Johann Joachim Eschenburg.

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< Respecting the history by Ctcero, cf. De Leg. i. 1. 3. Ep. ad Fam. i. 9. v. 12. It was written in Greek, in a style iuiiUting that
of Isocrates ; and was sent to his friend Atticus, to be published at Athens. He also composed a work on the same subject in Latin

yeree. 5 The memoirs of Augustus, extending to B. C. 26, are wholly lost He is said to have drawn up a mmmary of his life

to be inscribed upon tablets and placed by his tomb. The Monummtum Ancyranum (cf. P. IV. § 133. 5) is supposed to furnish,
partially at least, a copy of this.— Cf. Sutton, in Aug.— Dio Cass. (vi. 32).— /ac de Rhoer, D\=s. de Studiis C<es. Augusti. Gron.
1770. — VcssiuSf as cited § 527. I.

§ 514. In the period now before us, the third of our arrangement (cf. § 301), there
were three writers of special eminence in the department of history. Julius Caesar has
already been named ; he is the earliest that is ranked among the great Roman histo-
rians. Next in order of time is Sallust (cf. S^ 529), who is by many considered as the first
among the Romans who truly merited the title of historian, 'i'he third distinguished
name in this period is that of Livy (cf. § 53i). The first is remarkable for simplicity,
clearness, and purity of style ; he is often compared to Xenophon. The second excels
in force and in the apt delineation of character ; he appears to have imitated Thucy-
dides. Livy has less of simplicity than Caesar, and less of discrimination perhaps than
Sallust ; and is more ambitious o'f rhetorical ornament and effect than either.

§ 515. Many other writers, in this period, composed historical works. The follow-
ing should not be omitted here ; A. Hirtius (cf. S> 528. 3), who added a continuation to
the works of Cajsar ; Cornelius Nepos (cf. § 530), who, besides his lives of illustrious
men, composed an historical work entitled Chronica; and Verrius Flaccus, who was the
author of several works on history and grammar'. Among the historical wnters we
also find Lucius Lucceius^, whom Cicero requested to write the history of his consul-
ship ; and Asinius PoUio^, to whom is ascribed the honor of founding the first public
library at Rome (cf. P. IV. % 126). The names of Valerius Messala CorvinusS Lu-
cius Fenestella^, ancl Aufidius Bassus^, may be added.

1 The wriiings of f. Flac^t are lost ; some portions of the Calendar (Fasti Kalendares) , which he caused fo be inscribed at Prse-

ncite are preserved ; cf. P. IV. § 133. 6. ^ Lucaius wrote a history of the Social war, and of the civil wars of Sylla. cf. Cic Ep.

Famil. v. I2. ad Alt. iv. 6. 3 c. A. Pollio compoied a history, in 16 books, of the civil war beiween Caesar and Pcmpey, and the

events succeeding it until the reign of Augustus. See J. R. Tharbecke, Comment, de A. PoUionis vita et studiis. Lugd. Bat. 1820.—

i<chm. Lit. Rnin. ii. 29. * Messala Corsmus was the author of a »vorb entitled De Ronianis famaUt, which is lost. The book

imw exlint in his name, De progenie JtuguUi, is a meager skeich of Roman his'ory from MaeAi to Augustus, and is a production
of the middle ages. It is published in ^ylburg S,- F^tdkr (cited § 527. 2), and separately by C. G. Tzschucke. Lpz. 1793. Cf. D. G.

Moller, Diss. de'w. Messala Corvino. Allorf. liSS.—Burigiiy, in the Mem. Acad, hiscr. torn, xxiiv. 5 FennteOa wro»e a his-

fn,y entitled .innalet, which was freely used by A^conius Pedianus (cf. § 424). « The life o( A. Basna eilendei inlo the next

period ; he wrote a history of the civil war, and cf the wars in Germany ; both works are lost. He is highly commended by Quin-

tili:in. See Quint. Inst. Orat. x. 1. Cf Dial de causis corr. eloquentiae, 23. To these may also be added the names of several

others, w hwe historical writings are lost ; Volumnius, wl.o wrote a history of the war between the murderers of Cssar and his
avengers ; Anuntius, who wrote a history of the first Punic war ; Hyginu! (c(. § 504), who wrote an accoimt of the liaiian cities,
.-nd other historical pieces ; Labienus, who composed an historical work so free and seditious in its character, that it was condemned
10 be burned, by a decree of the senate, under Augustus.-Cf. ScimU, ii. 32, ss.-Ba Ar, SaO, 390, iW.-Vosiius, as cited § 627. 1.

