Johann Joachim Eschenburg.

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—RusselVs View of Ancient and Modern Egypt, in Hai-per's Earn. Library, No. xxiiii.— /. Miot, Memoires de I'Expedition en
Ezypte, kc. Per. 1?I4.— 7. G. Wdhinson, Topography of Thebes, and general View of Egj-pt. Lond. 1S35. 9.— J. G. IVilkinson,
Manners and Customs of the Ancient Egyptians. Lond. 1S37. 3 vols. 8.— We may add, the Travels of Clarke, Korden, Shaw,
Pococke. Cf. Supplement to Encydop. Britann. article Egypt.— Lond. Quart. Rev. vol. liii. 1. xvi. 1. xvii. 181. six. ITS. xxiv.
p. 139.— .JniCT-. Quart. Rev. No. vii. — For. Quart. Rev. Nos. xxxii. and xxiiii. — Am. Bill. Repos. No. xxiii. — See also referencea
given P. IV. 5 216. I. § 230. 1. § 239. 3. § 243. 3.— A history of Pompey't Pillar is given in /. IVMt^s Egyptiaca, Part I. Oxf. 1821.

§ 178. jEthiopta was the name given by the ancients very indefinitely to the coun-
try lying south of Egypt ; the modern countries of Nubia and Abyssinia particularly
were included. — Various uncivilized tribes are represented as dwelling here in ancient
times ; on the coast were the Troglodyfce, said to inhabit caves of the earth. It seems
also To have contained inhabitants equally advanced in refinement with the Egyptians.

The most important places were Napata, Meroe, Auxume, and Adulis. — Auxume
(Axum) was on one of the sources of the Astaboras (Tacazze), the eastern branch of
the Nile. Its ruins still exist. " In one square, Bruce found 40 obelisks, each formed
of a single piece of granite, with sculptures and inscriptions, but no hieroglyphics. One
of the obelisks was 60 feet hish." — Here was found the monument usually called the
Inscription of Axum (cf. P. IV. ^ 92. 5.). — Adulis (Arkiko) was on a bay of the Sinus
Arabicus; having some celebrity from two inscriptions there found (cf. P. IV. § 92.
.5). — Meroe was on or near the Nile south of its junction with the Astaboras ; near the
modern Shendy, as is supposed. It was the caphal of a large tract between these
rivers called by the same name, and was celebrated in ancient times, being the grand
emporium of the caravan trade between Ethiopia and Esypt and the north of Africa.
The remains of temples and other edifices of sandstone still mark its she. — Napeda waa
farther north or lower down on the Nile, and was next in rank to Meroe.

These regions have also been explored in modem times, and splendid rains have been found scattered along the valley or \tx Nile
The following are some of the sources of iuformaiion on the subject. Bruce's Travels in Abyssinia, cited P. IV. § IIS. I.— Travel*
of SaU and I/)rd Valentia ; of Burckhardt ; Franc Gau (P. IV. § 243. 3), and especially of CaiUiaud.—Ct. Lond. Quart. Rev,
■vol. xvi. 13. lis. 174 —Hoshins' Travels in Ethiopia, Lond. 1S35, 8.

§ 179. Under Libya we include the whole extent from ^gyptus on the east to the
Hyrtis Minor (Gulf of Cabes), together with an indefinite portion on the south. Tba



55 CLASSICAL GEOGRAPHY.

term was used by the ancient poets to signify Africa in general. In its strict and most
limited sense, it included only the region between Egypt and the Syrtis Major (Gulf
of Sidra). — In the latter sense, it comprised on the coast only the two districts Mar-
marica and Cyrtnaica. We include under Libya also the portion farther west called
Regie Syrtica, from the two Syrtes on the coast already named.

