Johann Joachim Eschenburg.

Manual of classical literature : from the German of J.J. Eschenburg, with additions online

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These passes, and others in the vicinity of the Caspian Sea, are sometimes termed
FylcB CaspicE ; but the pass properly so termed, is supposed to be the modern pass
of Gurdock, about 90 miles from Teheran.

On these passes, cf. TValckm'dr, de Fortes Caspiennes, Caucasiennes, et Albaniennes, &c. in the Mem. de I'butiXut, Classe d'Hist.
a Lit Anc. vol. vii. p. 210, with a map.— .BtU. Repository, No. xxii. p. 370.

^ 157. AkmejVIA was immediately south of Colchis and Iberia, extending to mount
BFasius and the Carduchi Monies on the south, and from Media on the east to the
northern branch of the Euphrates, which separated it from Asia Minor. It presents
three great valleys, extending nearly east and west; first, that on the north-east,
watered by the Araxes^ also called Phasis (now Aras), flowing to the Caspian ; second,
the central, separated from the first by the chain of mountains in which is the
called Ararat, and watered by the southern branch of the Euphrates, which rises in
its eastern part and flows westerly, containing also the lake called Arsissa Palus ;
third, the south-western, smaller, separated from the central by the Niphates Mantes,
and watered by the Tigris, which rises in its western part and flows through it in an
easterly course. — Some of the principal places were Artaxafa, on the Araxes, the an-
cient capital : Arza (Erze Roum), near the sources of the northern branch of the Eu-
phrates ; Amida, on the Tigris near its source ; and Tigranocerta, taken by Lucullus
in the Mithridatic war, and plundered of vast riches.

The summit called Ararat is commonly supposed to be that on which Noah's ark rested ; this is said to have been ascended, for the
first time, by Prof. Parrol, in 1829. See Bill. Repos. No. xxii. p. 390.

"S 158. Asia Mixok is a term not used by classical authors, but invented in the
middle ages. In general, the Roman writers confined the term Asia to the countries
bordering on the Propontis and ^Egean, and divided it into Asia intra Taurum and
Asia extra Taurum. The large peninsula which is known by the name of Asia Mi-
nor, included a great number of petty states, whose boundaries varied at different
periods. — The northern provinces of Asia Minor, beginning at the .-Egean sea, were
Phrygia Minor, Mysia, Bithynia, Paphlagonia, and Pontus. — The middle provinces
were Lydia, Pnrygia Major. Galatia, Lycaonia and Isauria, Cappadocia, and Armenia
Minor. — The southern provinces were Caria, Lycia, Pisidia, and Pamphyha.

See Rer.tntll, Geography of Western Asia. Lend. 1831. 2 vols. 8.

^ 159. Phrygia Minor, or Troas, is celebrated for the Trojan plains at the en-
trance of the Hellespont. The lapse of ages has produced such changes, that modern
travelers are not agreed about the situation of the city of Troy, called also Ilium.

fiium was built at some distance from the sea, above the junction of the Scarnavder, or Xan-
thus, and Simnis, two small streams, rising from mount Ida. and falling into the Hellespont; the
citade! was cal'*.d Pergamus, and was erected on a little hill included within the walls. Tb(^


plain between the city and the sea was intersected by the rivers Scamander and Simois, and
there the battles mentioned in the Iliad were fought. At the eastern extremity of the plain was
the mount Ida, the summit of which was called Gargarus; the west was bounded by the Helles-
pont, which here forms an extensive bay, between the promontory of Rhmteum on the north, and
Sigeum on the south. Here lay the Grecian fleet, and at a little distance on the shore was the
camp. Ajax was buried on the Rhaetean and Achilles on the Sigean promontory.
See P. II. § 132, and P. V. § 50.— iZenncZi, and others, on the Topography of Troy, as cited P. V. § 50. 7.

