Johann Joachim Eschenburg.

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prudence, De origijie juris libri II., is preserved in the Pandects-*. — Gaius, sometimes
with the appellation Titus, was also the author of numerous treatises; the principal
was the work entitled In*jtilutes {Libri Instil utioiium quatuor), which was designed
to communicate to the student of civil law its essential principles, and which served
as the model for the Institutes of Justinian; this work was discovered in the year
1816, in a Codex rescriplus or pahmpsest manuscript belonging to the Ubrary at
Verona*.

I Heinccciw, Pr. de Salv. Juliano. Hal. 1733. 4. ^See P. III. § 2i3.—JVia{ng, Frajmenta Edicti Perpetui Franek. 1733.

-vfl. G. S. Frayicke, De eiiiclo Prset. urb. prassertim perpetuo. Kil. 1830. i.—C. G. L. de IVeyhe, Libri tres E iicli sive de origine

fatisque Jur. Rom. prsesertini Edictorum Pra;torum ac de forma Edicti Perpetui. Cell. 1821. 3 The His'ory (ie orig. juris)

of S. Pomponius was published by C. A. Ruptrt. Jen. 1661. 12. * The worii of Gaius, previously to the discovery of the pa-
limpsest above mentioned, was known chiefly by a lifeless abstract or Epitome in what was called the Breviary of Marie, king
of the Visigoths (Breviarium Alarici).— The best edition of fhe Epitome, by .^3. C. G. Haubold. Lpz. 1792. 8— Of the original
work, drawn from the palimpsest, /. F. L. Goschen. Berl. 1825. 8.— Cf. H Diltmar, Ue nomine, state et scriptis Gaii. Lpz.
1820. i.—Bulklin des sciences HMoriques, vol. vii.

^ 566. In the remaining period of our sketch there were numerous civilians. As a
class or professional body they seem to have enjoyed high consideration until the close
of the reign of Alexander Severus, A. D. 235. But from that time until the reign of
Constantine, who was proclaimed A. D. 306, but not established as sole emperor un-
til A. D. 323, the jurisconsults were in much less estimation, and the business of the
lawyer was practiced by persons not suitably educated for the work. " The noble art
which had once been preserved as the sacred inheritance of the patricians, was fallen
into the hands of freedmen and plebeians, who, with cunning rather than skill, e.xer-
cised a sordid and pernicious trade. Careless of fame and of justice, they are described,
for the most part, as ignorant and rapacious guides, who conducted their clients through
a maze of expense, of delay, and of disappointment ; from whence, after a tedious
series of years, they were at length dismissed, when their patience and fortune were
almost exhausted."'

When Constantine formed his new arrangements for the government of the empire,
the credit of the profession was revived. The school of Berytus (cf. P. IV. § 128. 5),
which had existed it is supposed from the time of Alexander Severus, now flourished
with new vigor, and furnished the fourth century with distinguished civilians. Under
the system of Constantine, the civil magistrates were wholly or chiefly taken from the
class of lawyers ; and subsequently, even down to the time of Justinian, the youth of
the empire were stimulated to pursue the study of the law by the hope of being
rewarded ultimately by honorable and lucrative offices. The regular course of study
occupied five years. The degree of encouragement afforded by the prospect of honor
and profit may be inferred from the fact, that "the court of the Prtetorian prefect of
the east would alone furnish employment for one hundred and fifiy advocates, sixty-
four of whom were, distinguished by peculiar privileges, and two annually chosen, with
a salary of sixty pounds of gold, to defend the causes of the treasury." {Gibbon.)