Marmarica was on the east nearest to Egypt. The inhabitants were said to
possess some secret charm against the poison of serpents; some of them, named
Psylli, made it their profession to heal such as had been bitten, by sucking the venom
out" of the wound. In an Oasis, now El Wah, south of Marmarica, stood the cele-
brated temple of Jupher Ammon (P. III. "5> 71), and near it the fountain of the &un,
whose waters were said to be warm in the morning, cool at noon, hot in the evening,
and scalding at midnight. Alexander, after havhig encountered great difficulties, suc-
ceeded in visiting this oracle, and was hailed by the priest as son of Jupiter.

"Belzoni, previously to his leaving Egypt, made a tour to El Wah (the bushes), the northern
Oasis. He found, as llornemann had, the tops of the hills of the desert encrusted with salt, and
wells of sweet water rising out of a surface overspread with masses of salt, as Herodotus related
two-and -twenty centuries ago. He found also the remains of what has heen considered as the
temple of Jupiter Ammon ; but the natives were as jealous and as unwilling to let him see this
'work of the infidels,' as Hornemann had found them to be. The tine rivulet of sweet water,
whose source this traveler describes as being in a grove of date trees, and which Brown was told
by the people, was sometimes cold and sometimes warm, was also visited by Belzoni; who sayg
he proved the truth of what is stated by Herodotus, that this spring is warm in the mornings and
evenings, much more so at midnight, and cold in the middle of the day. Had Mr. Belzoni pos-
sessed a thermometer, he would have found that it was the temperature of the air which had
changed, while that of the fountain of the sun remained the same." — Land. Quart. Rev. xxiii. 95.

Cyrenaica, or Pentapolis (Barca), lay between Marmarica and the Syrtis Major,
or altars of the Philaeni. It contained five cities; Cyrene, founded by a Greek colony,
the birthplace of the philosopher Carneades ; ApoUo7iia, a celebrated seaport ; Fide-
mais, at first called Barce ; Arsinoe, and Berenice or Hesperis, near which were the
gardens of the Hegperides, famous for their golden apples, and the residence of the
Gorgons, so celebrated in fable. (Cf. P. II. § 115. Ed. Rev. No. 95, p. 228).— West
of this was Regio Syrtica, also called, from its three cities, Tripolitana (Tripoli) ;
its cities were Leptis, called major, to distinguish it from a town of the same name
near Carthage ; CEa, the present city of Tripoh ; and Sabrata, a Roman colony; and
Tysdrus, now Elgem. A people called by Homer the Lotophagi dwelt on this coast ;
he says that they fed on the lotos, a fruit so deHcious, that whoever tasted it imme-
diately forgot his native country. On the coast were the Syrtes. two dangerous quick-
sands, which frequently proved fatal to hapless mariners; here, also, was the lake
Tritonis, sacred to Minerva.

■^ There are interesting ancient remains in these regions, particularly at Leptis and Cyrene.— The
situation of Cyrene is described as e.xceedingly beautiful. — "It is built on the edge of a range
of hills, rising about 800 feet above a fine sweep of high table land, forming the summit of a
lower chain, to which it descends by a series of terraces. The elevation of the lower chain may
be estimated at 1000 feet; so that Cyrene stands about 1800 feet above the level of the sea, of
W'hich it commands an extensive view over the table land, which, extending east and west as
far as the eye can reach, stretches about five miles to the northward, and then descends abruptly
to the coast. Advantage has been taken of the natural terraces, to shape the ledges into roads
leading alons the face of the mountain, and communicating in some instances by narrow flights
of steps cut in the rock. These roads, which may be supposed to have been the favorite drives
of the citizens of Cyrene, are very plainly indented with the marks of chariot wheels, deep fur-
rowing the smooth, stony surface. The rock, in most instances rising perpendicularly from these
galleries, has been excavated into innumerable tombs, generally adorned with architectural
facades. The outer sides of the roads, where they descended from one range to another, were
ornamented with sarcophagi and monumental tombs ; and the whole sloping space between the
galleries was filled up with similar structures. These, as well as the excavated tombs, exhibit
very superior taste and execution. In two instances, a simple sarcophagus of white marble,
ornamented with flowers and figures in relief of exquisite workmanship, was found in a large
excavation. In several of the excavated tombs were discovered remains of paintings, repre-
senting historical, allegorical, and pastoral subjects, executed in the manner of those of Hercu-
laneum and Pompeii. (Cf. P. IV. } 226). — In the region of Cyrenaica are several caverns con-
taining stalactites, presenting of course various fantastic shapes. It has been supposed that
this fact, together with the existence of the ruins and excavations in the vicinity of Cyrene, may
have given ri?e to the story of the petrified city, of which, under the name of RasSem, marvelous
accounts have been related to travelers in Africa."

