Johann Joachim Eschenburg.

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below. Cf. Flad, Comparatlo Jul. Caesaris Grici c. Latino. Freib. 1815.

3. To the Commentaries of Caesar are usually subjoined the book De hello Hispa-
iiico, relating Caesar's second campaign in Spain, and the books De hello Alexandrino
and Dr^ hello Jfricafio, relating Caesar's expeditions in Egypt and Africa, after the
battle of Pharsalus. The last mentioned books were written by Aulus Hirtius, wiio
collected the principal events from the lips of Caesar and the officers that accompanied
him. The other book is suppo.sed to have been written by Caius Oppius, who was a



companion and confidential friend of Csesar. There was doubt, in the time of Sueto-
nius, respecting the authorship of these worlis.

Of. Suetm. Jul. Cses. 56.— B. Dodwell, Diss, de autore Bell. Alexand. &c., given in Ovdendarp'a edition below cited.— foMitiJ,

as cited § 527. \.—Bahr, p. 360.

4. Caesar wrote other works, which are lost. The treatise Be Analogia, on the
analr>5ies of the Latin tongue, in two books, addressed to Cicero, was written^ while
crossing the Alps. The works entitled Auguralia and De Auspiciis, treated of topics
belonging to the art of divination ; as did also the treatise De Motu sideninfi. — A col-
lection of anecdotes called Apophlhegmata is said to have been made by him ; the pub-
lication of which was hindered by Augustus. — He composed a work entitled Aniicato,
in two books, consisting of a sort of rhetorical declamations, somewhat in the manner
of speeches before a judicial tribunal; said to have been written^ in reply to a work of
Cicero entitled Tmus Catonis. — Ancient writers speak of a work of Caesar called Ephe-
meris ; respecting which there is a dispute among critics whether it was, or was not,
the same work as his Commentaries.

• Cf. Suctm. J. Caes. 56.— .^ul. Gell Noct. Att. i. 10. vii. 9. ^ Cf. Plin. Hist. Nat. xviii. 26. 3 ct Cic. Ep. ad Att. xii. 40.

—Aul. Gdl. N. A. iv. l6.—Dunlof>, ii. 100, as.—Mdhr, SbS.—Sch'dll, ii. 6.— A collection of the Fragments of Cisar is given in
the ed. of Oudendorp, below cited.

5. The name of Caesar is connected with several scientific improvements among the
Romans. It was by his counsel that the geometrical survey of the whole empire was
decreed by the senate (cf § 480). — He also greatly amended ihe Roman Calendar, and
introduced a method of computing time which is still retained as the basis of the mo-
dern calendar (cf P. I. § 192).

Blondel, Hist, du Calendrier Romain. Par. 1682. i.—Bianchinu3, Diss, de Calendario et Cyclo Caesaris. Rom. 1703. fol.

6. Editions.— per a.— Best ; N. L. Achaintre ^ N. Z Lemaire. Par. 1819-22. 4 vols. 8. in Lemaire's Bibi. Lat.— /. /. Oher-
lin. Lpz. IS05. 1819. 8. Lend. 1825. 8. Vien. 1825. 3 vols. 8. The text of Oberlin is followed in Falpy's ed. Lond. 1819.
No. 8-12 of the Ddfhin and Variorum Classics —Fr. Oudendorp. Leyd. 1737. 4. Repr. (ed. F. N. Afonts). Lpz. 1780. 8. and
Stuttg. 1822. 2 vols. 8.— More recent editions; J. B. Giani. Mil. 1820. 3 vols. S.—J. Ch- Ddhne. Lpz. \Ho. i—F. C. Potticr.

Par. 1826. 3 vols. 8.— .5 Baron. Brux. 1827. 2 vols. 8.— C. Jlnthon. New York, 1823. 12. school ed. Of earlier editions;

5. Clirke. Lond. 1712. fol. with 87 copperplate engravings; "magnificent and celebrated."— Cansius (Oayi'ej). Camb. 1706, 4.
with the Greek version of the Bdl. GaU.—The Princeps, by Sweynheym ^ Pannartz (printers). Rom. 1469. fol. Moss mentions

eUht o:her folio editions in the 15lh century. De Bella G a 1 1 i c o ; A. Mbbius. Hannov. 1830. 2 vols. 8. containing also the

Alex. Afr. & Span, wars.— De Bdl. C i v i 1 i , C. G. Herzog. Lpz. 1834. 8.