% 567. Of the writers after the Antonines and before the death of Alexander Severus
(i. e. between A. D. 180 and 235), the most eminent were ^Emihus Papinianus, Domi-
tius Ulpianus. and Juhus Paulus. Papinian was appointed by IMaximus Severus to
the office of Magister libellorum, in which capacity it was his duty to reduce and arrange
the answers {rescripla) of the emperor to the petitions addressed to him. He was put
to death by Caracalla. Among his works are mentioned particularly two, entitled
QucFstiones, in 37 books, and Respo7isa, in 19 books'. — Ulpian was recalled from exile
and raised to the office of Prtetorian prefect by Alexander Severus; but having in-
curred the displeasure of the soldiers, he was by them slain in spite of the efforts of the
emperor and the people to save him. His Commentaries on Demosthenes, written in
Greek, are still extant (cf. "5i 106). The titles of above thirty other works are recorded,
among which we notice a Digest {Disesta) in forty-eight books, which is said to have
been The basis of the Digest of Justinian ; of all these productions nothing is now ex-
tant excepting twenty-nine chapters {tituli) of a work entitled ReguJce Juris^. — Paulus
was also made Praetorian prefect {prcpfectus prcetorio) under Alexander Severus, and
put to death by the soldiers, A. D. 230. The catalogue of his works exceeds that of
Ulpian's. and he w^as termed the most prolific of the jurists (rroXi'ypai/i-'irarof, juriscon-
svltorum). We have, as preserved in the Breviary of Alaric, a sort of abstract of one
of hi'? works, entitled Sp7iienticp. Recepttp^. — To the tliree names here given, perhaps
we oucrht to add those of Q. Septimius Florens TertuUianus*, iElius MarcianusS. and



640 HISTORY OF ROMAN LITERATURE.

Herennius Modestinus^ ; the latter was a scholar of Ulpian, and characterized by the

humaneness of his prmciples.

1 E. Otto, de Papiniani viia, scriplis, etc. Lugd. Bat. 1718. Brem. 1743. 8. "^F. A. Schilling, Diss. Critica de Ulpiani Fragm

Vralisl. 1824. 8.— There have been several editions of U 1 p i a n ' s Tituli; the Princeps. Par. 1549. 8.— Cue of Ibe best, G.
Eugo. Gott. I78S. Repr. Berl. 1824. $.—E. Becking. Bon. 1836. 12. with other fragments.— There is a Fragment (de manu-
missionibus) ascribed to Ulpian, preserved by a granimarian named Dositheanus, first published in Pithceiis, as cited § 571 ; ef.
Schilling, Diss. Crit. de Fragm. jur. Rom Dosithean. Lpz. 1819. 8.— Oa the question respecting Ulpian's regird towards Christians,

see P. de TouUitu, Or. de Ulpiano, an Christianis infenso. Gron. 1724. 4. 3 Of P a u 1 u s, the Princffs edition was by A. Eou-

chardus. Par. 1525. 4. The best is by G. Hugo, Julii Pauli Sentent. Recept. ad filium libri V. Berl. 1793. 8. * J. H. Blum-
bach, Ep. de Q. Septimio Florente, Presb. el Juriscons. &c Lips. 1735. 4. 5 G. CEtrichs, Diss de vita, studiis, etc. M\. Mar-

ciani. Traj. ad Rhen. 1754. 4. K The chief monument of Herennius is the work entitled Excusationes, written in Greek,

IXtpl tiigrjiiaTiKuiv (Heurematicon) ; published by H. £renana7in, De Heurematicis, etc. Lugd. Bat. 1706. 8.

"i 568. In the time of Constantine two jurists are particularly noticed as authors,
Gregorianus and Hermogenianus. The former made a collection of the imperial con-
stitmions {constituliones principales, cf. P. III. § 265) extending back to the time of
Hadrian. 'J'he latter prepared a supplement to it. These works, under the names of
Codex Gresorianus and Codex Htnnogeniaiius, were soon recognized as standard
authorities in the courts of justice'. Some portions of them are preserved in the Bre-
viary of Alaric. — Some other jurists in the time of Constantine and his immediate suc-
cessors are recorded ; but the next work specially worthy of mention here is the col-
lection termed Codex Theodosianus, which was reduced by the order of Theodosius
the second, and promulgated in the Eastern empire, A. D. 438. This Code the same
year was introduced to the Western empire under Valentinian the Third. It con-
sisted of sixteen books, of which the first five related to private rights, and the re-
mainder to public rights, and ecclesiastical affairs ; it contained, however, only the
imperial constitutions from the time of Constantine. Of the first five books we have
only an abridgment contained in the Breviary of Alaric. The Theodosian Code^ re-
taineti its authority in the Western Empire until the final overthrow of the Roman
government, A. D. 476. And" after this, Roman law still held sway, although modified
bv the institutions of the conquerors ; the Code of Theodoric^, and the Breviary of
Alaric^, both justify this remark.

