and which effected much, it is said
[Liv. viii 40), in corrupting and falsifying history, by embellishments and exaggera-
tions designed to exalt particular individuals and families. There were also the Lau-
dationes funehres (cf. P. III. § 340), which for the same reason could not be relied on
as accurate historic statements {Cic. Brut. 16). — The early ballads already mentioned


(^ 306) may likewise be noticed among the sources of Roman history, ahhough it may
be a question how far such productions were ever committed to writing.

% 510. But whatever may have been the early historical records and monuments of
the Romans, they were almost entirely destroyed {Liv. vi. l)in that conflagration by
which the whole city of Rome was laid in ruins on its capture by the Gauls, B. C. 385.
Efforts were made to recover and replace these records and monuments, as far as pos-
sible ; but it cannot be doubted that much was irretrievably lost ; and it is supposed
that the earliest writers afterwards depended chiefly on tradition as the authority for
their narratives. Hence the authenticity of the common accounts of the early history
of Rome has been much questioned.

The literary controversy respecting Hie authenticity of the early Roman History seems to have commenced in France. It has been
long continued auJ ejrnes!. In 1722, Pouilly brought forward argumeots against its authenticity, in the Memoires de VAcad. det tn-
icnptitms (cf. vol. vi. p. 14. vol. viii.), and was soon opposed by Sallier in a memoir published in the same work (vol. vi.). L. di
Beaufort defended the argument of Pouilly, in another Memir, and more fully in a treatise published separately, tier Vlncertiludt
■its cinq premiers siula de VHist. Roniaine. Utrecht, I73S. 8. The total uncerUinfy of the early history has also been n.ora
recently maiuiained, in the Memuirs de PlnstituJ, by Levesque ; while its credibility, on the other hand, has been strongly advocated
by /.arc/ier. Cf. Afern. de r/nj(. flcyaZe, Classe d'Hist. el Lit Anc vol. ii. p. 394. (Par. 1815). The views of /.etjej^u^ are alsa
given in his Histoire Critique de la Rep. Rom. Par. 1S07. — Gibbon has argued for the certainty of the history (cf. Miscdl^neouM
trorhs, iv.). Kicbuhr considers much of it as entire'y fabulous (cf. Rom. Gesch. cited § 299. ').—Beck vindicates the authenticity
in part, in the introduction to his Translation of Ferguson's Ronian Republic (cf. § 299. 7); see also his treatise entitled Epicnsis
quxsticniis de Hist. Rom. antiq. veritate. Lips. 1812. Ftedtcr (cf. § 299. 7) maintains that much was rescued from ruin in the Gallic

coiiflagraiioc, and that valuable documents existed in other states of Italy, of which the early Roman historians made use. Sd?n;

Ho.—Dunlfp, p. 56, ss.— It may be worthy of remark, that the portions of Cicero's treatise De Rcpuhlica lately discovered [ct

1 468 (. 2. (h) ] evince that orator's belief in the common accounts.

^511. In the second period of Roman letters, according to the division we have
adopted, which extends from B. C. 240 to B. C. 88, the Ronian history was treated
by a number of authors that are included under the name of Aiinalists. The metrical
annals of Naevius and Ennius have already been noticed (cf § 350, 351), and we here
refer to annalists who wrote in prose. 'I'he earliest of them was Q. Fahius Pictor^.
Cato the Elder is included among them on account of his Origincs (cf '5> 498. 2). Se-
veral of these authors are said to have written the history of Roman affairs in the
Greek language. The works of the Annalists^ are almost entirely lost ; a few frag-
ments have been collected, and pubhshed^.

1 Respecting Fabius Pictor, see D. G. MoUer, Diss de Q. Fab. Pictore. St. 1689. i.—Emesti, Fro Fabii Fide adversus Folybium,
in his Opusc Phtlolo^ica. Lips. 176).— iii'. i. 44, 55. ii. 40.—Polyb. i. 14. iii. 9.—Dionys. Hal. Ant. Rom. iv. 30. vii. 70, 71.