<5( 516. Before leaving this period it may be proper to advert to the peculiar means
which the writers enjoyed for learning the course ot public affairs. The official annals
of the chief Pontiff ceased, as has been mentioned (§ 508), about B. C. 125 ; perhaps
because this method of keeping the records was found inadequate in the increasing
muhipUcity and variety of events. When Caesar was consul tor the first time, B. C.
60, he ordered the acts of the senate {acta senatus) and also those of the people (ac<a
povuli) to be committed to writing daily, and to be published. Augustus prohibited
the publishing of the acts of the senate, and appointed a particular senator to the duty
of recording "them, or in other words, of keeping the journals ; this senator received
the title a cura actorum, and the copyists or secretaries employed by him were called
actuarii. These journals were preserved in the Archives ot the slate, and were a
source of information to the writers of history, in addition to all that was freely pub-

The journals of the senate were sometimes styled cowrnentarii (cf. Tac. Ann. xv. 74 ; SuefoTi. J.

Cxs 20. Oct. 36; Tac. Ann. v. 4, 5). The other journals, aefa populi, seem also to have been

termed arra publico, acta urbava, and acta cliurna (cf. Sueton. Tib. 5 ; Tac. Ann. in. 3; xvi. a'i).
liut the journals thai are frequently cited bv the simple name of ./?ci'a, or of L)i(/rwa, con-
tained miscellaneous information f t the use of all classes of readers ; nd merely the votes of
tirtj people in assembly (cf. P. III. 5 259), but notices of the courts and judicial proceeding.^, of all
,„petin-« «uch as eames, spectacles, and the like, of public %vorks, marriages, births, and deaths,
— Be*id'es these in Uie Latin toneue, there seem to have been journals or daily papers, published
.n Greek containing anecdotes and accounts of political aff^iirs and passing events. Perhaps
both lhe«e and those in Latin are included under the r.od^i/^ara crineia mentioned by Dion Cas-
^ius —Tiiere appears also to have been another kind of journal, called acta Casaruvi, which had
respect more particularly to the atftirs of the imperial court and family. "Under the empe-
rors four diff.-rent records srew into use; namely, first, the acts of the prince; secondly, the
proceedin''s of the senate; thirdly, the public of the {.eople; and fourlhly, the daily


occurrences of the city, called the Diurna. The last were sent into the provinces, and were
there received as the Roman Oaiette."

See Murphy, Note on Tac. Ann. v. 4. in hia Translation cited § S34. 5.— Cf. Lipsius, Excursus on the same passage. See alio

G. LubtrkUlin, De Diurnis Romanorum Actis. Viniar. 1841. 4 Fr. Ch. Schlossar, Archiv fQr Geschichte. Fraukf. 1830. (i. p.
SO.)—B. Dodwell, Pwelect. Acad. p. 665. Oxf. 1692. S.—Fabricius, Bibl. Lat. iii. 3li.—Hitt. of Borne, in Lardner't Cabinet
Cyclopaedia, bk. v. ch. 6. p. 402, as republ. separately, Phil. 1837. 8.

^ 517. In our next period, from the death of Augustus, A. D. 14, to the time of the
Aiitonines, the writers in the department of history were not so numerous ; yet the
department was by no means neglected. The pre-eminence among them is generally
conceded to Tacitus (cf. § 534). Suetonius holds a high rank, although his principal
work, (cf "ji 537) is biographical rather than historical. Velleius Paterculus (cf <> 532)
and Fiorus (cf. § 536) are authors of considerable merit ; yet their works are merely
compends. The four writers just named all confined themselves to Roman affairs,
except that Paterculus appears to have designed to give in his introduction a glance
at general history. Two other authors of this period have obtained some celebrity ;
namely, Valerius Maximus (cf ^ 533) and Quintus Curtius(cf. ^ 535). The former in
his relations includes events of Grecian as well as Roman history. The latter is oc-
cupied wholly with the achievements of Alexander. The works of these several au-
thors will be separately noticed.