I Ch. F. Pohl, tli's. de codd. Gregor. et Hermogen. Lpz. 1777. 4. ^ OftheTheodosian Code there have been seve-
ral editi.^ns; <he first by J Tdius. Par. 1550. 8.—/. D Rilter. Lpz. 1736. fo!. containing also some additional comliltMons by
Theodosius and succeeding emperors, under the title of Aoi'f/.'a.— Fragments before unpublished collected by IV. F. Closiius. Tub-
1824. 8. and by A. Pcyron. Aii-ust Taur. 1824. 4.— The first five books, by C. F. Ch. H'enk. Lj.z. 1825. 8.— Cf. /. A. IVulf, De

Latiuitate ecclesiast. in CoJ. Theo los. Lpz. 1774. 4. 3 The Code of Theodoric, Edirtum Tieodorici, was issued by

him, A. n. 500, after his eslablishn.ent in Italy as king of the Ostrogoths ; it consists o( fifty chapters, drawn chiefly from the
writings of Paulus.— It is given in Cancimiti-i, Legg antiq. Barbar. Van. 17S1. Cf. G. F. Rhm, Cnmnienlal. ad Ed.cl. Theodo-

rici. Hal. 1816. 4. * The Breviary of Alaric, Brev'arium legum Romanarum, is sometimes called the Breviary

of Aniantu, whoif> nanie is attached to it, not as having collected it, but as certifying its authority. It was made by order of
Alaric, king of the Visizoths, residing at Toulouse, A. D. 506 ; and is a compilation from the three Roman cnd^s above named, and

the writings of Gaius, Paulus, and Papinian First published by P. Pilhceus. Par. 1579. fol.— The best edi.ion, Madrid, 1815. foU

Cf. TUrh, Ueber das Westgoth. Gesetzbuch. Rost. 1829. 8-

^ 569. In the Eastern Empire the Theodosian code retained full authority until the
time of .Tustinian. Notwithstanding all the efforts of preceding emperors and jurists
to reduce the Roman jurisprudence to a satisfactory form and system, the vast variety
of laws, decisions, and constitutions, involved the subject in great confusion and per-
plexity. Justinian undertook the task of reducing the whole to order, and employed
for the purpose the most eminent lawyers of the age, with the celebrated Tribonian at
their head.

The first performance was a collection and reduction of the imperial constitutions
from the time of Hadrian downward, which was promulgated, as the Codex Justinia-
nus. A. D. 529, when all preceding codes were abrogated. But this first edition was
abolished A. D. 534, when a second edition, with some corrections and additions, was
promulgated ; which was called Codex repetitcp lectionis. The Code was thus corrected
and completed by Trihonian and four other lawyers ; nine had aided in the first pre-
paration. — The next labor was a collection and reduction of the writings of the juris-
consults of preceding ages, especially those who had hved under the emperors, and
whose works are said to have amounted to tvo tlioxisand volumes. For executing this
task, Tribonian was allowed ten years with sixteen associates; it was accomplished in
three years, and was published A. D. 533, under the tiile o{ Pandects or Digests. The
former title referred to their completeness, as comprehending the whole of Roman juris-
j)rudence (ttoj' and ci:x.vOai), and the latter to their methodical arrangement {dige.fta). —
At the same time was published, by the emperor's orders, a work on the elements or
first principles of Roman law, entitled Institutes (Tnstitutiones), prepared by Tribonian
and two others, Theophilus and Dorotheus. — There is another collection, consisting
of imperial constitutions and edicts which were promulgated after A. D.535; and
which are included under the title of Novels (Novellce sc. constitut tones). They were
chiefly written in Greek (in which they were called vtapaX diara^cis), but were first known



p. V. CHRISTIAN WRITINGS. 647

to the moderns by a Latin translation. — The four works here described, viz. the Code.
the Novels, the Instilutes, and the Pandects or Bisests, constituted what is now called
the Body of Roman Law, Corpus Juris Romani Civilis.

Cf. references § 57!.—/. P. de Ludewig, Vita Justin, atque Triboniaui. Halle, 1731. i.—K. TVUte, Leges restitutae aes Justini
aniachen Codex. Bresl. IS50. S.—Dodujdl, Cur nulli legantur in Codice principes Legumlatores, nee uili in Faadec'is Juri»con-
sulli, antiquiares quam Hadriaiio, in his PrsUct. Acxui. Oxf. 1692. 8. — H. Brencmann, Historia Pandectarura. Traj. ad Rhen.