7. Translations.— German.— .4. IVapier. Hof, 1815. 2 vols. 8. French— rwrpin de Crissi. Montarq. 1785. S vols. 4. with

40 plates; Lat. & Fr. with notes. English.— Best, JV. Duncan. Lond. 1753. fol. 1755. 8. 1819. 8. with a discourse on the

Rom. art of war.— For others, cf. Moss, Bibliogr. i. 240.

8. Illustrative —In addition to works already named ; /. F. RSsch, Qber die Comm. des Casar. Halle, 1783. S.—F. Brown, Diss,
on the Mona of Caesar, &c. Lond. 1702. 12.— Diss, on Caesar's passage of the Thames (by S. Gale), and other Pieces, in Ihe work
entitled .4rc/iaEoZo?ia, publ. by the Society of Antiquaries of London.— Guiscarrf, as cited P. IlL § 215.~Elberling, Obs. Crit. in Cass.
Havn. 182S. 8. containing notices of manuscripts.— Cf. HarUs, Brev. Not. Suppl. i. 279.— X vmi Hefner, Geograpliie des Transalp.
Galliens, &c. Mancb. 1836. 8. with a map.— By same, Geographic zu J. C. Comm. de bellocivili. MUncb. 1837. 8.

§ 529. Cains Sallusthis Criapvs, of Amiternum in the Sabine territory, was a con-
temporary of Ceesar. His character as a writer is more reputable than his morals,
according to the common account, which appears to be not without foundation. In
history he adopted Thucydides as his model. A noble brevity and a vivid manner of
representing events were the happy fruits of this imitation. He indulges, however,
too often in expressions which are unusual and obsolete. The works which we have
from him relate to two very important events in Roman history; namely, the Co7i-
spiracy of Catiline, and the war of the Romans with the Numidian king Jugurtha.
Of his Roman History, extending from the death of Sylla to the conspiracy of Catiline,
only a few fragments are extant. — We may doubt the genuineness of the declamations
which are ascribed to him, and also of the two treatises or letters addressed to J. Cjesar
on the administration of the state.

1. Ralliist was born B. C. 85, and died B. C. 35. In the year B. C. 48 he was excluded from tlie
senate on the charge of ininiorality (Aid Qdl. Noct. Att. .wii. 18). He embraced the side r.f
Pfesar against Pompey, and was made by him fjovernor of Numidia, where he enriched himself
by plundering the province. When he returned to Rome he built a magnificent palace near the
chy, which was surrounded bv the delightful pleasure-grounds afterwards celei)rated by the
nam'e of the Gardens of Sallust {Horti Sallustiani) ; this palace became the residence of sever;)!
nf the emperors, and was consumed by fire when Alaric took the city. — A life of Sallust, full of
hostility towards him, was written by Levcrus, the freedman of Pompey ; and another by Asm.
nius Pedianus : both of them are lost. There is extant a declamation against Sallust, which
was once ascribed to Cicero, (cf. $ 104. 3) but is now generally ascribed to Porcius Latro, a rhe-
torician in the time of Claudius. The charge of excessive licentiousness upon Sallust is sup-
posed by many to be a calumnv occasioned by confounding him with his nephew, mentioned by
Horace (Sat. i. 2. 48. cf. Od. ii. 2).

On the Life of Sallust, see D. G. Mailer, De Sallu^tio. Alt. 1684. 4.—De Brasses, in the Mem. Acad. Jnscr. vol. xxiv. ; also m his
Transl. below cited.— 0. M. MUller, .Sallustius, oder hist. krit. Untersuch. der Nachricht. von S. Leben, &c. Zullich, 1817. S—J.
tV. Lobell, zur Beurlheilung des Sail. Bresl. 1818. 8. written in answer to the preceding.— Le Clerc, Sallustii Vita, given in the ed.
3f Havercamp, cited below.— meZand, on Hor. Sat. i. 2, 48. in his Trans, cited § 363. b.—Hoos, Bemerk. Uber d. mora). Charakt.
i Sallust. Giess. 1788. i.—Ristoire de Catiline par Piutarque, &c. trad, en Franc. Amst. 1756. 8.