§ 518. There were other historical writers, whose names ought perhaps to be pre-
sented here, although time has spared none of their productions. Cremutius Cordus'
published a series of annals, which the senate, under the influence of Tiberius, sen-
tenced to the flames, because the author had dared to call Brutus and Cassias the last
of the Romans. Cneius Lentulus^ already alluded to as an epigrammatist (§ 340), is
cited by Suetonius as an historian. Claudius^ the emperor is said to have composed,
besides his own memoirs, a history of Rome, beginning with the victory of Augustus
over Antony, in 41 books. Cluvius Rufus, who was consul under Claudius, wTOte a
history of the reign of Nero. Pliny the elder (cf. § 470) vv'rote a work in continuation
of the history of Bassus (cf. 515), and another, in 20 books, on the Roman wars in
Germany. Pliny the younger is also mentioned as an historian. — Several authors also
composed commentaries or memoirs of the class already described (§ 513). Those of
Claudius just named consisted of 8 books. Tiberius^ is also said to have written a
memoir of his own life. Cn. Domitius Corbulo^, who commanded in Germany under
Claudius and in Armenia and Syria under Nero, composed memoirs which seem to
have been frequently used by Tacitus. C. Suetonius Paulinus^ wrote an account of
his campaign in Africa. The memoirs of Crassus Mucianus, w ho held a command in
Syria and took an active part in securing the empire to Vespasian, are often cited by
Phny. The emperor Nerva, it would seem, prepared a journal of his wars in Dacia.
— To these may be added several names ; C. Balbillus', who wrote an account A
Egypt, where he commanded under Nero ; Servilius Nonianus mentioned by Quin
tilian*; J\[arciis Servilius noticed by Tacitus^ as author of a well-digested history of
Roman aflairs ; also Herennins Seiiecio, Junius Eusticus^'^ and others who wrote indi-
vidual biographies (cf *& 526).

1 The. Ann. iv. 34, Zi.—Sueton. Tiber. 61. a Or Cneius Cornelius Lentulus Gaefulicns. Cf. Sutton. Calie. 8. 3 SueXm

Claud. 41. *Sutton. Tiber. 61; Dom. 20. 5 7bc. Ann. xi. 18; xiii. 8. 35, ss.; xv.5,ss. ^ Plin. Hist. N. v. 1. ■'Cf.

Sen. Qu£s. Nat. iv. 14. 8 Quint. Inst. Oral. x. 1, Plin. Ep. i. 13. 9 Ta£. Ann. xiv. 19. to SiuU Domit. 10. Dio Coat,

67, 13. See Fosriuj, as cited § 527. \.—Biihr, 456.—SchoU, ii. 390.

^ 519. In the last period we have to notice, from the time of the Anlonines, A. D,
160, we may observe the same decline in history as in other branches of literature.
Writers were not wanting, it is true ; but the spirit which should penetrate and enlivt!ir
history was wanting. The danger which under the imperial tyranny threatened every
independent and faithful inquirer after truth, exerted a fatal influence upon historical
studies. It rendered the exhibition of the real causes and consequences of events al-
most impossible. The disposition to flattery was cultivated in a degree wholly incon-
sistent with impartial history. It is not strange, therefore, that we find in this period
nothing specially eminent in the department now under review. IMost of what was
written related to the Roman emperors, and comparatively httle of the whole amount
of productions has been preserved to our times.

i 520. The first author to be mentioned in this period is Justin (cf. § 538), who is
commonly supposed to have lived in the reign of M. Aurelius Antoninus; he is known
by his abridgment of the general history of Trogus Pompeius. — Of writers who at-
tempted to give a view of the whole Roman history, Aurelius Victor (cf S> 539) and
Flavius Eutropius (cf. ^ 540) were the principal. An author by the name of Sextus
Rufus (cf *5> 540. 5) has also left us a compend of the Roman history. We have a
much more important and valuable work in the history of Ammianus Marcellinus (cf.
^ 541) ; with greater fullness he treated of a definite portion of Roman history, com
mencing with the reign of Nerva, where the history of Tacitus closes, and extending
to the death of Valens. He wrote at the close of the fourth century, and is considered
as the last of the Roman historians, that truly deserved the name.