1722. 4. Respecting the Florentine MS. gf the Pandects, see P. IV. § 143.— f. A. Biener, Gesch. der Novellen Justirlans. Bert

1S24. On the system followed in the Jnstitules, see Th. L. MaziroU, De Ord. Insiit. Gott. 1S15. 4.

Best editions of the Corpus J u r i s.—Dionys. Golhofredus (Godefroi, Godfrey). Lugdun. 1627. 6 vols. fol. with glossary —
G. C. Gibaucr & G. A. Spangeiilerg. Gott. 1797. 2 vols. 4. with notes, without glossary.—/. U G. Beck. Lpz. 1S25. 4 vols. 8.
without glossary or notes, but "convenient for use."— An edition also by Sc/irarfer (and others). Berl. 1832. ist vol. 4 Edi-
tions of the Institutes, by C.Bucher. E:lang. IS26. 8.— G. Harris, Lat. & Eng. (2d ed.). Lond. 1761. 8. with notes. Eng-
l.sh Translation by Harris, also Lond. 1814. 8.— Thomas Cocrper. N. York, 1S35. 8. Latin & English, with notes.- There is a
Greek Paraphrase of the Institutes by a Theophilus, supposed to be the person associated with Tribonian; the oest edition is that
of W. 0. Rdz. Hag. Comit. (La H.\ye, Hague), 1751. 1 vols. 4.— A labored and learned analysis of the Institules is given by Gib-
bon, Decl. and Fall of Rom. Emp. ch. xliv.— A French traiulaticm, by M. Blondeau. Par. IS39. 2 vols. 8. The Novels, by

G. Holonnder. Nonmb. 1531. fol. Ba.sil, 1541. fol. The Pandects, by G. Holoaader. Norimb. 1531. fol. Bas. 1541.—

Cf. the French work entitled Pandectes de Justinien par R. J. Pothier traduites par M. de Breard, Neuville. Par. 1818. 24 vole. 8.
Respecting editions, &c., cf. £. Spangenberg, Einleilung in d. Justin. Rechtsb. Hann. 1817. 8.

^ 570. The system of jurisprudence established by Justinian remained in force in
the Eastern empire until its destruction and the capture of Constantinople, A. D. 1453.
The countries which formed the Western empire had, previously to the time of Justi-
nian, fallen into the hands of the barbarians; and although for a short time he reco-
vered from them Italy and other portions through the niiUtary talents of Belisarius,
yet his system of laws did not obtain much sway in the west. But in the former part
of the 12th century, Irnerius, a German lawyer who had studied at Constantinople,
opened a school at Bologna, and thus revived and propagated in the west a knowledge
ot'the Rqman Civil Law. Students flocked to his school from all parts, and by them
the Roman jurisprudence, as embodied in the system of Justinian, was transmitted to
most of the countries of Europe, and acquired a degree of authority in the courts
of justice, which "seems to promise" (as has been justly remarked) "the fulfill-
ment of the famous prediction of the ancient Romans concerning the eternhy of their
empire."

§ 571. We add here some references on the general subject.

J. A. Bach, Historia Jurisp. Rom. (as ed. by A. C. Stockmann). Lpz. 1S07. 8.— S. Zimnum, Geschichfe des R6m. Privatrechts.
Heidelb. I»26. 8.— C. A. Haubold, Institut. Juris Rom. histor. dogni. Lineament (ed. C. E. Otto). Lpz. 1S26. 8.—G. Hugo, His-
toire du Droit R^n.ain, traduite de I'Allemand par Jourdon. Brux. 1840. 8.— Hugo, and others, as cited P. 111. § 265. 3.-^3. Gu^-
rard, Ejsai sur I'histoire du droit prive des Remains. Par. 184 1. 8. — A. Dupin, Precis Historique du Droit Romain, depuis Romu-
lus jusqu'a nos jours. 8th ed. Par. 1824. 12. very concise.— G. Pandroli, De Claris leg. interpret. Ven. 1634. Lpz. 1721. 4. —
IV. Grolius, Vilae Jurisconsultorum, quorum in Pandect, ext. nomina. Lugd. Bat. 1690. 4. — /. Bertrard, BCoi vonirciuv. Tolos.
1617. 4. — G. Majansitts, Comment, ad xxx. Jurisc. omnia fragmenta. Genev. 1764. 4 — Schulling, Jurisprudentia Aute-Justini-
anea. Lpz. 1737. 4. containing works of several of the jurisconsults. Cf. Fabriciia, Bibl. Lat. iii. 508. — /. G. Heineccius, Hist
juris civ. Rom. ac Germanici. Hal. 1733. Argent. 1763 8.— A. de Buchholz, Juris Civ. Ante-Justinianei Vatic, f ragm. ab A. Mai
edita. KOnigsb. 1828. 8.—E. Spangenberg, Autiquititis Rom. Monumenta legalia extra libros Jur. Rom. sparsa, qus ia aere,

lipide, aliave materia etc. supersunt. Berl. 1S30. 8. /'iJtaus, Collatio Legum Mosaicarum et Romanorum. Par. 1573. 4. The

