Johann Joachim Eschenburg.

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Jond. 1606. fol.— rumfcua. Lond. 1746. 12. There are several oihers. Cf. ATosJ, ii. 135. -

"5i 539. Sexfus Aurelii/s Victor, a native of Africa, hved in the 4th century, and was
a lavorite of Julian, who raised him to honorable offices. Under Theodosius he was


made consul at Rome. His history of the Orighi of the Eoman People extended,
according to its title, from Janus to the tenth consulate of Constantius; but the portion
now remaining extends only to the first year after the founding of the city; it contains
some things not mentioned by others, or at least not so minutely. The work entitled
De virts i/lustrihus Eornce, which usually passes under his name, is by some ascribed
to Suetonius, or to the younger Pliny.

1. Two other works bear his name; one entitled Ve C(ssaribus, from Augustus to
Constantius; the other, Epitome de Casaribus, from Augustus to Theodosius. The
latter is an abridgment of the former, and was made by a later author called Victor
junior, or Victorinus. — Some consider the first of the works above meniioned (that
entitled Origo genlis EomancB) to be the production of some compiler later than Aure-
lius Victor.

SckSll, iii. 159.— mhr, 466.— Vossius, cited § 527.— D. G. Moller, Diss, de S. Aur. Victore. Alt. 16=5. 4.—.imz(en, Pref. to hit
ed. below cited.

2. EdifioDS.-Best ; S. Pitisnis. Utrecht, 1596. 8.—/ Amzten. Amst. 1733. 4.-/. F. Gruner. Cob. 1757. 8. (cur. G. C.
Harla). Erl. 17S7. 8. (cur. F. Schonhergtr). Vindob. 1820. 8— f. Schroter. Lpz. 1831. 2 vols. 8.'

3. Traoslalions.— Germaa — T. H. Hildebrand. Lpz. 1795. 8. French.— Samn. Par. 1780. 12. Enjlish.- By several pu-
pils of Mr. MaidwdL Lond. 1693. 8.

^ 540. Flavins Eutropius, probably a native of Italy, lived in the 4th century. He
was private secretary (ETrioroXoypd'/ioj) under Constantine the Great ; afterwards he
accompanied Julian in the expedition against the Persians, and in the year 371 he was
proconsul in Asia. By the direction of the emperor Vaiens, he composed an Epitome
of Eoman History, in 10 books, from the founding of the city to the reign of Jovian.
It is written in an easy and plain style, but without critical acumen. We have a Greek
translation of it, although not quite complete, by a certain Paa7iius.

1. The title of Vir darissimus is given to Eutropius in the manuscript ; and he is
spoken of by subsequent writers with respect. Some have thought him to have been

a Christian, but without sufficient evidence. His epitome, Breviarium histories

Eoman<B, was a favorite work in the middle ages, and was often copied. It is inserted,
with some additions, in the work called Historia Miscella, the prodaction chiefly of
Paul Winfiid, called also Paul Diaconus.

Schmi. iii. 161.— Ba/ir, 469.— Kosriuj, cited § 527 —D. G. MoUer, Diss, de Eutropio. Alt. 1685. 4.—Tzsdntc1ie, Diss, de vit. et

Script Eutrop. in his ed. below cited. Respecting the Historia mUcella, cf. SchSll, iii. 178. — It is given in Muratcri, Script Rer.

Il.ilicarutn, vol. i.

2. There is extant a letter, purporting to be written from Jerusalem by Piiblius Lentulus and
containing a description of the person of Jesus Christ, which has been published as belonging to
Eutropius. It is given in the Ecclesiastical History of tl)e Ctniuriatores Mairdeburo-rnses (Bas.
1.^59. fill.), with this inscription " Lerituli epistola, &c. quffi apud Eutropium in antiHlibus .Senat.
Rom. extat." What Eutropius or what annals can here be designated is unknown. It seems
inadmissible to apply the passage to the Roman historinn, since no manuscript or copy of his
work exhibits the least trace of any such epistle. — Tiiis letter was pnblishf'd in England in 1817,
as having been recently discovered in a manuscript in the library of the Vatican and previously
unknown, although the existence of such a manuscript had been mentioned by Fabricius a cen-
tury before. The letter is generally and justly considered to be a mere fabrication.

