Johann Joachim Eschenburg.

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of a spacious mansion are employed somewhat as the several squares in the method of Feinaigle.
The things to be remembered were connected by association with certain types, and these being
arransed in order were assigned to the different parts of the house; "they assign," says he,
" the first idea they wish to remember to the portico, the second to the hall ; then they go round
the inner courts; nor do they only commit these associations to the bedrooms and anterooms,
but even to the furniture. When they wish to recollect these associations, they recur mentally
to those places in order from the beginning, and regain every sensible type, which they had en-
trusted to each particular spot, and this type at once suggests the idea connected with it."

3. The third system is the Efficacious Method of Mr. Hallworth. In this plan a substitution of
letters for figures is employed. Its peculiarity consists in this, that instead of forming mere bar-
barous and unmeaning words, like that of Grey, or words artificially associated with some image
or picture, like that of Feinaigle, a sisnificant sentence is formed, which states the event to be
remembered, and concludes with a word or phrase that expresses something characteristic of
the event, and at the same time, when interpreted according to the substitution alphabet, denotes
the date. The alphabet of Hailworth is the following; 1,6 c; 2, d/; 3,g,h,gh; 4,kl; 5,mn;
G, p, r; 7, s sh ; 8, t. ch ; 9, v w j, used as consonants ; 0, th ph wh, and also q x y z. In forming
words the vowels are used just as may be convenient, without having any significancy : the con-
sonants alone being considered in expressing a date ; thus ch u rch [ch r c/;] signifies S6S ; troop
ft r p], 866. To recollect by this method the date e. g. of the Flood, the following sentence is
brmed ; The deluge comes and men die guilty: the phrase die guilty expresses the date, as the
consonants d g 1 1 represent 2348.— For greater convenience and scope in forming the character-
istic phrases, the plan admits articles, prepositions, and conjunctions to be used, like the vowels,
without significancy ; e g. Mel fell a sacrifice to Cain's h at e and sin: h t s n, 3875. — JNIr. Hall-
worth has taught tils system by lectures in different parts of the country, and has published
several little books in which its principles are explained and applied.

See T. HallwartKs Efficacious Method of acquiring, retaining, and communicating Historical and Chronological Knowledge,


N. York, 1824.— fldatoorWj method applied to General Ancient History.— Also to Sacrtd History, tc— History of the Unxttd

§ 211. We shall complete our design, in reference to the actual dates of events in
ancient and classical history, by a rapid glance at the Chronology of the principal states
of ancient times. — We will mention first those whose capitals were in Asia. '1 he prin-
cipal Asiatic states or kingdoms were e/g-A^ ; the Assy ria7i; ihe Jewish ; \he Trojan ;
the Lydian; the Phce?iician; the Persian ; the Syrian; and the Parthian.

I. The Assyrian. This is considered as having commenced with the building
of Babylon by Nimrod, B. C. 2217, The 1st period of its iiistory may be that from
Nimrod to Ninias, B. C. 1945.

In this period reigrned the celebrated queen Semiramis, mother of Ninias, Under her the em-
pire gained its greatest extent ; reaching on the east to the sources of the Oxus and the Indus,
including Persia, Media, and Bactriana : comprising on the west Elliiopia, Egypt, Syria, and
Asia Minor to the Mediterranean ; and limited on the north only by Mount Caucasus, and on the
south by the deserts of Arabia. Generally, however, the Assyrian empire included only the
three countries in the valley of the Euphraies-and Tigris, viz. Mesopotamia, Assyria, and Baby-

The 2d period may be that from Ninias to Sardaxapalus, who died B.C. 747.

This long period, of about 1200 years, is involved in great obscurity. During it 33 kings are
said to have reigned. — On the death o{ Hardanapalus three kingdoms were formed out of the em-
pire ; the Assyrian, with Jv'ineveh as its capital ; the Babylonian, with Babylon for its capital ;
and the Median, with Ecbatana for its capital. It may be proper, however, to consider the
Assyrian monarchy as still continuing; and

The 3d period may be that from Sardanapalus to Esarhaddon, B. C. 681.