See Modem Traveler.— F. (V. S,- H. Eeechy, Expedition to Northern Coast of Africa. Lond. 1828. 4.

At Tysdrus are still found ruins of Roman structures ; particularly of a spacious amphitheatre,
" consisting formerly of four rows of columns in tiers one above another, and sixty-four arcades."
The inner area is said to be 300 feet in length and 200 in breadth; and the whole circumference
1.570 feet ; the height is estimated to have been at least 105 feet. The upper tier of columns is
nearly fallen ; the three lower are preserved."

See Bev. C. F. Ewald'i Diary. A drawing is given in The Penny Magazine, Jan. 13, 1838.

^ 180. Next to TripoUtana was the province of Africa Propria, of which the capi-
ta! was Carthago. This city was founded by a Tyrian colony, led by queen Dido, and
by US extensive commerce became one of the most opulent cities of antiquity. Its
ritadel was called Byrsa, because it was said that Dido, on coming here, purchased



p. I. AFRICA. NUMIDIA. MAURITANIA. 57

as much ground as she could encompass with a Pvprra, or hide, and then, having cut
the hide into strips, took in the space originally covered by the chy.

Carthage is immnrtalized by pnets and historians on account of the three wars which it sus-
tained against the Romans. Tiie hist of these wars resulted in the total destruction of the city
by Scipio Africanus the younger, B. C. 146. The city is said to have been above twenty miles
in circumference ; it being set on tire by the Romans, the contlagration lasted seventeen days.
A new city was built by the emperor Augustus at a small distance from tlie site of the ancient.
The new Carthage was taken from the Romans by Genseric, A. D. 439, and for more than a cen-
tury afterwards was the capital of the Vandal empire in Africa. It was tinally destroyed by the
Saracens towards the end of the seventh century. A single aqueduct is said to be the chief trace
of it found in modern times.

The other remarkable towns in this district were Tunes or Tuneta. (Tunis), where
Regulus was defeated and taken prisoner; Clupea, near the Promontoriiun Mercurii
(Cape Bona); Adrumetum; Thapsus, where Caesar defeated Scipio and Juba; and
Ulica, where Cato the younger slew himself; near Utica was the river Ba^radas,
where Regulus slew an enormous serpent, that had destroyed many of his soldiers.

§ 181. NuMiDiA was ai one time divided into the kingdom of the Massyh, ruled by
Massinissa, and that of the Masssesyh, under the government of Syphax ; but after
the third Punic war, they were united into one kingdom under Massinissa. The capi-
tal was Certa. The principal towns on the sea-coast were Tahraca, remarkable for
its groves ; Hippo Begins, near the small river Eubricafus, the episcopal seat of Saint
Augustine ; and Rusicade. In the interior were Vaga; Sicca; and Zama, where Han-
nibal was defeated by Scipio. On the confines of the desert were Thala and Capsa.