See the Letter, and a full examination of its authenticity, by E. Robinson, in the Biol. Rtpou ii. p. 367, ss.

3. Editions.— Best: H. Verheyh. Leyd. 1793. 8.— C. H. Tzschiicke. Lpz. 17f6. 6. this pronounced by D bdin better than the
•eprint, Lpz, 1804.— Best school editions; F W. Groste. Halle, 1813. 8.—F. Hermann. Lab. I8IB. S.—F. Sch^nber^er. Vien.

1816. 8.— £ T. Hohler. Vien. 1819. 8. The Princeps, by G. Laver, pr. (as is supposed). Rom. 1471. fo!. eivin? the wort

U found in the Hutima miscella Abo\e named. The metaphrase of Pseanius, by /. F. S. Kaltwasser. Gotha, 17S0. 8.

4. Translations.- German.— PA. L. Hius. Frankf 1821. 8. French.— .5iie Lezean. Par. 1717. 12. English.— /. Clar^ie,

with orig. Lat. York, 1722. 8.—/ Sterling. Lond. 1726. 8.—/. Thomas. Lood. 1760. 8.

5. There is an epitome of Roman History (Breviarium rerum pestar-um pnpuli Romani) which
was written by Sextns Rnfus Festus, of whom little is known. The work is said to have been

drawn up by direction of the emperor Vaiens. From the same Rufus, we have under the title

De reeiovibus Romce, a sketch of the chief buildings and monuments of Rome.

The Breviarium is contained in VerheyH's ed. of Eutropius, above cited. — Also by C. MUnnich, Hann. 1815. 8. with the
description of Rome.— The latter piece is given in Grsmus, vol. iii. as cited P. III. § 197. 1.

§ 541. Ammianus Marcellinus, a Greek born at Antioch, lived in the same century.
He wrote a Roman history, in 31 books, from Nerva to Vaiens ; the first 13 books are
lost. The work may be regarded as a continuation of Tacitus and Suetonius. It de-
rives its merit not from the style, which is affected and often rough and inaccurate,
but from its various matter ; it is interspersed with numerous digressions and observa-
tions, which render it instructive and entertaining.

1. Ammianus devoted his early years to study ; then engaged in military service, in
which he passed many years and acquired reputation under Juhan and his successors ;
he finally returned to Rome, and there composed his history. — There is no proof tlia.
he was a Christian, although he relates events connected with the Christian religion
whh impartiality.

D G Moller, Diss, de Am. .MarF Alt. 16a5. A.— CI Chifflet, De Am. Marcel, vita, he. Lovan. 1627. also m the ed. of !>•
furdt betow cited.— For a specimen of his manner of speaking of Christianity, cf. bk. xxi. c. 16 ; xiii. 1 1.

2. Although SO many books of the Eeritm Gestarum of 3Iarcellinus are lost, vet the




18 bocks extant are the most valuable part. The whole work included a period of
above 280 years, from the accession of Nevva, A. D. 91, to the deaih of Valens,
A. D. 378; the lost books brought the history down to A. D. 352; the remaining
books are a sort of memoirs of his own times. Gibbon freely acknowledges his great
obligations to this author.

SchSll, iii. le^.—Bcihr, 413.— Ch. G. Heyne, Censura injrenii e( hislor. Ammiani Marcellini. Gott. 1802. also in his Opusc
^cadem. vol. \i.— Gibbon, T)ec\. and Fall of Rom. En p. ch. xxvi. vol. iii. p. 55. ed. N. York, 1S22.

3. EJiiions.— Best ; /. A. Ifagner, cojiipiled by C. F. A. Erfurdi. Lpz. 1808. 3 vols. 8. and io\.—A. W. Emesti. Lpz. 1773. 8
—Best among the earlier, /. Grcniov. Leyd. 1693. fol.— The Princeps, by A. Sabimis. Rom. 1474. fol.

4. Translations.— German.— /. A. lVai;ner. Frankf. 1704. 3 vols. 8.— £ TVoJS, in the Collection of Tafel, Osinnder, &c.

French.- .WicA. de MaroUes. Par. 1672. 12. English.—/'. Holland. Lend. 1609. fol.— An iuleresling passage on the chaiactei

of the Roman nobles is translated by Gibbon, Decl. and Fall of Rom. Emp, ch. xxxi.