Cotlalio is the work of an unknown author of the fourth century; it is given also in Schulling, as above cited ; likewise in the

Crntici Sacri (8th vol.). Lond. 1660. 9 vols. fol. G. Pancirnli, Notitia dignitatum omnium tam civilium quam militarium in

pariibus Orientis et Occidentis. Ven. 1593. Genev. 1623. fol. This Notitia is a condensed summary or table presenting a view of
the orgaiiiz-tiion of the government, both civil and military, in the Eastern and Western empires ; it is a systematic nomenclature
of all the offices with their respective rank; and is of course of some value in studying the system of Roman jurisprudence. It con-
tains also a topographical notice of Rome and of Constantinople. It was drawn up, it is believed, about A. D. 450 ; the author is
unknown.— It is given, with explanations, in Sch'oWs Hist. Litt. Rom. vol. iii. Also in Grsoius, as cited P. III. § 197. Also by £•

Docmng, Bonn. 1840. 2 vols. 8. See, also, on Rom. Jurisp. Gibhtxn, Dec. and Fall of Rom. Emp. ch. xliv — SchBlt, Litt. Rom.

i. 177 ; ii. 221 , 478 ; iii. 265, ss.—Edhr, Gesch. Rom- Lit. p. 73&-770.— /"afcricitis, Bibl. LaL iii. in-aiQ.—Savigny, Geschichte des
Rom. Rechts im Mittelalter. Heidelb. 1822, ss. 4 vols. 8.



Christian Writings in the Latin Language.

§ 572. It would be useful and interesting, if the limits of this work would permit, to
take here a glance at the works of the early Christian authors who wrote in the Latin
language. The names of some have been introduced already on account of their hte-
rary performances. A number, besides Ausonius (cf. § 385), Sedulius (cf ^ 388), and
Prudentius (cf. ^ 387), might be mentioned as poets; Cyprian, Commodian, TertuU
han, Lactantius (cf ^ 506), Juvencus, Victorinus, Hilarius, Ambrosius, Gregorius, Co-
lumbanus, &c. Others are known as historical writers ; Hieronymus or Jerome,
Prosper, Cassiodorus, Marcellinus, Rufinus, Isidorus (cf. § 434), Beda, Gennadius,



648 HISTORY OF ROMAN LITERATURE.

Jornandes, Gildas, Bonifacius, &c. Many might deserve notice on account of writings
of a Biblical, religious, or miscellaneous character, commentaries, apologies, or epis-
tles ; Sidonius (cf. § 445), Boethius (cf § 474), Minucius Felix, Arnobius, Augustine,
Pelagius, &c. — It has been remarked, that the influence of the pagan schools of phi-
losophy is less manifest in the writmgs of the Latin than in those of the Greek Fathers.
The style of the Latin Fathers is marked by Hellenisms and Orientalisms. Many of
them had occasion to address people less civihzed and cultiTated that those of the
East.

SchSa, Hist Litt. Rom. vol. W. p. \-\30.—B'dhr. Snpplement, &c as cited § 299. 8.— CZorfe, Murdoch, kc as cited | 293.-7 G.
A. Oebicht, Commeniarii de Scriptoribus EccIesisE Lat priorum sex ssecalorum. Lips. 1791. 8. — G. G. KeufftL, Historia Origicij
et proeressus Scholarnm inter Christianos. Helmst. 1743. %,—A. Fahricius, Eib'.ioth. mediae et infims setatis. Hamb. 1734. 6 vols. 8.
— D. Schramm, Analysis operum ss. Patrum et script Ecclesiaiticorum. Aug. Vind. 17S0. 18 vols. 8.— C. T. Sciuinemann, Bibli-
ith. hist, lit Patrum Latinorum. Lips. 1792. 2 vols. 8.