2 The two histories now extant are supposed by many of the critics to have been


written after Sallust's return from Numidia to Rome. The Jugurthine War certainly
was. In relation to this, he consulted the documents preserved in the archives of
kuig Hiempsal.

Ikmlop, ii. 85, ss.—Bdhr, 378.— ScAofl. ii. 20.— Respecting fhe authorities used by Sallust, of. Grrlach, in his ed. below cited.-On
his style, &c. A'ast, De virtutibus List. Sallustianae. Slutg. 17b5. ajid in his Oyusc Lat. Tub. }S2\ .—Gerlach, Progr. Uber den
Geschicbtschr. C. Sallust. Bas. 1831.

3. The Eoman History consisted of only/j;e books, as modern critics show, instead
of SIX as tormerly believed. It included a period of thirteen years, beginning where
the annals oi Sisnuia (cf ^ 511) ended; its loss is much rcErretted. iMany brief and
disconnected fragments have been collected' ; but the mostlmportant remains of the
work are four orations, and tivo letters, found by Ptimponius Laelus in a MS. of the
Vatican, containing a collection of speeches from Roman history. — The two declama-
tiofis above mentioned are entitled JecZuma/io in Calilinam and decia mat io in Ciceronem;
supposed by some to be the work of Porcius Latro. — The two letters to Ccesar, ora-
(tones or epistulcE, de republica ordinanda, are also considered as rhetorical fabrications-.

» The frasnients are given in De Brossts {Brosss:iiJ k De Bwssiia), Fragnieuta Sillustiana, kc. Dijon. I7S0. Repr. Lun^h.
IS28 8. The same author, in a French work, entitled ff<iloire de la Republ. Rom. par SiUuste. Dij .n. 1777. 3 vols. 8. had attempted
to reconstruct the work of Sallust by a translation of the fragmen's and by additions ; this work was translated into German by /.
C. Schimr. Osnab. 1799-1804. 6 vols. 8.— Of. F. Kritz, De C. Sail, fragra. a C. Oe Brossio diges'. &c. Erf. 1829. 4.-AIso J. G.
KreyanS,C. Sail. Historiarum iii. (tertii) Fragni. e cod. Vat. edita ab .4. Maio, kc. Mis. IS30. 8.-/. C. Orelliua, Oral, et EpisU

ex Sill, hist libris deperd. kc. Turici, 1831. 8. Cf. OrtUius (same), Hist. crit. Eclogarum ex Sail. &c. Tur. 1832. 8. ^ Fa-

bricius, Bibl. Lat. i. 240, 241.— £a/ir. 3SC.— Cf. Quint. Inst. Or. iv. I. ix. 3.

4. Editious.— VV hole W o r k s j best, f. Z>. Gerlach. Bis. IS23, ss. 3 vols. 4 -C. H. Frotscher. Lpz. 1825-30 3 vols. 8.—
E. J. RicMtr, commenced Mon. 1836. 8. al.^o in the BihUothica Commenlariorum in Scriplores tam Grsecos quani Latinos.— Best
of the last century, J. IVoMe. Cambr. 1710. 4. formed by a collation of nearly 80 .MSS. and containing a Lexicon Sallustianurn.
—G. Corte (Cortius). Lpz. 1724. 4.-S. Havercamp. Amst. 17<i2. 2 vols. 4.— There are many other good editions: H. Hutner.
Loud. !7?9. 9.-IV. Laijge. Hal. 1815. 8.-C. G. Hirzos. Lpz. 1828. 8.-F Kritzius. Lpz. 1835. 2 vols. 8. with an Appendix.
-.a Pappuar. Vien. 1837. 2 vols. 8.— The Princeps, by K De Spira. Ven. 1470 f,.l. {Moss, ii. 555,)-There have been many
school editions of the two histories; /. Seibt. Prag. 1S22, 1S33. 8.-C. Anthm. N.Vork, K-35. 12.-a S. Cleotlatid, BosL
1839. 12. text of Gerlach, with Engl. Notes.