§ 542 <. There is extant an historical or biographical collection, under the title of
Scriptores Histories Augusfoe or writers of the imperial history. It consists of the lives
of the Roman emperors from Hadrian to Carus, ascribed to six different authors, who
belonged to the 3d and 4th centuries. These biographies do not possess a high degree
of merit ; yet they are of some importance to the careful student of history ; indeed
they are our only source of information in some particulars of the history of the

1 11. The first writer in the collection is ^lius Spartianns, of the time of Diocletian. He is said
to have written the lives of all the emperors fmni Julius Caesar to his own day. We have under
his name the lives of Hadrian, ^lius Verus, Didius Jiilianus, Septimiiis Sevems, Pescennius JVi-
ger. Caracalta,9.\\A Geta. He also is considered by some as ihe author of the biograpliies ascribed
to Gallicaniis and Lamprnlius. His style has little merit ; his piect^s are deficient in proper ar-
ratgement, and are personal memoirs of the emperors rather than histories of their reigns.

2. Vulcaiius Gallicaviis, who also belonged to the age of Diocletian, is said to have desisned a
complete biography of the etnperors. The manuscripts assign to him the life oi Avidius Ciissius,
which some however ascribe to Sparlianus.

3 m. Julius Capifolinvs lived in the time of Diocletian and Constantine the Great. He is men-
tioned as the author of the lives of Jlntovinus Pius, Marcus Aurelius, Lucius Verus, Pertinax,
..i^lbivus, Jilacrivus, the two Muximini, the three Ourdiani, JIaiimus, and Balbinus. These are
compiisfd with little judgment. Some of them have been ascribed to Spartianus.

4m. Trtbellius Pollio was of the same period. He wrote the lives of the emperors from Phi-
lippiis to Claudius. We have the fallowing; a fragment of the life of Valerian the elder, the life
of Valerian the ijnuvger or the son, the lives of the two Oallieni, of the Triginta Tyraniii, and of
Claudius. His narratives are careless and diffuse.

5 JF.lius Lavipridius is mentioned by Vnpisciis as among his masters. He is considered by
some to have been the same person with Sparlianus, as if the nan)e of the latter were .^lius
Lainiiridiiis Spartianus. To him are ascribed the lives of Commodus, Diaduinenus, Heliogahulus,
and Ahxavdtr Severus.

Hji. Fliirii's Vnpiscus, of Syracuse, lived in the time of Constantine. From him we have the
lives of ./f»rfZ?an, Tacitus, Florian, Pv/bus, Firmus, Saturninvs, Prncidus, Bonosus, Cams, J^Tume-
riainis, and Carinus. He excels the other writers of the collection in method, accuracy, and

7. Respecing these writers, see SchVU, iii. 149.— 5aAr, 460.— Foniu*, as cited § 527.— T^rlemonl, Hisloire des Empereurs. Par.
1697. — G. Ma^covivs, Orat. de usu et praestantia Hist. August, in jure civili. Harderov. 1731 4. and in his Opitsc. jurid. et phil,
edited by PMtmann. Lpz. 1776. 8.— C. G. Heynt, Ct-nsura sex Scriptor. Hist. Aug. Goll. 1803. and in his OpiLsc. Academ. vol.
vi. — De Monlines, .Mem. sur les ecrivains de Christ. Aug. in the Mem. de VAcad. de Berlin, an. MhO.—Dodwcll, Prslecliones Aca-
demicae. Oxf. 1692. 8. Besides the notice of the writers of the Historia Aurusta in the first part (p. 32-151), this work contains
essays on various topics suggested by particular passages. — D. G. Molkr. Diss, de ^1. Spartiar.o. Alt. 16S7. 4. ; de Volcat. Gallica-
DO. Alt. 1689. 4. ; de Jul Capitolino. Alt. 1689. 4. ; de jEl. Lampridio. Alt. 1688. 4 ; de Flav. Vopisco. Alt. 1687. 4.