Mysia, divided into Minor and Major, extended from the Hellespont to Bilhynia.
The principal towns of the former were, Abydos (§ 73) ; and Lampsacus, dedicated to
Priapus, celebrated for its wealth and luxury. — The principal chy in Mysia Major
was Cyzicus, situated on an island of the same name in the Fropo7itis, and joined by
two bridges to the continent ; celebrated for the gallant resistance it made when be-
sieged by Mithridates ; near this is the river Granicus, where Alexander defeated
the army of Darius, and where Lucullus obtained an equally important victory over

§ 160. Bithynia, at first called Bebrycia, lay between the Thracian Bosphorus
and the river Parthenias. Its chief towns were, Apamea, at the mouth of the river
Mhyndacus; Nicomedia, on a gulf of the same name ; Clialcedon (Kadi Keui, or Cadi's
village), called the City of the Blind, because its founders neglected the more eligible
site Byzantium, at the opposite side of the Bosphorus; Chrysopolis (Scutari, directly
opposite to Constantinople), where the Athenians stationed a fleet imposing tribute on
all vessels from the Euxine ; Lihyssa, where Hannibal was buried ; Calpas and Hera-
clea, on the Euxine ; Kiccsa (Nice), where the first- general council was assembled ;
and Prtisa, at the foot of Mount Olympus, where Hannibal for a short time found
refuge with king Prusias.

Prusa attained great impprlauce under the name of Bursa, when Othman, founder of the Ottoman empire, made it his capital. It
continued to tie tlic chief residence of the Sultans until the capture of Constantinople in 1453. It still retains, in the modern Broosa,
an important rank among the cities of Asiatic Turkey. (See Plate, VI b.)

Paphlagonia, lay between the rivers Parthenias and Halys. The chief towns
were Sinope (Sinube), the birthplace of Diogenes, and capital of the kingdom o/
Mithridates ; and Carambis (Karempi), near a promontory of the same name,°oppositb
the Criu-Metopon, a cape in the Tauric Chersonese.

P on tus, the kingdom of the celebrated Mithridates, extended from the river Halyg
to Colchis. The principal towns were Amisus, near the Halys ; Eupatoria, on the
confluence of the Iris and Lycus, named by Pompey Megalopolis ; Amasia, the birth-
place of the geographer Strabo ; Themiscyra, on the 1-iver Thermodon, where the
Amazons are supposed to have resided ; Cerasus, whence Lucullus brought the first
cherry-trees that were seen in Europe ; and Trapezus (Trebisond), on the borders of
Colchis, greatly celebrated by the romance-writers of the middle ages. Near the river
Halys the Leleges and Chalybes, famous for their skill in iron-wol-ks, resided.

The Christian scholar will feel a peculiar interest respecting Pontus and Bithynia, from the circumstance that here occurred those
bitter persecutions of the early converts to Christianity which are noticed in the letters of Pliny the younger, governor of these pio-
vinces under the Emperor Trajan. See P. V. § 441. 1.

% 161. L y d i a, called also JMseonia, lay to the south of Phrygia Minor and Mysia, and
to the east of the ^Egean sea. The northern part of the coast was called ^olia, and the
southern Ionia, from the number of Greek colonies which settled there. — ^Eolia was
colonized by the Cohans, soon after the termination of the Trojan war ; its chief
towns were Adramyttium, founded by an Athenian colony; Pergavius (Bergamo), the
capital of a small territory, greatly enlarged by the Romans after the defeat'^of IMithri
dates, and bequeathed to them by Attalus its last king; its port was called Elea ; be-
tween Elea and Adramyttium was Lyrnessus ; south-west from Pergamus, Thya-
lira : and Cana, a town buih on a promontory of the same name, near which are the
jEginusan islands, where Conon, the Athenian admiral, completely defeated the
Spartans. — 'Ioxia contained several remarkable cities, of which the principal were
Smyrna, on the river Meles, near which Homer is said to have been born ; a cave
here used to be shown to travelers as his birthplace, and another as the spot where
he wrote his poems (cf P. V. '5» 50) ; north and east of Smyrna was Mt. Sipyhis, the
residence of Niobe (cf. P. II. ^ 131); ClazomencB, on a peninsula of the same name,
celebrated for hs wealth; ErythrcB, near mount Mimas, the residence of one of the
Sybils ; Corycus, near which "the fleet of Antiochus was defeated by the Romans ;
Teos, the birthplace of Anacreon. — South of the peninsula of ClazomeuEe, were Colo
phon. on the n\er Halesus, celebrated for the grove of Claros, sacred to Apollo,
Ephesus, on the river Cayster, the most splendid of the Asiatic cities, now degene-
rated into a pahry village, remarkable for the splendid temple of Diana; M~yrale,
opposite Samos, where the Persian fleet was totally destroyed by the Greeks; Priene,
on the Mcpander, a river noted for its winding course ; and Miletus, the birthplace o^
Thales. — In the interior of Lydia was Sardis, the capital, sitixate at the foot of mount
Tmolus, on the river Pactolus. a branch cf the H'ermus. Not far east from Sardis
was Thymbra, celebrated for the victory there gained by Cyrus over Crossus. Oa