^ 521. Nearly all the other writers that can be properly included in this department


belong to the class of biographers. The principal are those commonly styled Scrip-
tores HistoricB AugustcB, or ivrilers of the imperial history; these were particularly
iEhus Spartianus, "Julius CapitoUnus, TrebeUius Pollio, and Flavius Vopiscus. Of
their collected writings we shall speak below (<$» 542). — It is worthy of notice, that these
writers cite twenty-five different authors, who lived in the second century, and com-
posed the biography of one emperor or more ; but whose works are novv wholly lost ;
their names it is of no importance here to repeat. The emperor Septimius Severus is
also cited as having written his own memoir.

'i 522. We close this glance by adverting to a few other writers, that are sometimes
named among the historians of this period. Quintus Septimius' is mentioned as the
translator of the Greek work of Praxis purporting to be the journal of Dictys Cre-
tensis. Juhus Exsuperantius, probably at the beginning of the fifth century, wrote a
tract entitled De Marii, Lepidi et Sertorii, bellis civilibus'^. — Hieronymus Stridonensis,
or as he is commonly called, St. Jerome, who died in the beginning of the fifth cen-
tury, left, with numerous other works, a translation of the Universal History or Chro-
nicle of Eusebius^. Two other Christian writers, belonging to the fifth century, may
be mentioned here as chronologists : Flavius Lucius Dexter dedicated to St. Jerome a
work entitled Historia Omnimoda, which was a general chronology extending from the
birth of Christ to his own times*; Prosper Aquitanus composed a work entitled Chro-
nicon^, reaching from the creation of the world to the capture of Rome by Genseric,
A. D. 455.

» Of. 5 238, § 260. 2.— This transtation, in six books, is entitled De Bella Trojano, or Ephemeris Belli Trojani. It contains some
things drawn from lost works, and embraces a greater compass than is taken by Homer. It commences with the elopement of Helen
and ends with the death of Ulysses. It appears to have been much nsed by the later Byzantines ; cf. Heinrichsen, De Carmm.
Cypriis. Havn. 1823.— Editions; by L. Smids. Amst. 1702. 4. containing the Dissertation of Perizonitis on the original and the

translator— In Valpy's Delph. and Var. Classics.— By .4. Dederich. Bon. IS33. S.—SchSll, Litt. Rom. iii. 158.— Ba/ir,453. 2 The

work of Exsuperantius is supposed to be an abridgment of a lost work of Sallust ; it is given in many of the editions of Sallust, e. g.

GerlacVs, cited § 529. 5. 3 This translation is given in the edition of Jerome's works, by Vallarsi, Veron. 1734, ss. 11 vols. fol.

reprinted Ven. 1766. II vols. 4.— Also by T. Roiicalli, Vetusl. Lat. Scriptor. Chronica. Pav. 17S7. 2 vols. i.—Bakr, Gesch. Rom.
Lit. Supplem. p. 95. * A Jesuit named Jeronimo de la Hisuei'a, at the beginning of the 17lh century, fabricated a work pur-
porting to be the lost Chronicle of Lucius Dexter, and pretended that the manuscript had been found in the monastery of Worms.
It was published afler his death, by /. Calderon, Caes.-August. (Saragossa,) 1694. 4.—Schott, iii. 169. 5 The Chronicon of Pros-
per is contained, with the chronological writings of some others, in the work entitled Chronica medii xvi, by Ch. F. RSssler. Tu-
birg. 1798.- ScABH, iii. 112.— Biihr, as last cited.

^ 523. It may not be amiss to advert here distinctly to the biographical writings of
the Romans, although the most important of them have already been named in glancing
at the historians. This form of historical literature seems to have been cultivated much
more among the Romans than among the Greeks; at least we have evidence that
there were many biographical writings at Rome, earher than those of Plutarch (cf.
•S 249). whose series oi parallel lives is the most important work in the Greek language
belonging to this branch of letters. Indeed there is no doubt that Plutarch derived
mucirassistance from Roman sources. — I'he earliest of these biographical writings
which are distinctly noticed are the memoirs of the censors, already named (§ 509). The
censorial office was established B. C. 442, which was above 50 years before the burn-
ing of Rome by the Gauls. Dionysius Halycarnasseus appeals to certain of these
memoirs {nur^TiKa monufinara, cf. his Eorn. Ant. i. 74), as monuments examined by him-
self, and confirming his statements as to this early period. The family memoirs (cf.
Plin. Hist. N. XXXV. 2) and the funeral eulogies already mentioned C^i 509), belong also
to the department of biography.