8. Editions.— The Princeps. Milan, 1475. fol. cum notis var. Lugd. Bat. 1671. 2 vols. 8.—/. P. Schmid. Lpz. 1774. 6. with
jiref. by /'iWImaJi/i.— Bipont. 1787. 2 vols. 8.

9. Translations.— German.— /. P. Ostertag. Frankf. 1787. 2 vols. 8. — L. StorcJi, in the Preiizlau Collection of Translation*
(IS27,ss). French.— G. de Moulines. Berl. 1783. 3 vols. 8. ; Par. 1816. 3 vols. 12.

X. — Writers on Medicine and Natural Science.

% 543 7i. None of the sciences received less patronage among the Romans than that
of Medicine. They were not wholly strangers to the theoretical knowledge au.xiliary
10 it ; but the practical part, on the other hand, was in low estimation. Until the time
of Phny (cf. Hist. Nat. xxix. 1), the practice of medicine was not an occupation of any
of the more noble and cultivated Rom.ans, but was followed only by slaves, freedmen,
or foreigners.

•^^ 544. The early Romans supposed diseases to be healed only by special interven-
tion of the gods ; hence their first physicians were the ansures and hams-pices, and their
remedies in all cases consisted very much in religious rites #nd magical chants. In
epidemic maladies, it was customary to consult the Sibylline books; tind some cere-
mony or observance was prescribed for relief. It was thus that dramatic sports were
first introduced to remove a plague (cf. § 305). To alleviate a pestilence the Romans


at another time erected a temple to Apollo Medicus (Liv. iv. 25) ; at another, Escu-
lapius, in the form of a serpent, was solemnly escorted from Epidaurus to an island in
the Tiber. Hence also divine honors were offered to deified diseases (cf. P. II. $ 92).

^ 545. But the Romans could not fail to discover that processions, lustrations, lectis-
ternia, and s-uppUcia (cf. P. III. ^ 211, 220), and other superstitious ceremonies were
not the natural remedies for diseases, which continued to increase in number and ma-
lignity with the progress of luxury. They were willing to receive medical prescriptiong
from the Greeks, from whom they had borrowed in almost every thing else ; and Greek
slaves became physicians to the mistress of the world. Eminent citizens sometimes
kept a slave in the sole capacity of family physician. The custom of thus employing
slaves no doubt tended to foster the notion that the medical art was ignoble ; but the
u?e of Grecian remedies and methods undermined the superstitious reliance on charms
and rites, and contributed to encourage a proper study of the science. — It is also sup-
posed, that the study was encouraged by a translation into Latin of the medical treatises
found in the library which was collected by Mithridates (cf. '5> 452, P. IV. $ 126); this
translation was made, under the patronage of Pompey, by his freedman Lenaeus {Plin.
Hist. Nat. XXV. 2, 3).

^ 546. The first freeborn Greek, who practiced medicine at Rome, is said to have
been Archagathus, who came to Rome B. C. 219. He received from the senate the
gift of citizenship, and was furnished with a medical or apothecary's shop (medkina).
His severe method of practice, however, became unpopular ; and h has been asserted
that he was stoned to death. After the conquest of Greece and the fall of Corinth,
B. C. 146, Greek physicians seem to have flocked to Rome in greater numbers.
Asclepiades, from Prusa in Bithynia, B. C. 110, gained great celebrity in the art {Plin.
Hist. Nat. xxvi. 3); and seems to have had many disciples (cf. '^ 263). — The question
has been started, whether the Greek physicians were banished from Rome along with
the philosophers (cf. *5> 449), and learned writers have contended on both sides. Cato
who was so hostile to the philosophers was no friend to the physicians; "if the
Greeks," said he, according to Pliny (if. N. xxix. 1), "impart to us their learning, we
are ruined ; especially if they send hither their physicians; they have sworn together
to destroy all the barbarians by medicine."

See MiddlUon, Span, &c. as cited § 552. 2.

^ 547 a. Cato is considered as the first Roman who attempted to write on diseases
and remedies ; he composed a work that might be called a book of domestic medicine;
but it exhibited no great knowledge of the subject'. — The next who is mentioned as
having written on the medical art in Latin was the freedman Antonius ^lusa. He was
a celebrated physician in the time of Augustus, and gained illustrious rewards for
curing that prince of a dangerous sickness. His genuine works are lost^.

