Johann Joachim Eschenburg.

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SUed with water appear magnified, and that a sort of wand made with several angles
and oresented to the sun in a certain manner wiP cause the colors of the rainbow to


show themselves; and PHny observes (Hist. Nat. ii. 97, 64), that the tides are caused
by the influence of the sun and moon, and that the sun is Uke a supreme moderator
among the planets ; he notices also {Hist. Nat. xxxiv. 14) the properties ascribed to
the magnet {ferrum vivum, Mayviirii \idoi).—Yrom. Lucretius the poet (cf. % 357) some
information may perhaps be drawn respecting the attainments of the Romans in
physics. — Frontinus in his treatise on aqueducts has occasion to exhibit theoretic views
respecting the laws of fluids, and makes some just observations, but without scientific
precision. Vitruvius in his Architecture, we may add, brings forward some of the
principles of mechanics. Both these authors have been mentioned among the mathe-
matical writers. Indeed we find but a single name to mention here, that has not
found a plac^ in some other department. There was a work by JuUus Ohxequens,
entitled De Prodt^ns or Prodigiorum liber, in which the writer described the extra-
ordmary and wonderful phenomena of nature that had occurred at Rome The part
which IS now extant relates to the two centuries immediately precedino- the Christian
era, and contains much that is drawn from the history of Livy. I'his performance
which closes our notice of the attainments of the Romans in physics, althouf^h written
in a style considered by some as not unworthy of the Augustan age, is but a^collection
of marvelous tales rather than a book of science.

Of the person named Julius Obsequens and the time when he lived, nothing is known with certainty; some critics have assigned

him to the 1st century, others to the 4th. Cf. (^ossius, de histor. I^t. iii. Perizonius. Animadversiones Historicae, cap viii

Best editions; separately, F. Oudaidorp. Ludg. Bat. 1720. 8. Repr, (ed. /. Kapp,) Curis, 1772. 8.-Given also in JSlue'.'val
Maximus, cited § 533. J.

§ 552. We give the following as references on the class of writers just noticed.

1. Physical science amon? the Romans; Sprengel, as referred to in § 2m.— Meier, as there cited iUo.—Fee, as cited § 470 2 —A
Libes, Histoire Philosophique des Progres de la Physique. Par. 1810. 4 vols. 8. (L. i. ch. vi.)-Scmi, Litl. Rom. ii. 45i.-Comtl
de Caylus, Sur les connaisances des auciens, in the Mem. Acad. Iiiscr. xzvii. 58 -Mahudel, Du lin incombustible, &c. in the lame
work, iv. 63i.—Ameilhmi (the telescope not known to the ancients), in same work, xlii. 496. Cf. P. IV. § 207.— Falcmet Sur ce qua
les Anciens ont cru de I'Aimant, in thesanie, vol. iv. p. 613. '

2. History of medicine among the Romans ; Good, Le Clerc, and Sprengel, as cited P. IV. § 23.-7. H. Schulze, Compend. Hist.

Med. Hal^, 1742 On the question as to the rank and treatment of physicians ; Gevers, De servil. condit. homin. artes Rom.

colent.-.^. G. Richter, Prisca Roma in medicos suos baud iniqua. Golt. 1764. 4.-KUIm, De medicin. militar. apud Graec. et Ro.
man. conditione. Lpz. 1827. i.-Cony. Middleton, De Medicorum apud vet. Rom. degenlium conditione. Lend. 1726. 4. also in his
MUcellaruom works, Lond. 1752. 4 vols. 4.-X IVard, Ad C. Middletoni, &c.. dissertationem Responsio. Lond. 1727. 8.-7. Spci,
(Diss, in) Recherches Curieuses de I'Antiquite. Par. 1683. i.-Sc/Uager, Historia litis, de Med. ap. Vet. Rom. deg. conditione.
Helms. 1740.

3. Medical Collections. The earliest by Critander, Bas. 152S. fol.-The second by Aldus. Ven. 1547. fol.-Next, by K Ste-
pkanus, Medicae Artis Principes. Par. 1567. 2 vols. fol. containing Greek and Latin. Cf. Fabridus, Bibl. JLat iii 522 —And.
Rimnuf, Vet. quorumd. Script. libri de materia medica. Lips. 1654. 8.-Haller, Art. Med. principes, and Gruner, Bibl. d. alter,
Aerzte, cited § 269.-7. Ch. G. Ackermann. Parabilium medicamentorum Scriptores antiqui. Norimb. 1788. 8.