"5> .524. There were very numerous biographical works of another class, viz. the Com-
mentaries or Memoirs, which have been before spoken of (§ 513) as a species of auto-
biography. Among these we find the memoirs of generals, detailing their own military
achievenients ; e. g. those of Scaurus, Rutilius Rufus, Sylla, Julius Ccesar, Corbulo,
Mucianus, and others ; of which time has spared to us only the Commentaries of Cae-
sar. We find also the memoirs of consuls and civil governors describing the events of
their official life ; e. g. Cicero's memoirs of his consulship (cf § 513), which he wrote
first in Greek prose, and afterwards in Latin verse. There were hkewise in this class
a number of imperial memoirs, none of which, however, are preserved ; those of Ti-
berius, Claudius, and Nerva have been mentioned. Here may be named the work of
Agrippina, Nero's mother, whose memoirs of herself are cited by Tachus {Ann. iv.
53) and commended by Pliny {Hist. N. vii. 8).

% 525. A difierent class of biographical writings is presented in collections including
the lives of a number of eminent persons. The earhest, probably, was that of Varro,
whose collection (cf § 423. 1), is said to have contained a notice of seven hundred dis-
tinguished men. Here belong the biographical works of Suetonius (cf § 537), of which
the lives of the Ccesars. and the lives of the Grammarians are specially valuable. In
the same class are the biographical collections of Cornelius Nepos (cf '?> 530) and Aure-
iius Victor (.cf. ^ 539). — There was a work of the grammarian Hyginus (cf. § 504), on
the achievements of eminent men, which would be ranked under this kind. Cains Ap-
iiins is mentioned as having written the Lives of illustrious Comvianders. Here also


belong the ijiographies included in what is called the Augustan History {d. ^ 542). It
may not be wholly out of place here to advert to a work of Jerome, entitled Liher de
Scriptoribus tcdesiaslicis, which contains brief notices of more than a hundred Christian

<5, 526. Finally, we have to mention in this glance several works which were simply
individual biographies. I'he history of Alexander by Quintus Curtius (cf. 'J* 535) may
be put in this class. We have one beauiilul specimen of the kind iiere designated in
the life of Agricola by Tacitus (cf. ^ 534). The classical writers refer to several other
single biographies, which are not extant. Muratius Rufus' is said to have written a
life of the younger Cato. Thraseas Paetus^ published a biography of the same illus-
trious person. Bibulus wrote the life of M. Brutus. Brutidius JSi^er composed an
account of the closing scenes of Cicero's life^. Pliny the elder is said to have given a
life of Pomponius Secundus, a poet and general, who was honored wiih a triumph
under Nero. Herennius Senecio wrote the biography of Helvidius Priscus ; a work
which cost him his life, through the jealousy of Domitian'*.

1 Cf. Hteren, De Fontibus Plut. cited § 249. I— Rufus and Bibulus are among the Roman bio?raphere of whom Plutarch made

use. a Cf. Tac Ann. xv. 23. ivi. 21, ss. 3 Cf. Tac Ann. iii. 66 — Senec. Suasor. vii. * Tac Vit. Agric. 2, 3.—Plin. Ep.

iii. 33.

§ 527. We here mention some of the works which illustrate the general subject ;
and some of the collections.

1. G. /. rotsius, De Historicis Latinis. Lugd. Bat 1651. 4. witli the Supplement to the same, by /. A. Fabricius. Hamb.
1709. S.—M. Hankiur, De Rom. rerum Scriptoribus. Lips. 1688. 4.— Bait. Bmijacius, De quadraginia Roin. Hist. Scriptoribus.
Helmst. 1620. 4.— S. K Pishius, Annates Romanorum, qui commentarii vicem supplent io omnes vereres Hist. Rom. Scripiores
(ed. by .4. Scholt). Antv. 1615. fol.— MeteroHo, De praecipuis rerum Romanorum Scriptoribus. Berl. 1792.- fol.— Cf. Fabricius,
Bibl. Lat. iii. 287.— ScAoi/, Hist. Litt. Rom. i. 160, ss. ii. 2, ss. 337, ss. iii. 139, ss.— BizAr, 33^4'S.—Rdlin, Of Polite Learniug,
ch. ii. art. 2. (vol. ii. p. 607. in ed. N. York, IS35).— G. L. IValch, Abhandlung Uber die Kunstform der aniiken Biographie, in his
ed. of Tac. cited § 534. i.—Frertt, Sur I'etude des anciennes bistoires, &c. in the Mem. de VAcad. des Inscr. vol. vi. p. 146.— Aftu-
tel, 9S cited § 240.