1 The treatise of Cato was entitled Commentarhu quo medetur filio, aervis, familiaribus. Cf. Plutarch, Vit. Cat.— /"Zin. Hist.

Nat. XXV. 2; xxix. I. 2 There are two pieces extant, which have been ascribed to Musa ; namely, a treatise De herba bttonica,

and a metrical frasment De ttuiida valetuduic—C. F. Crell, Ant. Musa, &c Lpz. 1725. 4.—Flor. Caldanw, Ant. Mhsx, frag
ir.enta qu« extant. Bassano, ISOO. S.—Cf. .JcAermaji, Prol. de Ant. Musa. Alt. 1786. S.

<& 547 b. The next celebrated name in the list of Roman medical authors is Corne-
lius Celsus (cf. § 553), who is by many supposed to have flourished in the reign of
Augustus, although little is certainly known respecting his history. Apuleius Celsus
was a different person, a native of Centorbi in Sicily, who hved under Tiberius, and
WTote on agriculture and on plants ; but his works are lost.

In the commencement of the period extending from the death of Augustus to the
time of the Antonines most of the practicing physicans at Rome were Greeks ; and
until the time of Trajan they were chiefly of the Methodic School (cf. '& 264). Eudemus
was one of them, mentioned as a disciple of Themison, and cited as author of obser-
vations on hydrophobia. IVIenecrates is named as another, who composed upwards of
150 treatises. Andromachus from Crete was physician to Nero, and is said to have
been the first who was called archialer; this title however does not appear to have
been common until a later period. But it should be remarked, that under the first
emperors the medical art was patronized much more than previously, and that the
teachers in this branch were permitted to enjoy the same privileges and honors as the

teachers of rhetoric and philosophy. One of the most distinguished in this period,

that wrote in Latin, was Scribonius Largus (cf. <5( 554), who accompanied Claudius in
his expedition into England, A. D. 43. Vettius Valens is mentioned also as an author,
but Tacitus {An7i. xi. 31, 35) has consigned his name to infamy for his connection with
the wife of Claudius, the flagitious IMessalina. Coelius Aurelianus, a native of Sida or
Sicca in Numidia. probably belongs to the close of this period, being usually considered
a contemporary of Galen (cf. ^ 273) ; he has left two works', both of which were drawn
from Greek authors, especially from Soranus, a Greek physician who obtained great
distinction at Rome (cf. § 264), being a supporter of the Methodic School. — Perhaps
Pliny the elder should be mentioned as a writer on medicine, since in his Natural
History (cf ?i 470) he treats of the healing virtues especially of mineral substances.

I The two works extant are entitled, Tardarum sive Chrmiicarum passionum libri V., and Celerum sive acuiarum puntmnrn
libri Itl. Several other works, now los', were written by him. Cf. Fabricius, Bibl. Lat. iii. 531-35.— His works are ?iven in tbi


collections of SfepftantM and of Ealler, cited § 552. 3. Separately, Mmeloveen, (e. recens. /. C. Amman, M. D.) Amst. 1709. 4.
Repr. 1755 4— There is a Latin tiYatise entitled Isago^t i)i artem mdicam, supposed by some to be a translation by Ccelius, from
a work of Sorauus ; by others considered the original work of some later Latin author ; it is in the Collection of Stephanus, cited
i 552. 3.

^ 548. In the fortner part of the last period included in our notice (from the Antonines
A. D. 160, to the destruction of Rome A. D. 476), lived Serenus Sammonicus, eminent
as a physician and a learned man, from whom we have a didactic poem on diseases
and their remedies (cf. ^ 555). I'his was perhaps preceded by the Greek poem on
medicine, called an epic, in 42 books, by Marcellus Sidetes (cf § 32), who probably
lived somewhat earlier. We have also a sort of medical epistle from Vindicianus',
who was physician to the emperor Valentinian, about A. D. 370. From his contem-
porary and disciple, Theodorus Priscianus, we have two works pertaining chiefly to
medical subjects (cf. ^ 556). Sextus Placitus is named as a medical writer of the 4th
century and author of a treatise on medicines derived from the animal kingdom^.
There is a compilation, in five books, De re medica, ascribed to Plinius Valerianus^,
who is commonly referred to the former part of the 4th century. Marcellus Empiricus,
who was physician to Theodosius Magnus, left a book on medicines, addressed to his
sons (cf. § 557). Finally we mention a treatise on the veterinary art, ascribed to
Publius Vegetius (as already noticed ^ 492. 4) ; it is however considered to be merely
a sort of translation from the Greek Ilippiatrica (iTnTiarpiKa, cf. § 268), made by some
ignorant monk of the 12th century.