^ 182. Mauritania was separated from Numidia by the river Ampsagas. — It3
chief towns were Ctssarea, whence the eastern part was called C Eesariensis ; and
Tingis (Tangiers), from which the western received the name Tingitana. This
country extended from the river Ampsagas, separating it from Numidia, to some dis-
tance on the Atlantic coast. The Romans, after their conquest over these regions,
planted in them numerous colonies, and constructed fortresses and roads, of which
some traces yet remain. The most southern R,oman settlement was that called Ex-
ploratio ad JSlercurium, on the coast of the Atlantic. The waters west of this terri-
tory were named Oceanus Allanticus, from the chain of mountains called Atlas,
which bounded Mauritania on the south, and terminated at two difierent points on
the coast, the northern ridge being termed Atlas Minor, and the southern Atlas
Major. — Mons Ahyla was the elevated summit near the strait connecting the Medi-
terranean and the Atlantic. This and Calpe on the European side formed the fabled
pillars of Hercules {Herculis Columnae).

^ 183. All the remaining countries of the land may be included under Africa In-
ferior, to which it is impossible to assign any definite boundaries. — The Gaetuli, and
Garamantes, and other tribes, are represented as dweUing within it. The Nigritce
were placed about the river Niger. I'he Great Desert was called Deserta Libi/cB In-

terioris. On the coast west of this were the Insulce Fortunata; called also Cana-

ria, from the number of large dogs, as some suppose, found upon them, and thence
their modern name Canaries. — South of these were the hisulcB Hesperidum, the mo-
dern Ciipe Verd islands, on which some have placed the gardens of the Hesperideg
(cf. '5i 179). — West of this coast the ancients also placed the island Atlantis, said to
have existed once, and to have been afterwards submerged in the ocean. It was re-
preserfted as larger than Asia and Africa, and as very fertile and powerful.

Some have considered the whole account of Atlantis as a mere fable ; others have conjectured

that the Canaries, Madeira Isles, and Azores, once formed parts of a vast island thus described;

and others have maintained that the land referred to must have been the continent of America.

The laiter opinion is maintaineJ in an Essay entitled as follows : An Attempt to show that America must he known to the

Ancients, yc. by an American Englishman, Pastor of a Church in Bcston. Boston, New England, MDCCLXXIII. — Some have

imagined that this island was situated in the Northern regions; Bailly, Lettres sur I'Atlantide de Platon, &c. Paris, 1779. 8.

See Malte-Brun's Geography.— 5ory de St. Vincent, E«ai sur Tantique Atlantide. Par. 1804. 4.— The ancieLt story is g'veo in
be Criiiou or Atlanticus of Plato.

8







th-^4 \ If I



•iav<j Hiaox



53



•xavj Hxaog



INTRODUCTION TO CLASSICAL CHRONOLOGY.



Preliminary Remarhs.

% 184. Chkoxologt treats of the computation of time and of the dates of events. It
is comparatively a modern science. Among the ancients there was scarcely any sys-
tematic attention to the subject. Yet it is a highly important science. Accurate chro-
nology is essential to all reasoning from historical facts; the mutual dependence and
relations of events cannot be traced without it ; with the greatest propriety it has been
called one of the eyes of history, while geography with equal propriety has been said
to be the other. Chronology is also an important aid to the memory, if properly con-
sidered, in studying history and biography.

In treating this subject, although our design requires a special reference to Classical Chronology,
yet from the nature of the subject we must introduce some things which belong rather to the
science in general. We shall explain the Greek and Roman divisions of time and modes of com-
puting it ; and endeavor to present all that the student will need as preparatory to a full study
of the classical historians and of ancient history.

Chronology may be considered as consisting of two parts; the frst, measuring
time and adjusting its various divisions; the second fixing the dates of historical events
and arranging them in order.



I. — Of vieasuring Time and adjusting its divisions.

§ 185. The most obvious measures and divisions of time are those suggested to all
men by the revolutions of the heavenly bodies. These are three ; days, months, and
years ; the day from the revolution of the earth on her axis, or the apparent revolution
of the sun around her ; the month from the periodical changes in the moon ; the year
from the annual motion of the earth in her orbit round the sun. — These three divisions
are not commensurate, and this has caused the chief embarrassment in the science of
Chronology ; it has, in point of fact, been difficuU so to adjust them with each other in
a system of measuring time as to have the computed time and the actual time perfectly
in agreement or coincidence.