APPENDIX

TO THE HISTORY OF GREEK AND ROMAN LITERATURE.



I. COLLECTIONS OF CLASSICAL AUTHORS.

$ 573. It will be very proper to append in this place a slight notice of some of the
principal editions of the Classics in regular sets, or in uniform sizes.

1. The Editiones Principes are a set or collection, consisting of the first edition ever printed of
each author, at whatever press issued, or by whatever editor. They are of course not uniform
in appearance.

2. The Mdhie Classics include those issued from the presses of Aldus Pius Manutius and his
son and grandson, Paulus Manutius and Aldus Manutius. Aldus the elder was born at B.issano
in Italy, and early acquired the Latin and Greek languages, and in connection with two friends
fornfied the plan of printing the works of the ancients. His establishment was at Venice, where
the operations of his press were continued between twenty and thirty years, and his effDrts
were greatly patronized by the learned. He died 1516. The Aldine editions are still considered
as ereai ornaments to a classical library. They are marked by the vignette or rebus of a dolphin
nibbling' an anchor.

See Renouard Annales de I'lmprimerie des Aides, ou Histoire des trois Minuces et de leurs editions, et SupplemeDf. Par. 1803-
12. 3 vols. 8.

3. The editions printed by the family of Stephens enjoyed great celebrity. The labors of Henry,
the founder of the family, commenced at Paris in the beginning of the sixteenth century. Their
establishment was continued in that city about half a century, and then removed to Geneva,
where the reputation of the name was sustained more than half a century longer. The glory
of the house was shared by five successive generations. The most distinguished were Robert
and Henry, the second and third in the succession, the latter particularly in the department of
Greek.

B- Sears, B'roeraphical Sketch of Henry Stephens, translated from Passow, in the Christian Revitw, Dec. 1839. p. 534.— J/. Mat-
taire, Stephanorum Historia, vitas ipsoruni ac libros complectens. Lond. 1709. 8.

4. By the Variorum Classics is ustially designated a series of Latin Authors published in the
sevpnteenth century, with notes of various scholars (cum vofis varinrum) ; commenced by C.
ISchrevel, 1651. They were printed at Leyden (Luird. Bat.) chiefly in the octavo form. Some of
the series were printed several times, at ditferent places, and of different sizes. The at-.t in
quarto comprises about 160 volumes, and in octavo 426 volumes.

5. The £/: rir editions are those published by the celebrated printers of that name, in the
seventeenth century, at Leyden and Amsterdam. There were five brothers, all of distinguished
celebrity in the art The editions designated by their name are in the duodecimo form, and are
celebrated for typographical neatness and accuracy. They are much sought after by amateurs
in bibliography, and bring very high prices.

See Essai Bibliographique sur Its Editions Elzevirs. Par. 1829. 8.

6. The Delphin Classics consist of the Latin authors prepared in the latter part of the seven-
tnenth century for the use of the Dauphin or heir of the crown of France (in usnm Delphini).
The plan originated with B. P. Huet (of. Lond. Quart. Rev. iv. Ill), who, with Bossuet, was
appointed by Louis XIV. as a preceptor to the Dauphin. Besides critical observations on par-
ticular words and passages, these editions were furnished with a sort ofrunning note or ordo, to
exhibit in easier Latin the author's sense.— A complete set was sold at the Roxburghe sale in
1812, for above £500 —The set in quarto is usually bound in 65 vols.

7. The Bipontine editions are those published by a Typographic society originally established
at Deuz-Ponts (called in German Zwey-Briicken, in Latin Bipontium), in the last century. The
first work in the series was printed in 1779. The society continued their labors without in-
terruption until about 1795, when the French troops took possession of the place, and their
presses and magazines were seized and conveyed to Metz. The company determined to con-
tinue their impressions in Strasburg (Argentoratum) ; and finding this a more favorable location,
at length, in 1798, fixed their establishment here, and from that time prosecuted their work with
renewed activity. The Bipontine editions have scarcely acy annotations ; but the text is care-
fully corrected, and to each author is prefixed a J\''utitia Literaria, giving an account of his life
and works, of the previous editions of such as had been published, and the translations of them
into living languages. The volumes of both the Latin and Greek authors are in the octavo form.

A catalogue and description of the editions issued previously to ISI 1, is attached to No. V. of the Classical Journal. Cf. KlU^lias



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