5. Transiations.— German.— Among the best; /. C. SchlUler. Mlnst. 1806, 181". 2 vols. S..-K. L. von Woltmann. Prag,

1814. 8. Fr^nch.-xVtc Beauzce. Par. 1769. Vl.-Dur. de Lamalle. Par. ISO". 8. For a uot,ceof this and other French

versions, cf. DmsauWs Annales Lilt. 3d vol.— C. de Rozoir. Lat. & Gall. Par. 1833. 2 vols. 8. English —Earliest, by "Syr

Alesander Barclay preest," Lond. fol. without dale. Reprinted Lond. 1557. 8 cf. Moss. ii. 564.-iNot iLs than 12 other English
versions are named. The belter among them ; W. Ruse. Lond. 1757. S — /. Mair, with LaL Ediub. 1774. i.—lV. Stewart.
Lond. 1806. 2 vols. 4 —A. Murphy. Lond. 1807. 8.

_ ^ 530. Cornelius Nepos, a native of Hostilia in the territory of Verona, lived a short
lime before the Christian era. Respecting the circumstances of his life little is known.
He was a friend of Cicero and Atticus. Of his writings we have only a work entitled
Vitce excelhntium imperatorum. Some have ascribed it to ^Emilius Probus, who lived
in the time of Theodosius the Great, and was probably only a transcriber of the work ;
others have considered it as an abridgment made by Probus from a more complete
production by Nepos. These lives are models of biographical composition, in respect
of simplicity and beauty, although too brief and not wholly satisfactory as to their con-
tents. Nepos was author of several other works, which are lost.

1. There is some doubt even respecting the place of his birth. The statement that
he came to his death by poison received Irom his freedman is a mistake.

Cf PUru Hist. N. iii. 18. Ep. iv. 28 ; v. 3, &.—Plut. Vit. Luculli, iZ.—Moller, Diss, de Corn. Nepote. AlU 1633. 8.— C. F. Ran-
kius, Comment, de C. Nep. vita et scriptis. Quedl. 1827. 4.

2. Modern critics have pointed out many mistakes in the work entitled VitcB impe-
ratornm. It contains the hves of twenty-two generals (nineteen Grecian, one Persian,
and two Carthaginian) ; and also a brief notice or catalogue of the Grecian and Persian
kings. In some manuscripts are also contained a life of Cato Major and a life of Atti-
cus ; which however must have belonged originallv to a separate production.— Those
who consider the work to be an abridgment made by Probus, suppose it to have been
drawn from the work ascribed to Nepos, by the ancients, under the title oi Libri Vi
rorum illustrium.

Cf. Aid. GcU. Noct. Att. xi. 8.—Bahr, 366.— Respecting the origin of the work, see /. W. Mosche, C. Nep. liber etc. utrum opus
integrum an operis maj. pars quaedam sit. Lub. I807.-G. F Pauck. Saggio di un Esame crit. per restituire a Emil. Prob. il iibr. de
nt. fxc. imper. kc. Ven. 1818 8. Trans, into German by D. H^mann, with the li'le, Versuch einer krit. PrOfung des .Em. Prob.

&c. Lpz. 1SI9. 9.-Ddhnc, De vit. txc. imper. C. Nep. non -Em. Prob. attribuendis. Ciz. 1827. Respecting the authority, &c , see

Dunlop, vol. 3d, as cited §299. 8.-7. J. Rifely, Diss. Crit. de fontibus et auctor. C. Nep. Delph. Bat. IS27.-J-. ffcld, Prolegom. ad
vitam Attici, quas C. Nep. adscnbitur. Vratisl. 1826. 8.

3. Works under the followin? titles are ascribed to Nepos bv the ancients; Chronica m Jln-
nales,\n d bonks; Exemplontm Itbri. of which a 5tii book is cited ; Libri vir. illustrium, already
named; De htstoncis, including both Greek and Roman historians. Letters to Cicero are also
mentioned, and Pliny speaks of Cornelius as having cultivated poetry.— The composition extant
under the title De vtrts ilbistnbus, formerly ascribed to Nepos, is now acknowledged as the work
d 26oT^ "^^°'' '^'^^ pretended translation of Dares is an admitted fabrication (cf.