2 From Cicero and .lulus GtUius, we gather the names of ten or twelve besides Fabius and Cato, belonging to this period ; among
them is Valerius Antias, whose work must have been large, is the 74th and 75th books of it are cited ; and L. Cornelius Sisenna,

whose work seems to have been continued by Sallust. 3 Tnese fragments are given in the collect, of Popma, cited § 527. 2.

On the Annalists, see Vossius and Hankius, as cited 5 527. 1- — Heeren, as cited § 249. 1. — Lachmann, De font. Liv. as cited §531. 3,
~-Dunlop, ii. p. 267.— Sa/ir, p. 345, ss.—Cli7Ucn, FasN, vol. 3d, as cited § 7. 7. (c).

^ 512. These authors generally followed the account of Fabius Pictor respecting the
affairs of Rome previous to its destruction by the Gauls. But in reference to the his-
tory of events subsequent to that catastrophe, they enjoyed ample means and helps ;
e. g. the decrees of the senate, treaties, tables of triumphs, official despatches, and the
hke. The vast number of documents or monuments, which were found among the
ruins of the capitol when it was restored by Vespasian is an evidence of this fact ; ac-
cording to Suetonius (cf Vespasian, c. 8), 3000 brazen tables were gathered from these
ruins. Besides all the help derived from such sources, most of the annalists were ac-
tually engaged, to some extent, in the affairs respecting which they wrote.

^ 513. The writers termed Annalists were not confined to the period above noticed
(^ 511); in the next period, extending from B. C. 88 to A. D. 14, we find the names
of several. Among them^ were M. Terentius Varro, the learned grammarian (cf.
^ 423), and Q. Hortensius Ortalus, the rival of Cicero in eloquence (cf ^ 397). — The
difl^erence between amiales and hisloria, as the terms began in this period to be dis-
criminated, is described by Aulus Gellius (v. 18) as consisting in the circumstance, that
in a7mals the writer observes the exact order of time, narrating under each year all the
events that happened during that year; and Cicero (cf Orator, 20; Deorat. ii. 12;
De Legib. i. 2) speaks of history as an ornamented mode of narration, including de-
scriptions of countries and battles, with speeches and harangues, in a ffowing style,

and as a sort of oratory which had not been much cultivated by his countrymen^.

In this period some of the Roman writers began to compose universal histories ; Q.
Pomponius Atticus^ is mentioned as one of the earliest that attempted this. The prin-
cipal writer of this class was Trogus Pompeius, of whose work we have an abridgment
made by Justinus C^ 538). — In this period also we notice the class of works styled Com-
mentarii, a sort of auto-biography, in which the authors relate the history of events
that occurred in connection with their own civil or military life. The most noted are
the Commentaries of Caesar (cf § 528). Tho?e of Sylla, in 21 hooks, are lost ; so are
those of ^milius Scaurus, in 3 books, and those of Rutilius Rufus; the two latter,
however, belong to the preceding period. The history, which Cicero wrote of hid
own consulship, might with propriety be assigned to this class'' ; and Ukewise the work
79 3 G


of Auc^ustus the emperor, who wrote memoirs of his own hfe, ia 13 books^ M. Vip-
sanius°Agrippa, a friend and general of Augustus (cf. ^ 480), wrote memoirs of himself.

I M. Pompilius Audronicus (cf. Siulrni. de illust. gram. 8) ; Procilius (cf. Plin. Hist. N. viii. 2) ; and Cjecina (cf. Cic. Ep.

Famil. vi. 7) are also included, with others, in the list of annalists of this period. 2 On the diBFerence between annates and histo-

Ha, see Nieluhr, in the Rheiniaches Museum, ii. 2. p. 2S3. transl. by TkirlwaU, in the Phaological Museum, vol. ii. p. 661.

3 Rrspccting Pomponius Altiau, see /. C/i. F. Stuss, T. Pomp. Alliens, eine Apoiogie. Eisen. 1784. Cf. Veil. Paterc ii. 16.

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