% 186. The day. This was undoubtedly the earliest division, and originally was dis-
tinguished, it is hkely, from the night ; extending from sunrise to sunset only. It was
afterwards considered as including also the night, or time between sunset and sunrise.
But the beginning of the day has been reckoned differently by different nations, for
civil purposes ; at sunrise, by the Babylonians, Persians, Syrians and inhabitants of
India; at sunset, by the Jews, Athenians, ancient Gauls, and Chinese; at midnight,
by the Egyptians, Romans, and moderns generally. — Astronomers in their calculations
consider the day as beginning at noon, after the manner of the Arabians according to
Priestley. There have also been various modes of subdividing the day. — "The di-
vision of time into hours is very ancient : as is shown by Kircher (QEdip. JEgypt. t. ii.
part 2). The most ancient hour is that of the twelfth part of a day. Herodotus ob-
serves that the Greeks learnt from the Egyptians [Babylonians, 1. ii. c. 1091 , among
other things, the method of dividing the day into twelve parts ; and the astronomers
of Cathaya still retain this method. The division of the day into twenty-four hours
was not known to the Romans before the Punic war." {Tegg.)

% 187. The Greehs, in the time of Homer, seem not to have used the division into
hours; his poems present us with the more obvious parts of the day, morning (')wf),
110071 {n^<yov riixap), and evening ((JaAi). But before the time of Herodotus, they were
accustomed to the division of the day, and of the night also probably, into 12 parts.
They were acquainted also with the division of the day and night into four parts each,
according to the Jewish and Roman custom.

The ilomnns subdivided the day and night each into four parts, which were callci!
vigils {vigiJice) or watches. They also considered the day and the night as each di-
vided into 12 hours; three hours of course were included in a vigil. — The day vigils

59



60 CLASSICAL CHRONOLOGY.

were designated simply by the numerals prima, secunda, terlia, qiiarta; but as the
second vigii commenced with the tiiird hour, the third vigil with the sixth hour, and the
founh widi the ninth hour, the terms prima, terlia, sexta, and 7ioJia, are also used to
signify the four vigils of the day. The night vigils were designated by the names ves-
pfu, media nox, gallicinium, conticinium.

It is sometimes stated, that the first vigil and first hour of the day commenced at what we call
6 o'clock A. M. ; the third vigil {vigilia tenia), and sixth hour {kora sexta), at 12 o'clock, noon;
the corresponding vigils and hours of night, at what we call 6 o'clock P. M., and 12 o'clock, niid-
nisht. This statement may be sufficiently accurate in general ; but it must be remeniber<»d, that
the Roman hours and watches were of unequal length ; the first hour of the day began with sun-
rise, and the twelfth ended at sunset; and the first hour of the night began at sunset, and the
twelfth ended at sunrise. Of course, the hours of ihe day in summer were longer than those of
the night, and in the winter they were shorter. Cf. P. III. $ 228.

§ 188. Different devices have been employed for marking and making known
these parts of the day. The sun-dial was used by the Babylonians and Jews; and by
the latter, watchmen were maintained to announce the time. The Greeks borrowed
the sun-dial from the Babylonians, and called it the Heliotrope {h>^ioTp6-!Ticv), or Gno-
mon (yvwixujv) ; but the latter term properly designates the needle or index which cast
the shadow on the dial. — The Romans, besides the dial {horolo^ium, solarium), em-
ployed also the Clepsydra, for some account of which see P. III. ^ ^-iS.