During this period of 66 years, 4 kings reigned in Nineveh, of whom Esarhaddon was the last;
and 10 kings reigned at Babylon. During this time the Assyrian history was intimately con-
nected with that of the Israelites. In the year B. C. 681, Esarhaddon united together two of the
three kingdoms, viz. the Assyrian and Babylonian.

The 4th and last period extends from Esarhaddon to Ctrtis the Great, B. C. 536.

At this time the united kingdom was subjected to Persia. — At the same time, also, Cyrus
united to Persia the kingdom of Media, which had continued its separate existence from the
death of Sardanapalus.

For a general view of the Assyrian history; RoHM' Ancient History, bk. iii. — MiUot's Elements of History, vol. i. p. 62. (Ed.
Edinb. 1823. 5 vols. 8.)— The Englith Universal History. Lond. 1779-83. 50 vols. 8. (IS vols. Ancient.) vol. ill— Prideaux,
Concection of the 0. aud N. Teslamei.t. (for the time from Sardanapalus to Cyrus.)— Berosus, &c. in Cory, cited P. V. § 236. —
rieeren, Historical Researches into the Politics and Commerce of the Carthaginians, Ethiopians, Egj-ptians, &c. Oxf. 1830. 2 vols. 8.

I'ransl. from his Ideen, cited P. IV. § ni.—Sainte Croix, La ruine de Babylon, in the Mem. Acad. Inscr. vol. xlviii. p. I. For

Assvria, and likewise for She several slates and empires to be mentioned, we also refer to Heeren's States of Antiquity, cited § 215. 6.
— Cf. also Meusel, cited P. V. § 2-10.

II. The Jewish. The history of this nation begins with Abraham, B. C. 1921.
It may be divided into eight periods. The 1st period extends from Abraham to the
entrance into Canaan under Joshua, B. C. 1451.

During this period they remained a nomadic nation.

The 2d period includes the time from Joshua to the death of Samuel, B.C. 1060.

During this period the nation was under the government of the judges and priests. Samuel
was the last of the judges. Saul, the first king, was anointed as such some time before Samuel's

The 3d period is from Samuel to the separation of the nation into the two kingdoms
of Judah and Israel by the Revolt under Jeroboam, B. C. 975.

This was the most flourishing period of the Jewish monarchy, marked by the reigns of David
and Solomon, and by the building of the Temple at Jerusalem, the capital. — Respecting these
r<jigns, see Christ. Spectator, iv. 131 ; v. 528.

The 4th period may include the history from the Revolt until the Restoration from
the Babylonian Captivity, B. C. 536.

The two kingdoms continued separate until their destruction by the Babylonians. The ten
tribes of /sraeZ, whose capital was Samaria, were carried into captivity by Shalmanazar, B. C. T21;
the two tribes nf Judah, by Nebuchadnezzar, B. C. 606. During this time nineteen kings reigned
over Judah at Jerusalem. The seventy years of the captivity are dated from the conquest of
Judah by Nebuchadnezzar.

The 5th period reaches from the Restoration by Cyrus, to the Submission of the
Jews to Alexander, B. C. 332,

During this period the Jews had continued in a state of at least partial dependence on the
throne of Persia.

The 6th period is from Alexander to the Re-establishment of an independent
monarchy under the Maccabees, B. C. 168.

After the death of Alexander and the division of his empire, made B. C. 301, the Jews were
claimed by Syria and by E.'ypt, and exposed to the invasion or oppression of both.— The perse-


cution of Antiochus Epiphaneg provoked the general revolt which led to the re-establishment of

The 7th period is from the Maccabees until the time of the Roman interference under
POMPEY, B. C. 63.

During this period the monarchy was maintained, but with many unhappy dissensions.

The 8th and last period is from the first conquests oi Pompey to the final Destruc-
TiOi\ o{ Jerusalem by 1'iTUS, A. D. 70.