the Herraus was Magnesia, where Antiochus, king of Syria, was overthrown by the

Within the limits which we have above given to Lydii, were six of the seven churches addressed in the Apuadypse ; viz. in the
order in which the apostle John introduces them— Epbesus, Smyrna, Pergamus, Tbyatira, Sardis, and Philadelphia ; the other, Lao-
dicea, was in Phrygia Major.— See Milner, History of the Seven Churches. Lond. 1S32. i.—Arundell, Visit to the Seven Churches
of Asia. Loud. 1S2S. 8.— On the ruins of Sardis, of. Miss. Herald, for 1839, p. 208.

^ 162. East of Lydia was Phrygia Major, extending from the river Lycas on the
south to the Sangarius on the north. Its chief towns were Pessi7ius, near the foot
oi jaoMii D'mdymus, sacred to Cybele, the mother of the gods, whose image wab
conveyed thence to Rome at the end of the second Punic war (P. II. 'S 21) ; Gordium,
celebrated for the Gordian knot cut through by Alexander; Apamea, on the river
Marsyas, where Apollo flayed alive his musical competitor Marsyas ; Laodicea, cele-
brated in sacred history, on the river Lycus ; and CoIosscb. Galatia, or Gallo-

Grsecia, lay north of Phrygia, of which it originally formed a part. _ The chief towns
were Ancyra (Angoura), where Bajazet was defeated and made prisoner by Tamer-
lane ; Gaiigra, the residence of king Deiotarus, a great friend of Cicero ; and Tavium,

the capitafof the Trocmi. South-east of Phrygia were Isauria and Lycaonia.

The principal towns of the former were IsaurcB, the capital ; Lystra and Derbe, men-
tioned in the Acts of the Apostles (xiv. 6). The principal town of the latter was
Iconiiim. Both of these provinces were intersected by the chain of Mount Taurus.

% 163. Cappadocialay between the Halys and the Euphrates. Its most remark-
able towns were Comana, celebrated for a temple of Bellona, plundered by Antony;
Tycma, the birthplace of the impostor Apollonius (cf. P. V. § 255 b) ; and Mazaca,
named by Tiberius, Ccesarea ad Argmim, to denote its situation at the foot of JSIounl
ArgcBus, from whose summit, as ancient wrhers assert, the Euxine and the Mediter-
ranean might both be seen.— The north-eastern part of Cappadocia was known by the
name of Lesser Armenia, and contained Cabira or Sebaste, a well fortified city captured
by Pompey ; the strong fortress Novas, where Mithridates kept his treasure ; and Ni-
cojwlis, built by Pompey, to commemorate his victory over Mithridates.

The Greeks described the Cappadocians as the worst of the three bad Kappas, or nations whose
names began with that letter; the other two were the Cretans and Cilicians.

§ 164. The south-western province of Asia Minor was C aria. Its chief towns were
Halicarnassus, the capital, celebrated for having given birth to the historians Dionysius
and Herodotus, and for the Mausoleum, a splendid monument, one of the seven won-
ders of the world, erected by Artemisia, queen of Caria, to the memory of her hus-
band Mausolus ; Cnidus, in the peninsula of Doris, sacred to Venus; Alabanda, on
the Maeander; and Stratonicea, on the southern coast.