Several specimens of the ancient sun-dial are still preserved; one is said to be still remaining
nearly in its original situation, on the rock of the Acropolis at Athens. "Upon each side of the
octagonal building commonly called the tower of the icinds, was also placed a vertical sun-dial ;
t'le gnomon or index projected from the side, while the lines indicating the hour were cut upon
the wall. The lines of the dial upon the wall are distinctly extant at the present day: and
although the gnomons have disappeared, the places where they were inserted are still visible."
Besides stationary dials, the ancients had portable ones of metal, which were termed Phorema-
tica. (Cf. Stuart's Diet, of Architect, vol. ii.) — An instrument called a jcater-clock was in consi-
derable use in some parts of Europe a few cenlurias ago. Striking clocks are said to have been
invented by the Arabians about A. D. 800. — Watches were first made in Germany, A. D. 1477.

See BiTtkoud, HUtoire de la Mesure du Temps par les Horologes. Par. 1802. 2 vols. i.—Brnesti, de Solariis, in his Opuscida —
G. H. Marlini. Abhandlung von den Sonnenuhren der Alten. Leipz. 1777.— SaiZicr and Falconet, Sur les horo!o?es des Anciens, in
the Mem. de I'jicad. des Inscr. vol. iv. p. US; and vol. xx. p. 440. Cf. vol. iii. p. 174, on the Gnomon.— SmiVi, Diet, of Anti-
quities, art. Hcrrulogium. — Gough, on a Roman Horologium found in Italy, Archseologia (as cited P. IV. § 243. 3), vol. X. p. 172,
with a plate. — For delineations of several ancient sun-dials, see Calmet, as cited § 168 b. vol. iii. p. 363.

^ 189. The month. This division, without much doubt, had its origin in the various
phases or changes in the moon. It included the time of the moon's revolution round
the earth, or between two new moons, or two successive conjunctions of the sun and
moon. The mean period is 29 days, 12 hours, 44 minutes; it was considered to be
29i days ; and the ancients commonly reckoned the month as consisting alternately
of 29 and 30 days.

The Greeks thus reckoned their months, and termed those which had 30 days,
TrMpets (full), and ScKajiOivol {ejiding on the lOth day) ; those of 29 days they termed
koZ'Xqi (hollow or deficient), and iwoLipdivol {ending on the 9th day). Twelve lunations
thus computed formed the year ; but it fell short of the true solar year by about 11 days
and a quarter, making in four years about 45 days. To reconcile this and bring the
computation by months and years to coincide more exactly, another month was inter-
calated every two years ; and in the first two years a month of 22 days ; and in the
next two, a month of 23 days ; thus after a period of four years the lunar and solar
years would begin together; this was called the Teroaerripls. But the effect of this
system was to change the place of the months relatively to the seasons; and another
system was adopted. This was based on the supposition that the solar year was 365
days and a quarter, while the lunar was 354 ; which would in a period of 8 years give
a difference of 90 days; the adjustment was made by intercalating, in the course of the
period, three months of 30 days each; the period was called 'OKToeTrifiU. Its invention
was attributed to Cleostratus of Tenedos ; it was universally adopted, and was followed
in civil matters, even after the more perfect cycle of Meton was known ; one reason
may have been the reciprocal adaptation between the Octaetens and the Olympiad, the
former including exactly two of the latter.

^ 190. " The foUovidng are the names of the Grecian months, together with those
of the corresponding Julian months, as near as they can be given. In this list Scali-
ger's account has been followed, which, upon the whole, we believe the most cor-
rect. As the first month of the Athenian year comprised but a few days of the latter
pari of our June, and the greater part of July, the latter month will be given as the
corresponding one. — 1. 'EKarniipaicbv, July; so called from the great number of Heca-
tombs which were usually sacrificed in this month. — 2. Mcrayetrvidjv, August; so called
from the sacrifices which were then offered to Apollo Meraycirvtos, because on this
month the inhabitants of Melite left their island and removed to Attica. — 3. Bor,Jpo/ijwj',
September; which was so called from the festival termed Bor)^p6ma. — 4. IIvaveiLiuv,



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