AuZ. Gen. NocL Att. xvii. 21 ; vii. 18; xi. 8; iv. 28.-Com. 2Vrp. Vit. Dion. 3.-Ladant. las'. Div. iU. 15.-PJ.n. Ep. v. 3


E'dti), 363.— Sarrfth" and Tzschuclie, in their editions btlow ci!ed.— Some fragments of The lost works were collected by ^. ScJwU,iB
the eclilion of Nepos, publ. Frankf. 1608. fol.— They are given in the editions of Bardili and others.

4. Editions.— Best ; W. H. Barddi. Stuttg. 1820. 2 vols. 8.—^. H. Tzschucke. Gotl. 1804. 2 vols. 8. with a commentary.—/.

F. f^Mhar (ed. by Hatles). Lpz. 1806. 8.— J. Ch. Dahne. Lpz. 1827. 8. The Princeps, by N. Jenson. Ven. 1471. 4.— Very

numerous are the editions specially designed for schools ; jj. Slewart. Edinb 1819. 8.— C/i. F. UlUmann, with a Lexicon. Lpz.
1816. 8.-Z,. J. Billcrbeck. 3d ed. Han. 1838. 8. with a German Lexicon.—/ H. Brtmi. Zur. 1827. 8. with Germ. Notes.

5. Translations.— German.— /. A. B. Bcrgslriisser. 3d ed. impr. by G. Eic/wff. Frankf. 18i5. 8. French.— Abbe Paul. Par.

1781. 12. Italian.— ./J. Bandiera, Ven. 1743. 8. English.— Sir Matt. Hale, with observations. Lond. 1677. S.—T. Creech,

and othere. Oxf. 1684. 12.— 7. Clarke, (exactly literal, with orig. Lat.) Lond. 1722. 8. often reprinted.

6. Illustrative.-//. L. Hartmann, Animadvereiones in C. Nepotem. Frankf. 1805-8. i.—C. H. Paufler, De rebus quibusdam
dubiis in C Nep. &c. Dresd. 1815. 4.-7 H. Schlegel, Observ. crit. et hist, in C. Nep. Hafn. 1778. 4.—/. Jortin, in bis Tracts
philological, &c. Lond. 1790. 8.— Fir others see KlUgling, suppl. to Harks, p. 135, ss.— Ma«J, Bibliogr. ii. 323.

§ 531. Tilus Livius, a native of Patavium (Padua), was living at Rome at the time
when Augustus died, having enjoyed that emperor's patronage. Afterwards he resided
at his native city until his death, A. D. 18. He deserves the first rank among the
formal historians of Rome. His history, in its whole compass, extended from the ar-
rival of ^neas in Italy until the deaih of Drusus, B. C. 8 or 9, the year 744 from the
building of the city. It consisted of 140 or 142 books, of which only 35 are now ex-
tant; namely, the first ten and the twenty-Jive from the 21st to the 45th. There la,
however, an abridgment of the whole work, from which Freinsheim attempted to
restore it, by forming supplements to replace the lost books. Livy is characterized by
truth and precision, a talent for observation, and a masterly style ; combining all the
qualities of a dignified practical historian.

1. Livy was born B. C. 58. It is not known when he removed to Rome, but he
devoted 20 years to writing his history, most of which were spent in the city. — His
grave, as was thought, was discovered from an inscription found at Padua in 1413, and
a splendid mansoleimi was erected in 1548; but it was afterwards ascertained, that the
inscription did not refer to the historian.

J. Ph. Thomasinus, T. Livii vita. Patav. 1630. also in the ed. of Drahenborch below cited.—/). G. MolUr, Disp. de T. Livio.
Alt. 168?.— The inscription is in Gruier, cited P. IV. ^ 130.