L y c i a lay to the east of Caria. Its chief towns were Telmessus, on a gulf of the
same name, called also Sinus Glaucus, from the river Glaucus flowing into it ; Xanthus,
celebrated for its obstinate resistance to Brutus, the inhabitants having destroyed them-
selves by fire to avoid surrendering ; and Patara, sacred to Apollo. — Near the gulf of
Telmessus ran the chain of Mounl Cragus, sacred to Diana ; in this chain was the
volcano ChimcBra, fabled by the poets to have been a monster subdued by Bellerophon
(cf P. II. § 117). Some hills at the Fromontorium Sacrum were usually esteemed the
commencement of Mount Taurus, and a little beyond it is a part of the same ridge
adjoining the sea, round which Alexander's army were compelled to march up to their
middle in water.

See Fellowes, Account of Discoveries in Lycia.— Cf. Jlmer. Bclectic, Jan. 1841.

^ 165. Next to Lycia were P i s i d i a and P a m p h y 1 i a, two mountainous districts,
whoso boundaries are indeterminate. The chief towns of Pisidia were Ajitinchia;
Termessus, the capital of the Solymi, a people mentioned by Homer ; and Cremna, a
Roman colony. The principal towns in Paraphylia were Perg^a, the capital ; Aspendus
on the river Eurymedon, near which Cimon defeated the Persian fleet ; and Coracesium,
where Pompey destroyed the nest of pirates who had so long infested these seas.

C i 1 i ci a lay to the east of Pamphylia, and south of Isauria, and was divided into
two portions, the western called Tracheotis or rough, and the other Campestris or
level. — The chief towns of Tracheotis were Selinus, where the emperor Trajan died;
Anamurium, opposite Cyprus ; and Seleucia (Seletkeh), on the river Calycadnus. — In
Cilicia Campestris were Soli, a colony of the Athenians ; Tarsus, said to have received
its name from one of the wings of the horse Pegasus being dropped there ; the birth-
place of the Apostle Paul ; Tssus, where Alexander obtained his second triumph over
the Persians : and Alexandria (Scanderoon), erected by the conqueror to perpetuate
the memory of his victory. — On the confines of Syria was the mountain Amnnus, be-
tween which and the sea were Pylce Syrice, a celebrated pass. — The river CydTius is
-em.arkable for the coldness of its waters, by which Alexander was almost killed, and
lor the splendid festivities celebrated on its banks when Antony visited Cleopatra.

'S 166. Syria was bounded on the north by Mount Amanus ; on the east by the
!')uohrates ; on the south by Arabia ; and on the west by the Medherranean. It was

PI M i: \ 1 h


divided into five provinces, Comagene, Seleucis, Coslo-Syria, Phcenicia, and Judea,
or Palestine.

The principal city of Comagene was Samosafa, on the Euphrates, the birthplace
of Lucian. — In Seleucis, or Syria Propria, were Ilierapolis, the city of the Syrian
goddess Astarte (cf. P. II. ^ 48), on the Euphrates ; Bercea, previously Chalybon (now
Aleppo), on the Chalcis, flowing into a small lake ; Anliocliia, where Christians first
received their name, on the river Orontes ; near it Daphne, with hs delightful grove
sacred to Apollo ; Apamea (Famieh), higher up the Orontes, which rising in the ele-
vated regions on the eastern side of Libanus, flows by a north-west course to the
Mediterranean ; still further up, Emesa, the city of Hehogabalus, the worst of the
Roman emperors ; and "on the opposite side of the Orontes," near the hmits of this
province, Hcliopolis (Balbec), sacred to the Sun, whose magnificent ruins still attract