"5> 553. AureUus or Aulus Cornelius Celsus, a native of Rome or of Verona lived in
the beginning of the first century. He wrote a comprehensive work, entitled De
Artibus, in 20 books ; it was a sort of encyclopaedia, treating of philosophy, rhetoric
rural oBconomy, the art of war, jurisprudence, and medicine. Of this we have only
the eight books on medicine, whicji are not unworthy of notice either in respect of their
contents, or the style in which they are written : the last two books treat of surgery.
_ 1. Ihere is not an agreement among the critics as to the name of Celsus, wliether
It was Aurelius or Aulus; nor as to his birthplace, whether Rome or Verona: nor as
to the time of his birth, whether under Augustus, or later. There is no doubt that he
was a practical physician.

See J. Rkoiius, Vit. Celsi. Havn. im.-Morsasni Epist. in A. C. Celsum. Hag. Com. 1724. 4. given in the Bipmt ed he-
low cited.-L. Biancor.ii, Lett, sopre A. C. Celso. Rom. 1779. i.-M. G. Schaiing. Qusst. de C. Celsi vita. Lpz. 1S24 8 -Fa.
bricius, Bibl. Lat. ii. 36. r ■ •

2 The books of Celsus De Medicina are ranked among the most valuable remains
ot the ancient physrcians ; he has been called the Latin Hippocrates, and the Cicero
ot the physicians The preface contains a notice of the various schools of medicine
betore his time ; the first four books treat of internal diseases; the next two of exter-
nal diseases; and of the two last, one treats of dislocations and fractures, the other of
surgical operations. The author has drawn freely from Hippocrates.— There are two
letters, which have been ascribed to Celsus, but were probably written by Scribonius
Largus. J he treatise de Vetennaria, sometimes mentioned, is supposed to have been
merely the section on that topic included under the head of agriculture in his general
work.— Ihere is extant a book de arte dicendi, which was once ascribed to Celsus.
but IS now referred to Julius Severianus, a wrher in the fifth century.

Z« OercftStAwize, as cited§ 552. l.-CAtappa, Intonnoalle operee alia conditione di A. C.Celso. Mil 1S19-G Matthix,
Diss^ de A. C. Cels, med.cina. Gott. 1766. A.-F. C. Oertel, Diss, de aqu^ frigid^ usu Celsiano. Monach. 1825. 4.-Respectiug
the book de arte dtceiidi, cf. Harles, Brev, Not. Suppl. i. 522. "

3. Editiocs-Best; ZJ. Ruh,.ken. Lugd. Bat. 17S5. 2 vols. 4. based on that of i. Thrga {P*d 1769. 4), but more fulI.-B..
pontme. Argent. 1806. 2 vols. 8. Ex recau: Targx (cum Lexico Celsi). Verona, 1810. 4.-£. lUaiigan. Lond. IS2a 8. after
the text of Targa.-Cf. L. Choulant, Prodromus nov. edit. Celsi. Lips. 1824. 4 -Of previous editions, some of the more noted ;
y. A. van derLmden. Leyd. 1665. U.-Alrruloi^een. Amst. 1713. 8.-The Princeps, by Barthol. FoiUio. Flor. 1478. iol-Tim

81 3 n 2


letters are given in the collection of Stephanus, cited § 552. 3.— The book en rhetoric is given in the collection of Pilhcau cited
6 412
4. Translations.— German.— G. Ch. F. Fuchs. Jena, 1799. 8. only the first book.-V. C. Jdger. Frankf. HSfl. 8. 7th and

8th books. French.— « Ninnir. Par. 1753. 2 vols. 12; (revue par Lepaee) Par. 1821. English.—/. Grieve. Lond.

1756. S.— Collier, with the Latin. Lond. 1829. 2 vols. i.—UndtTvoood, with the Latin. Lond. 1833. 2 vols. 8.— /.ee, Lat. & Angl.
Lond. 1836. 3 vols. 12.

§ 554. Scrihonius Larirus, a physician at Rome, lived in the first century, under Ti-
berias and Claudius. He is considered as the author of a treatise still extant, yet not
very valuable, on thepreparation of medicines. It has been conjectured that it was
originally written in Greek, and translated into Latin at some later period.