2. The history of Livy, which he termed Annales, was by the copyists arranged in
Decades, or portions consisting oi ten looks; a circumstance which perhaps contributed
to the loss of so great a part of the work, as the decades were separately transcribed.
The loss is sometimes ascribed to Gregory I. who is said to have caused all the copies
of Livy he could obtain to be burned. Much research has been made since the revival
of letters to obtain a complete copy of the work, but in vain. The supplements of
Freinsheim, the abridgment above mentioned which is commonly ascribed to Florus,
and a few fragments, are all that we have in addition to the 35 books that have been

Bdhr, 393.-7. Freintheim, Supplenaenta, &c. Argent. 1654. 4. given also in the ed. of Drakenborch.—Niebuhr. CIceronis,
Livii, he, fragm. Rom. 1820.—/. Th. Kreyssig, Fngm. ex Livii libro xci. Chenm. 1807.— Same fragment in Xietuhr 3S cited
^ 404. 5. II was found at Rome by P. J. Bruits, and first printed Hamb. 1773. fol. On a fragm. of the l6th bk. cf. Hist, de VJcad.
da Inter, vol. iv.

3. There has been discussion among the critics respecting the materials employed by
Livy, and his fidelity in the use of them. He has been charged with mistakes, with
partiality, and with credulity. — The style of Livy was censured by an ancient critic,
Asinius Pollio, for what he cdXled Fatuvinity {'" quandam Palavinitateni''); wherein
this fault consisted has been a theme of dispute among the moderns. — Some writings
of Livy are mentioned which are lost ; the principal is a work entitled Fialogi, dia-
logues or philosophical and political questions.

SchSn. ii. 37, ss.—Dunlop, 3d vol. Eng. ed. p. 469. — Also, on the matter of Livy ; Lachmann, De fontibus Livii. Comment. I.
Gott. 1822. 4. Comment. II. Golt. 1828. i.—JScher, De Suspecta Liv. fide. Lpz. 1743. 4.—/. F. Eschenbach, Defensio fidei LIv.
Lips. 1777. 4.—/. H. Meitrotto, De testim. Liv. file. Berl. 1797. fol — C. Krose, De fiJe Liv. recte aestimanda. Lips. 1812. 4.—
Toland, T. Livius a Supers'ilione vindicalus. Hag. Com. XlO^.—Klotsch, Disp. de diligentia Livii in enar. prodig. recte sslimanda.
Wittemh. 1789. i.—Machiavel. Discorsi sopra la prima deca di T. Livio. Rom. 1531. 4. Also in his M'orfej printed, in 8vo,

Hasiue, 1726. Translated into Enelish, (by E. D.) Lond. 1674. 8. On the style; /. H. Parrddt, De lactea Livii ubertale. Lips.

1746. 4. " Laclea ubertas" is a phrase applied by Quintillan (lust. Or. X. i. 32). Cf. Dr. S. Parr, Characters of Ch- J. Fox, &c
Lond. 1809. 2 vols. 8. (vol. 2d, p. 594.)-// C. Crelliwt, De T. L. dictione. Francof. 1729.—/. //. Meierotto, de T. L. arte nar-
randi. Berl. 1798. M.—Morhof, De Liv. Patavinitale, in his Disputat. Madem. Hamb. 1699. and also in Drahenborch^ $ ed. belotr
cited. — A. G. Ernesti, De paneg. Liv. eloquentia. Lips. 1787. 4 — Preface in Lemaire's ed. below cited.

4. Livy's account of Hannibal's passage of the Alps, compared with that given by
Polybius, has also afforded a theme for interesting discussion.

Gibbon, Miscellaneous Works, vol. 3d, p. 199. Baa. \196.—Folard, in the Trans, of Polybius by Thuillier, cited § 2«. 4.-7.
Whitar<er, Course of H. over the Alps. Lond. 1794. 2 vols. S.—De Lvc Hist, du Passage des Alps, &c. Par. 1818. 2d ed. im-
proved 1825.— /,c»ro7inc, in the Journ. des SavaTis, Jan. 1819— fiTfia d'C7rta?i, Diss, sur le pass, des Alps, &c Par. 1821— in-
rauza, Hist. Crit. du pass, des Alpes, &c. Par. 1836.— ff. L. fVichham If J. A. Cramer, Dissert, on the passage of Hannibal over
Ibe Alps. 2d ed. Lond. 1828. 8. with maps. Cf. Edinb. Rev. for Nov. 1825.