• The epistle ascribed to Vindicianus is prefixed to the treatise of Marcellus as usually published ; cf. 5 557. 2. See Biihr, Rom.

Lit. p. 210. "^ The treatise of Sextus Placitut Papyriensis, entitled De medicnmentis ex aiiimalibus, is e;iven by S'ejj'.aims, and

Achetmann, as cited § 552. 3. 3 The compilation of Plinius Valerianus iJe re medica, or Medicina Pliniar.a, is drawn chiefly

from Pliny and Galen and Dioscorides; it is given by Slephantis as just cited ; also by Mb. Turinits, Basil, 1523. fol. Cf. Schm,
Litt. Rom. iii. 233. Fabricius, Bibl. Lat ii. 247.

^ 549. We have already remarked {% 547 b), that from the time of Augustus physi-
cians were held in higher estimation at Rome than previously, and were tlattered with
honors. The physician of Nero, it is said, was styled archiater. "It has been a
question," observes Sclioll (Litt. Rom. iii. 236), "whether this title designated the
one who was the physician to the reigning prince (larpo^ rov apxonTOi)^ or chief of the phy-
sicians of a city or town {apxiof rwv iarfMi/). The two opinions may be reconciled, if we
only suppose that both offices or characters were united in one and the same person.
F>ach city, or each quarter of a city, had its special physicians or arcliatri. Antoninus
Pius fixed the number at toi for the large places, sevefi for the middling, and fve for
those of the third rank. These were called archiatri populares; they were nominated
not by the governors of the provinces, but by the people of each place ; and they
formed a body by themselves, termed ordo or collegium. All other physicians were
subordinate to this body, which exercised over them a rigid inspection." Rome is said
to have had fourteen archiatri, besides one for the Vestal virgins and one for the Gym-
nasia. After the time of Constaniine the Great there were archiatri palatini, who
ranked among the high officers of the iinperial court ; and after the 5th century they
were placed on a level with the duces or vicarii (cf P. III. § 309).

^ 5.50. In no branch of Natural Science did the Romans make any great attainment.
" The vast conquests of the Romans, and the expeditions in which they penetrated to
the most remote regions of the globe, affiarded them opportunities for studying nature
and enriching the natural sciences by important discoveries. But the military spirit
stifled the curiosity which would have paused in their career in order to examine the
novel objects presented to their view. Rare animals brought to Rome by the con-
querors furnished studious men with means of making interesting observations, which
were to some extent improved. But, after all, the Romans generally had little ardor
for any such pursuits, and they accomphshed little in any department of physical
science." (SchoU.) — It is worthy of notice, also, that the notions entertained by the
Romans as well as the Greeks respecting philosophy were not favorable to improvement
in physical science. Experiments and practical inventions were considered as beneath
the true philosopher. Philosophy, in their view, had a higher and more noble aim than
the helping of men to make mechanical contrivances and devise means of physical
comfort ; she must teach them how to rise above all ills and to be indifterent to all
comforts. It was a drudgery appropriate for slaves to invent machines and fabricate
tools and furniture; wheelwrights {rotarumfahri) and shoemakers {sutores) were use-
ful, but their trade was not philosophy (cf. Seneca, Ep. 90).

•Ji 551. The principal writings, to which we can refer, that contain matter pertaining
to this department, are those of Seneca and Pliny already noticed (cf. § 469. 470) under
the head of philosophy. The former in his Quoistiones Naturales (L. iii.) expresses
his regret, that he had not paid more attention to subjects so interesting. Pliny must
be acknowledged to have had a love for the study of nature, and the work left by him
is of acknowledged value. These works present some facts worthy of our notice in
this connection: e. g. Seneca remarks, ihat small letters seen through a glass vesse

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