1. His full name was Scribonins Largus Besignatianus. His treatise De compo-
sifione medicamenlorum is addressed to Caius Julius Callistus. In the introduction he
alludes to medical pieces written by him in Latin {scripta Lafina medicinalia), which
Callistus had presented to Claudius the emperor ; language, which would seem to im-
ply that this or some other piece or pieces must have been in Greek.

ie Clerc, cited § 552. \.—Fal/ridVLS, Bibl. Lat. iii. i22.—Bemhold, Prsf. to ed. below cited.— Ba/ir, p. 696.
2. Editions.- Best, /. M. Bemhold. Argent. (Strassb.) 1786. 8.—/. Rhodixis. Pad. 1655. 4.— Contained also in Stephanus, as
cited § .552. 3. It was first published, operd /. Ruellii. Par. 1529. 8. along with two other pieces. Bepr. Bas. 1529. 8.

§ 555. Q. Serenus Sammonicus, who lived in the second and third centuries, was a
man of much learning, and a favorite of the emperor Severus. He was put to death
by order of Caracalla, on suspicion that he vyas on the side of Geta. \ye have from
him a poem on diseases and their remedies; it is probably not free from interpolations,
and is not complete, being defective at the close.

1. It has been doubted whether the poem was written by this distinguished physi-
cian, or by his son of the same name. The poem is in hexameter verse, and is en-
titled Carmen de 7norbis et remediis, or De viediciria pracepfa; it was much read and
frequently copied in the middle ages ; in this poem occurs, for the first time, it is said,
the famous Abracadabra (cf P. IV. ^ 200. 2). The materials are chiefly derived from
Pliny and Dioscorides. — There is also under the name of Serenus Sammonicus a poem
entitled Carmen de fi?igendis capillis. A fragment of another, entitled Ees reconditce,
is given by Macrobius {Sat. iii. c. 15-17).

Keuchm, Proleg. to his ed. below cited.— w^cftermann, Prsef. to his ed. below cited.— BSftr, p. 210, 780.— Fuftrmann, Kl. Handb.
p. 701.

2. Editions —Best ; /. Ch. G. Jlckermann. Lpz. 17C6. K— KeucAen. Amst. 1662 1706. 8.— Contained also in Burmann'i Poet.
Lat. Min.— Often in editions of Celsus.— The poem de ting', capillis, by BShmer, Programmata i— iv. Viteb. 1798—1800. 4.

^ 556. Theodorns Priscianns, of whose life we have no account, flourished in the
latter part of the fourth century. He appears to have been a physician of some emi-
nence, bearing the title Archiater. We have from him a treatise on dietetics, and a
larger' work, m 4 books, chiefly on medicine. The style is rough and corrupt.

1. The treatise is entitled Bieetn. or De rebus saluhribus. — The other work is en-
titled Euporiston, or PhcBnomendn Euporistos; it seems to be a sort of comperid, made
in Latin from a work written by him in Greek ; hence the Greek title, which how-
ever is rather the appropriate title of the 1st book {de medicina facile pnrabill). The
4th book treats of topics belonging to physical science generally. The work has been
erroneously ascribed to Q. Ociaviiis Horatianiis. — Priscianus Archiater must be dis-
tinguished from Priscian the grammarian (cf. <5> 433).

Fabricius, Bibl. Lat. iii. 538.— flaWes, Brev. Not. p. 600. Suppl. ii. 2ii.Sdhr. 698.

2. EJitions — E uporiston; the first by Hermannus Comes Nvmarius (Count of Nevenar). Ardent \S52. fnl.— Belter,
by S. Gdeinics. Bas. 1532. 4.— Also in ^Idm. cited ^ 552. 3.—/. M. Sernhold. Ansb 1791. 8 three vols, designed; but only two
prepared, and only the first printed ; Ihe work being interrupted by the editor's death.— D ista, by G. E. Schreirur. Hal.
1632. 8.— Also in Rivinus, cited § 552. 3.

§ 557. Marcelhts Empiricus, of Burdegala (Bordeaux), lived in the beginning of the
fifth century, under the emperor Theodosius I. The work left by him, on Medicines,
is a compilation from various Roman authors, made without careful selection or judg-
ment. • , 1

1. The work is entitled Medlcamentorvm liber. It is accompanied by an epistle ad-
dressed to his sons, in the title of which h^ is styled vir ivluster ex mnsiio officio Theo-
dnsii senioris. Respecting his work, he himself states that he had diligently read the
earlier Roman medical writers, and had also learned from the lower classes of the
people some simple remedies. He gives countenance to the superstitious belief in the
efficacy of charms, and recommends to suspend from the neck a copy of certain Greek
verses in order to relieve pains in the farices.