r.dilions.— Best ; A. Drakenborch. Amst. 1738-42. 7 vols. 4. superior to every preceding ed. according to Dibdin. Repr. (C.
F. Kldiher, ed ) Siuttg. ,820-27. 15 vols. 8.—B. L. Creincr. Par. 1735-42. 6 vols. 4. Repr. Oxf. 1818. 3 vols 8.— From the
Clarendon Press, Oxf. 1S21. 6 vols. 8. text of Drakenborrh ; notes of Crevier ; " best of all the Oxford reprints' (Dibdin).— I. G.
Krei/ssig I pz. 1823, ss. 5 vols. 8. Lemaire, in the Bibl. Ctast. There are several other (Dodem editions, much approved;


H. Homer LonJs 1794. 8 vols. 8. wilhout notes, valued for its icilei.— ^. TV. Emeiti, (as finished by Schiifer). Lpz, 180! -i

5 vols. S. cnntainin? a Glossmium Livianum.—F. G. Doring. the 2d ed. Goth. 1816 - 24. 7 vols. 8.— Besides these, we notice, G.
A. Rupert. Gott. 1807. 6 vols. 8. The commentary (not fully commended by Kla^Iing) was republ. Lend. 1825. 9.—C. G. Baum-

garten-Crusiiu. Lpz. 182 >. 3 vols. 8.—/. E. Raschi^. Berl. 1830. 3 vols. 8. Of ediiions in the 17lh cent, the best hJ. Gro

novhia. Amst. 1679. 3 vols. 8. The Princepa. by Sweyn'ieym /^ Pannartz. Rom. 1469. fol. — On the MSS. of Livy in the Li-
brary of the Escurial, /. Harris, in his Philological Inquiries, or Miscellaniea, vol. iv. p. 553.

6. Translations.— German.— AT. Huringer. Braunschw. 1821. 5 vols. S.—Klaiber, in the Collection by Osiander. Th/eZ, 4c.—

Five nihers are named ; one printed 130i. fol. French.— Guerin (retnuche par CoK.<»cm). Par. 1769. 10 vols. \2.—Dureaudt

la Malle et Nod. Par. 1812. 15 vols. 8. English.— P/i.Zem. Holland. Lond. 1600 fol. Repr. 16'6. fol. with cuts.— Several

anonym us authors. Lond. 1743. 6 vols. 8. Repr. Ediub. 1761. 8 vols. Vi.— Gordon. Glasg. 1783. 2 vols. 12.— G. Baker,
J/md. 1797. 6 vols. 8. the most popular translation ; often reprinted.

7. Illustrative.— y. Ch. Brieglieb, Diss, de Livio ejusque virtutibus. Cob. 1778. 8 —Rapin, Compar. de Thucydide et de T. Live.
Par. 1681. 12. Transl into En?, by Thom, Taylor. Lond. 1694. S.—T. Hunter, Livy as an historian compared with Tacitus, in
his Observation! on Tacitus. Lond. 1752. S.—R. Alves, Herodotus and Livy compared, in his Sketches of Literature. Edinb.
1795. S. — D. H. Hegewisch, Ueber den politiscbeu Charakter des Livius, in his A'eue Samml. Kleiuer hist, und lit. Schrifien. Alt.
1809. 8.

§ 532. Cains Velleius Patercidus, belonging to the same period, was a prefect of
horse under Augustus, and praetor under Tiberius. He was the author of a summary
history of Rome, in 2 books, extending from the origin of Rome down to the writer's
own times. The beginning of the first book is lost. The work has higher merit in
respect of style than it has in point of historic credibihty; since Velleius is evidently
swayed by partiality towards I'iberius and Sejanus.

1. Velleius is supposed to have been involved in the disgrace of Sejanus, A. D. 31,
and to have been put to death with others w-ho had followed the fortunes of that mi-
nister. His name is scarcely mentioned by ancient authors.

H. Dodwell, Anmles Velleiani, seu Vita Velleii pro temporum ordine disposita. Oxon. 1698. 8. given also in the ed. oi Ruhnken
below cited, and others.— iTraiuc, Proleg. to his ed. below cited.— Z). G. Moller, Disp. de Veil. Paterc. Alt. 1685. 4.

2. The work is entitled Historia Rmnana. But as the Roman history is preceded
by a notice of the Assyrian empire, of Greece, and of Macedonia, it would seem that
Velleius intended to give, in the first book, an outline of general history, although the
loss of the first part of the work hinders the reader from learning his plan. The style

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