From the map of Syria accompanjrin? Robinson^s Researches, Balbec appears fo be on the Leontes,— " Among: the cities which
are enumerated by Greek and oriental names in the geography of Syria, we may distinguish Emesa or Hems, and Heliopolis or Bal-
bec. Under the last of the Csesars, they were strong and populous; the turrets glittered from afar; an ample space was covered
with public and private buildings ; and the citizens were illustrious by their spirit, or at least by their pride ; by their riches, or at
least by their luxury. In the days of paganism, both Emesa and Heliopolis were addicted to the worship of Baal, or the sun ; but
the decline of Iheir superstition and splendor has been marked by a singular variety of fortune. Not a vestige remains of the temple
of Emesa, which was equalled in poetic style to the summits of mount Libanus; while the ruins of Balbec, invisible to the writers
of antiquity, excite the curiosity and wonder of the European traveler. The measure of the temple is two hundred feet in length,
and one hundred in breadth : the front is adorned with a double porlico of eight columns; fourteen may be counted on either side;
and each column, forty-five feet in height, is composed of three massy blocks of marble. The proportions and ornaments of the
Corinthian order express the architecture of the Greeks."— See the view given in Plate VII.— iJ. IVood, Ruins of Balbec. Lond.
1757. fol.-C. B. Elliott, Travels in Austria, Russia, and Turkey. Lond. 1838. 2 vols. 8.

Coelo-Syria was so named because it lay between the two parallel chains of
mountains, Libanus and Anti-Lihanus ; and the name is sometimes applied so as to
include the valley of the Orontes, and also the whole valley of the Leontes, which
rises near the western sources of the Orontes, and flows by a south-western course
to the Mediterranean. But it is limited, in our division, to the upper part of the latter
valley, north of mount HerOT07i, the principal peak oiAnti-TJhanus; including also
another valley on the east (now called Gouteh Demesk, or Orchard of Damascus),
watered by the rivers Chrysorrhoas (Pharphar) and Abana, flowing into a large lake
below Damascus, which was the chief town of the province. — The territory east and
north-east of these valleys as far as the Euphrates, is mentioned in connection both
with Seleucis and with Coelo-Syria; but more commonly under the general name of
Syria; some places in it, on the Euphrates, should be mentioned; as Thapsacus
(El-Der), the celebrated ford, passed by Cyrus in his e.xpedition against Artaxerxes,
by Darius after his defeat by Alexander at Issus, and by Alexander in pursuit of Da-
rius ; and Orouros (Gorur), fixed by Pompey as the boundary of the Roman empire
when he reduced Syria to a province ; but the chief place in this extensive region waa
Palmyra, or " Tadmor in the desert," said to have been built by Solomon, the resi-
dence of Longinus (cf. P. V. ^ 124), and of Zenobia, who so bravely defied the em-
peror Aurehan ; it is yet marked by celebrated architectural ruins.

On the ruins of Palmyra, see R. Wood, as cited P. IV. § 243. 3.— The Modmi Traveller.— Irby and Mangles, Travels in Egypt,
Syria. &c Lond. 1S22. 8,

P hoenicia contained the chies of Tynis (Tyre) and Sidon, famous for their exten-
sive commerce. The siege of Tyre by Alexander is celebrated for the obstinate
defence made by the besieged, and the unconquerable perseverance of the besiegers.
Berytus (Beirut), north of Sidon, was the seat of a distinguished school for the study
of law in the age of Justinian.

Beirut has been for several years a very interesting missionary station. In its vicinity, on mount Lebanon, dwell the Maronite.
and the Druzes.— See JcrwetVs Researches.— Miss iO)iari/ Herald, from the year 1S23, passim.— .Bojid'i Memoir of Pliny Fisk.

^ 1(57. J u d ce a, or P a 1 ae s t i n a, is called in Scripture the land of Canaan, of Israel,
and of Judah. It was at first divided among the twelve tribes ; it was afterwards
separated into the kingdoms of Israel and Judah ; and finally the Romans divided it
into four regions, Galilaea, Samaria, Judeea Propria, and Peraea or Transfluviana, the
country beyond Jordan.

Galilaea was again subdivided into Inferior, chiefly inhabhed by Jews; and Su-
perior, which, from its proximity to Coelo-Syria, was called Galilee of the Gentiles. —
The chief towns of Upper Galilee were CcEsarea Philippi, so called to distinguish it
from another town of the same name in this province ; its original name was Laish,
afterwards changed to Paneas, and finally called Caesarea Philippi, by Herod's son
Philip ; Gahara and Jofopnta, bravely defended by the historian Josephus, when be-
sieged by Vespasian. The principal cities in Lower Gahlee were Ace, or Ptolemaic
(Acre), memorable for its siege by Richard Coeur de Lion in the time of the Crusades;
CancB ; Sepphoris, afterwards called Dio Ca^sarea; Nazareth and Jezreel. — A large
lake in Gahlee was called the Sea of Tiberias or Gennesareth ; at its northern ex-
tremity was Chorazin; at the western side were Capernaum, Tiberias, and Bethsaida;
on the opposite side was Gadara. — The chief mountains of Galilee were Carmcl and