FaMciiis, iii. o21.—£dhr, 210, 6^S.—Sprengel, as cited § 5';2. 1.

» Editions.— First published by Janus Comarius. Bas. 1536. fol.— Given also in the Collect, of Stephanus, cited 5 952. 1


XI — Writers on Law and Jurisprudence.

^ 558. The science of law was cultivated at Rome above all others. On no subiect
was so mucii written and published. Yet the existing remains are not proportionally
numerous and extensive. In addition to all the common causes that have eliected a
loss ot productions in other departments, we may perceive a special reason for the loss
ot uie e,irly worivs on the various topics included under the head of jurisprudence • it
IS tound 111 the tact, that condensed collections were made in later times by public au-
thority. These collections superseded the previous works, which of course would
cease to be transcribed and would soon be lost.

^559. The works belonging to the department of jurisprudence were exceedinaly
various as well as numerous. Some were dissertations on existing rio-hts or lavvs •
some were treatises on the particular objects of a law ; there were commentaries on
the writings of earlier jurists ; inquiries respecting the foundation of ric^hts (h/slitu-
tiones) ; miscellaneous compends or manuals {enchiridia) ; systems of general or ab-
stract principles {definitiones) ; collections or reports of law cases (responsa) ■ or
opinions generally admitted {sentenlioB receptee) ; and in later times, regularly anai'iaed
compilations on the whole subject of jurisprudence (dlgesta). Among the writino-s

still preserved, we find but few fragments belonging to the better periods of Roman
literature; they are chiefly productions from the time of Trajan and after him But
there is a degree of purity in the language and excellence in the style, which is the

more remarkable because found in works of these later ages, and which can be ex-
plained only by considering that their authors had their attention constantly turned
upon the writings of the earlier jurists. As a matter of course, however, they must
contain many technical terms, with obsolete phrases, and some foreic^n words and ex-
pressions, especially Grtecisms. °

§ 560. To enter upon a notice of the principles of the civil law, or a review of the
actual laws, would be foreign from the object of our sketch, and belomrs to the poli-
tical rather than the literary history of Rome. Indeed the Roman jurisp°rudence forms
ot Itself a theme, which has been found sufficiently ample for a separate history All
we propose here is to glance at some of the principal writers and works.

§ 561. _ The eariiest production to which we find any reference is the Jus Pavirianmn
a collection of laws {Jeges regies) and usages, which was made in the reio-n of Tarouin
the ProLid. by a lawyer named Papirius.— The next is the collection called the L^ws
ot the Twelve Tables, which is said to have consisted partly of the pre-existino- customs
and regulations, and partly of principles and rules derived from Greece tlTroyr-h an
embassy which, it is said, was sent to examine the Grecian laws and institutions ^ The
Decemviii (cf. P. III. § 249) were charged whh the business of forming this collection,
and the chief labor is ascribed to Hermodorus, B. C. 448. These tables are hio-hly
lauded by the ancient writers ; they are mentioned by Livy (iii. 34) as the foundation
ot the whole R >man system of jurisprudence, and are said by Cicero (De Or. i 44) to
be more valuable than the writings of all the philosophers. A few fragments of them
are preserved.— We find next the Jus Flavianum, which was a collection containing an
account of the forms, rites, and days, necessary to be regarded in leo-al tran^^actio'iis •
constituting a body o^ formuU and jura, called collectively Lesls Acliones ; a proper
knowledge of these was confined to the patricians, it is said, until Flavius a clerk of
Appms Claudius Ca;cus, a descendant of Appius Claudius the Decemvir, published
(B. C. 312) the collection, which bears his name, but which is said to have been com-
posed by his master and stolen by the clerk.— The patricians devised a new set of forms
and rules tor the transaction of judicial business, which were expressed in writino- only
by certain sisns (nofcB); but a statement and account of these forms also was puhli«hed
V ^1^!"^ ^-"^^^^ PaBtus, about the year B. C. 200, in a collection afterwards termed
Jits JEliaiium.