2. Collections.— F. Sylburg, Hist. Rom. Scriptores Lat. et Graec. Frankf. 1588-90. 3 vols. (n].—jitu. Popma, Fragm. hist.
vet. Lat. &c. Amst. 1620. 8.~Kkltenberg & IVilder, Scriptores Hist Rom. Lafini Veteres (ed. B. C. Haurisius). Heidelb. 1743-
48. 3 vols. fol. with notes and figures.— iZuAftop/ & Seebode, Corpus Hisloricorum Lalinonim. Lips. 1815. 8. commenced.— /V.
Fiedler, Scriptores Hist. Rom. niinores sex. Lips. IS33. 8.—Eichhom, as cited § 240. — Conciones et OratioDes ex Historicis Latinis
Eicerptae. Oxf. 1820. 12.-^. Kraute, Vitae et Fragm. vet. hist. Rom. Berl. 1833. 8.

^ 528. Julius Ccesar, whose life and character are prominent in the political history
of Rome, is also conspicuous as an historical author, on account of his works called
Commenfaries or Memoirs {v-onvrj^iara). The Commentaries on the Gallic tVar {De
hello GalJico) consist of seven books, treating of the events during as many years; the
eighth book (usually added to these) is ascribed to Aulus Hirtius, who was Csesar's
lieutenant {legatus) and confidential friend. The Commentaries on the Civil War (De
hello civili) consist of three books. These two works are of great value, both from the
fact that Caesar was principal actor in the events related, and also from the style in
which they are composed, which is simple yet perfectly appropriate, and brief without
becoming dry.

1. Caesar was born at Rome B. C. 99, and was assassinated B. C. 44. He was
eminent for his learning and his eloquence, as well as for his military talents. — We
have his life by Sueto?iius and by Plutarch. There is also a biography formerly
ascribed to J. Celsus, but now considered as the work of Petrarch.

Cf. S. H. Doduxll, Diss, de J. Caesaris vita per J. Celsum, annexed to his Annates Qui7itilian. &c. Oxon. 169S. 8.— C. E Ch.
Schneider, Pelrarchae Historia Jul. Cacsaris, &c. Lips. 1827. 8.— The life of Caesar has also been treated by modern writers ; A. G.
Meissner, Leben des J. C.lsar (finished by /. C. L. ffahen). Berl. 1812. 4 vols. 8.—F D. Grater, Ueber Clsars Ermordung, &c
Zir. 1820. 9.—C. Coote, LL. D., Life of C. J. Caesar. Lond. 1796. 12.— Oudendorp, Orat. de J. C. Caes. lileraUs studiis. Lugd. Bat.
1740.— D. G. MoUer, Diss, de J. Caesare. Alt. 1687. 4.

2. The Commentaries of Caesar are chiefly occupied with the detail of military ope
rations. The military spirit of the Roman character and institutions is everywhere
exhibited ; and almost every thing which the scenes of war can offer to awaken and
sustain our interest in a narrative is found in these writings.

Dunlcp, ii. 95.— F. Schlegel, Lect. on Hist. Lit.— On Caesar's style, cf. Cic Brut. ^^.— Quint. Inst. Or. i. I.— 7bc Ann liii. 3.—
Jacob, Diss, de uberlale et verbosilate Cssaris, in the Quxst. Luciann. ad Toxar. cf. his edit, cited § 121. 3.—Bcrger, De naturaii
pulchriludine orationis. Lirs. 1720. 4.— On his credibility, cf. Suelon. Jul. Cxs. 56.— C. H. Eckard, De C. A. Pollione iniquo
opt. Lat auctorum censore. Jen. 1743. i.—H. O.Duysing, De fide C. J. Caesaris dubia, &c Marb. 1784.— There is a Greek versioo
of l)ie Gallic u-ar. by a certam Planudet, which is of some value in settling the Latin text. It is given in the ed. of Lemaire, cited

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