Itabynns or Tahor, the scene of our Lord's transfiguralion. — Between Galilee and
Samaria stood Bethsan, the chief of the ten confederate chies called Decapolis, which,
dreading the power of the Jiws, entered into a confederacy against the Asmonean
princes, who then governed J udea.

§ 168 a. Samaria lay south of GaUlee. Its chief towns were Samaria, the capital,
destroyed by the Asmonean princes, but rebuilt by Herod, who called it Sebaste, in
honor of Augustus; Ccesarea, first called Turris Stratonices, a celebrated seaport, the
residence ot the Roman governors ; Joppa, a seaport south of Coesarea, where An-
dromeda was delivered from a sea-monster by Perseus (P. II. ^ 122) ; Sichem, in the
interior, the ancient capital, between the mountains Ebal and Gerizim; it was in later
times called NeapoUs ; Lydda, called by the Greeks Diospolis; and Arimathea.

Judaea was situated south of Samaria, between the Lake Asphaltites, or Dead
Sea, and the Mediterranean. — The caphal was Hierosolyma (Jerusalem), which we
ehall notice particularly in the next section. North-west from Jerusalem was Em-
maus or Nkopolis, where the Jews were defeated by Vespasian ; directly north was
Bethel; north-east was Jericho; south from Jerusalem was Bethlehem, the birthplace
of Christ ; further south, Hebron, where Abraham was buried ; still further, some-
what to the west, Beersheba, often mentioned as the southern hmit of the country of
Israel ; south-west, Eleutheropolis , a very flourishing chy in the time of Eusebius.

$ 16S b. Hierosolyma, or Jerusalem, originally belonsred to the Jehiisites, from whom it wag
taken by David, who made it his residence. The Arabians now call it El-Kuds, the Holy. — It is
situated on a broad elevation, having higher hills all around it ; the jMuunt of Olives on the east ;
on the north a ridge extending from the Ml. of Olives and bending around to the west, at the
distance of more than a mile : on the west, hills at a greater distance sloping gently, bevond a

ain ; on the south, the Hill of Evil Counsel rising directly on the further side of the Valley of

It is surrounded by walls presenting a stately appearance, of hewn stone, with towers and
battlements, of a height varying according to the inequalities in the ground, from twenty to fifty
feet; in circumference about two and a half geogra(>hical miles. The ancient walls formed a
iargt^r circuit of about three and a half geographical miles accordingto Josephus ; and Jerusalem
is said to have been anciently fortified by three walls ; but this statement must not be understood to
mean that there were three walls around the whole city, one within another ; since the two
inner walls were merely walls intersecting the city and jo"iniiig the outer wall; the hill of Zion
was first of all enclosed within a wall : then Moriah, with Ophel, was added, and afterwards
Akra, and a second wall was extended from the old one so as to include these ; subsequently
Bezetha was annexed, and to protect this a third wall was constructed joining the others.

Of the eight former gates, only the four larser are now open : the Gate of the nilar, or Da-
mascus Gate, on tire north ; tlie Gale nf the Pilgrims, or Bethlehem G ite, on the west ; the Gate
»/ David, or Zion Gate, on the south; and IheGate of the Tribes, or St. Stephen's Gate, on the
5ast. The principal streets now run nearly at right angles to each other.

The surface of the ground is diversified by five hills : the largest is Zion, in the southern part,
rising abruptly from the Valley of Hinnom ; north of this and in the western part of the city is
^kra, separated from Zion by the valley of the Tympajon ; north-east from J^kra and east of"the
Damascus Gate is Bezetha, in the north-western part of the city ; south-east from this and in the

Online LibraryJohann Joachim EschenburgManual of classical literature : from the German of J.J. Eschenburg, with additions → online text (page 14 of 153)