Bespectin? the collections above named see the Hist, of Rom. Jurisprudence, by Bach, or others, cited § 571 -Of those who
have attempted to co'lect and arrange the fragments of the Ticelve Tables, the most eminent are /. Gr.thofredus (Godfrey) Frajm
sii. Tabnlarum. Heid. 1616.-/. iV. Funk. Rintein, 1744. 4.-^f. Jl. S.uchau^, Cor^mentaire sur la loi des XII tables P.r'
2d ed. 1803. 2 vols. 4.-And Dirksen, Versuch 2. Kritik und Ausler. d. Quellen des R. R. ; cf. Bahr, p. 340.-The onjin of the.e
laws has been a matter of much dispute; some denying and others affirming a Grecian origin ; cf. G,bbon Decl and Fall nf Rrm
Emp. ch. xliv.-A.- fcuAr. Hist. Rom. ii. p. 228. ed. Phil. I833.-S. S^namy, sur I'orig. des XII. tab. in 'the Mem. de V.irad d.',

rZ'lu t'T r ^''."'^;',f°'r ^'^TT !°" ''"'"'" "' ""^^ ^""^ ^"'"" "'"• *^- ^''°- >?^'-M.-a, Comment, de
l^,b XII Tab. rovan,, S27.-Camp, defends and Lelievre opposes the opinion .bat -he la^s were derived from Greece by means
of the embassy.-Cf. .3. Thysius, CoUat.o Legum A'heniensium et Romanarum. in Grcniovim, cited P. III. § 13. 2 -The principal
ancient are Dionys. Bat. Rom. Ant x. 57.— itt). iii. 31.— Lydus, De Migist. i. 31.

« 5G2. The mention of the work of ^Hus has brought us within the second penoa
accordmg to our adopted division, that between the 1st Punic war, B. C. 240, and the
civil war ot Planus endmg B. C. 87. There were celebrated lawyers or jurisconsults


m this period, of whom some of the principal have been already named among the
orators (§§ 392 — 396). Cato the elder and his son Porcius Cato Licinianus were both
eminent jurists ; and their memory was preserved by a work on the civil law subse-
quently known by the thle Catoniana regula}. — Three authors of this period are some-
times named as the founders of the science of civil law ; M. Junius Brutus, who left
seven books dejiire civili{Cic. de Or. ii. 55) ; Manius Manilius, consul B. C. 147, who
composed several works, one of which was afterwards styled Manilii Monument a;
and Pubhus Mucins Scasvola, author of a work Dejure civili, in 10 books. The Mu-
cian family was celebrated for its hereditary knowledge of jurisprudence ; "the kindred
appellation of Mucius Scsvola," says Gibbon, "was illustrated by three sages of the
law." The father and the son of the one just mentioned, both bearing the name of
Quintus Mucius Scaevola, were iUustrious civihans^; there was indeed another named
Quintus, usually surnamed the Atigiir, who was a distinguished lawyer ; from whom
Quintus the son of Publius is usually discriminated by the surname of Pontif ex. The
latter wrote several works; one of them, enthled Definitiones {opot), is said to be the
oldest, of which any part is included in the Digests of Justinian,

I E L. Hamier, De regula Catoniana. Heidelb. 1820. 8. a G. d'ArTiaud, Vitae Scasvolarum. Traject ad Rhen. 1767. 8

Cf. £ach, and others, as cited § 571.

§ 563. The next period is a brilliant one in the history of Roman jurisprudence.
Oiie of the most eminent writers was Servius Sulpicius Rufus, a disciple of Scaevola
and friend of Cicero; and author, it is said, of above a hundred books on the science
of lawi. Cicero should perhaps be named here, as some of his works, especially his
Laws and Republic (cf. "5> 468), illustrate the subject before us. " He declined the re-
putation of a professed lawyer ; but the jurisprudence of his country w'as adorned by
his incomparable genius, which converts into gold every object that it touches." Of
the many other wrhers in this department, before the death of Augustus, we can men-
tion only the following ; Alfenus Varus, author of a collection called Digesta, in 40
books ; C. Trebatius Testa, author of several works^, among which was one by the
ti'le De religionibus ; A. Cascellius, of whose writings the treatise styled Liber bene
dictorum is particularly noticed^; Q. Mlius Tubero, author of a work entitled De officio
judicis, and of others*; Q. Antistius Labeo, whe composed a great number of works^,
among which are mentioned one entitled Ueidaviov, Libri viii., and another entitled
Posterionnn Libri XL.; C. Atejus Capito^, ched as author of a work called Conjectanea,
and another Dejure Po7itificio; and iElius Gallus, of whose treatise on the significa- of terms pertaining to the civil law, some fragments are still extant^.

1 E. Otto, De vita, Studiis, etc., J. Sulpicii Rufi. Traj. ad Rhen. 1737. 8. 2 at. jj. Gnmdling, C. Trebatus Testa, ab inj. vet.

etc. liheralus. Halle, 1710. 4. 3/. f. Eckard, C. Treb. Testa Vindicatus. Isenac. 1792. 4.—E. G. Lagtmann, Diss. De A.

Cascellio. Lu?d. Bat. 1823. 8. ■• P. H. S. Vader, De Q. S.\\o Tuberone ejusque fragmentis. Lugd. Bat. 1S24. 8. s C. Van

Eck, De vita, moribus, etc. M. Antist. Labeonis et C. Atej. Capitonis. Franecq. 1692. 8. 6 C. G. Heimbach, Fragm. .Slii Galli,

De yerbai-um, qus ad jus civ. pertinent. Lpz. 1S23. S. See also works cited § 571.

§ 564. In the period which follows, from the death of Augustus to the time of the
Antonines, the historian who traces the progress of Roman law and poUtics finds many
changes. The civihans and legal wrhers continued to be numerous. Masurius _Sa-
binusi, who was honored with peculiar privileges by Tiberius, wrote a treatise Dejure
f/ii?7/. which was of such importance as to be the subject of many volumes of comments
bv subsequent civilians. It was after him that one of the two opposing schools of jurists
derived the name of Sabinians; while the other received that of Proculians, from
Sempronius Proculus, who composed notes on Labeo, and a work styled Epistolce; the
Proculians advocated an adherence to the ancient systems and principles of jurispru-
dence ; the Sabinians were more in favor of innovations which augmented the imperial
authorhy^. The following additional names are selected from the list of writers falling
within the period now in view ; M. Cocceius Nerva^,^ author of a treatise De usuca-
pionibus ; C. Cassius Longinus^. author of a work on civil rights, of which the sixteenth
book is cited in the Pandects ; Pegasus, w^iose nam^e is preserved by the law deno-
minated Senatxisconsultum Pes'asianum'^ ; P. Juventius Celsus, author of various works,
particularly a collection called Digesta, in 39 books^ ; Neratius Priscus, among whose
wrhings was one entitled Regulcp., in 15 books^; Javolenus Priscus, vyhose writings
are said to have exerted an influence not inconsiderable on subsequent times'; L. Vo-
lusius Mfecianus, who instructed the emperor Marcus Aurelius Antoninus in civil law,
and is mentioned as author of a treatise entitled Libri X. Fidei Commissorum^.

1 D. G. Moller, Diss, de Masur. Sibino. Alt. 1693. 4.— P. iV. Amtzen, Diss, de Mas. Sabino. Traj. ad Rh. 1768. 4. 3/. ^.

Ahasvtr Diss, de M.CoccNerva. Brem. 1748. 4. 3 /. Steenimnhel, Diss, de C. Cassio Longino, Lugd. Bat. 1778. 8. < U.

r. Pa^mstecher, 3m Pegasianum. Lemg. 1741. 4. ^ Heineccius, Pr. de Juventio Celso. Francof. ad V. 1727. 4. 6/. C.

Sliekel, Diss, de Neratio Prisco. Lpz. 17S8. 4. ■> G. A. Jenischen, Diss, de Frisco Javoleno. Lpz. 1734. 4. 8/. Wuiiderlich,

Cionini. de L. Vol. Maiciano. Hanrib. 1749. 4. 8 Respecting the two sects, cf. G. Mascov, Diss, de Sectis Sabiniorum et Procn-

lianorum. Alt 1724. 4 I.pz. \S2S.— Gibbon, Decl. and Fall of Rom. Empire, ch. xViv.—Fabricius, Bibl. lat. iii. p 489. C£

«fer»jces giveu § 5'


^ 565. Tl'iere are three other names which should be mentioned, belonging to this

?eriod, and particularly to the reign of Hadrian ; namely, Salvias Julianus, Sextus
'omponius, and Gaius or Caius. Salvius Julianus' was employed by Hadrian to
reduce to a settled and permanent form the principles and method by which the Prae-
tor should conduct all his judicial proceedings; the work or system of rules thus pro-
duced was called the perpetual edict {ediclu7n perpetuum)-. — Sextus Pomponius. who
lived later than Julian, composed numerous and voluminous works ; a history of juris-

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