For the Jewish history ; The historical books of the O. Testament.— /osep/iiu (cf. P. V. § 2i.'i.).—Berruytr, Histoire du people da
Dieu, &,c. Par. 1742. 10 vols. i.—Basnast, Histoire des Juifs, &c Haye, 1716. 15 vols. \2.—Pndeaux, Connect, of Ihe 0. and
N. Testament. The French translation, said to be better than the English original, is entitled Histoire des Juifs et des peuples
voisius depuis la decadence des Royaumes d'Israel et dc Juda, &c. Amst. 1725. 5 vols. 8.—/. L. Bauer, Handbuch der Geschichte
der Hebr. Nation, &c. Nttmb. 1800. 2 vols. 8. valuable.— tf. H. Milman, History of the Jews, (Am. ed.) N. Y. 1830. 3 vols. 18.
Cf. North Jlmer. Reo. vol. xxiii. p. 234.— John, Hebrew Commonwealth. Transl. from German, by C. E. StouK, And. 1828. 8.

III. The Trojan. Its origin is involved in darkness and fables, but is placed as
early at least as B. C. 1400. Of its chronology we can only say that the state was
destroyed by the Greeks in the reig7i of Priam, about B. C. 1184.

The history of Troy consists of traditions preserved by the poets. Cf. P. IL $ 132. — Mitford's
Greece, ch. i.

IV. TheLydian. This commenced about B. C. 1400. Three dynasties nf kings
are said to have reigned, yet httle is known of the history until the reig?i of Ckcesus ;
and under him the kingdom was destroyed by Cyrus, B. C. 536.

The capital was Sardis. The kingdom was in the time of Croesus very rich and powerful; its
fate was decided by the battle of Thymbra.

For the Lydian history ; The English Universal History, vol. iv. as above c\tei.—Freret, on the battle of Tbymbra, with a plate,
In the Mem. de VJlcad. des Inter, vol. vi. p. 532.

V. The Phoenician. This was in existence in the time of David, under a king
named Abikal, B. C. 1050. The state continued until the Capture of Tyre by Alex-
ander, B. C. 332.

Phoenicia seems not to have formed properly one state, but to have contained several cities
with petty kings or princes, of which Tyre stood at the head.

On the Phoenician history ; Sanconiathon, &c. cf. P. V. § 238. — Rces, Cyclopaedia, under Phcenice. — Mignot, Sur les Pheniciens
(several dissertations), in the Mem, Acad. Inscr, vols, xxiiv-xlii. — The English Univ. Hist. — Also, 11th vol. of Heeren's Works.
Gott 1824.

VI The Persian. Its history is obscure and its power insignificant until the time
of Cyrus the elder, B. C. 536. We may include the whole history after this date in
two periods.

The 1st period extends from Cyrus to Xerxes, who invaded Greece, and was de-
feated in the famous Battle of Salamis, B. C. 480.

In this period, under Darius Hystaspes, the father of Xerxes, the Persian empire attained its
greatest extent; reaching to thelndus on the east, to the Jaxarles and Mount Caucasus on the
north, and including Asia Minor, Syria, Egypt, and Libya. The capitals were Babylon, Siisa,
Ecbatana, and Persepolis (cf. $$ 153, 154, 170), the royal court being held sometimes in one and
sometimes another of these places.

The 2d period extends from Xerxes to the overthrow of the Persian empire by Alex-
ander, in the reign of Darius Codomannus, B. C. 331.

About the middle of this period occurred the expedition of the younger Cyrus, described in the
Jlnabasis of Xenophon ; Cyrus fell in the battle of Ciinaxa, B. C. 401.— Alexander completed the
subjugation of Persia by the victory at Arbela, B. C. 331.

For the Persian history ; Rolliri's Anc. Hist. bk. iv. and following— .WZZo/'s Elements, vol. i. p. 8S, ed. before cited.— The Uni-
versal History, before cited, vol. iv. and \x.—Briss(mius, de regno Persarum. 1591. S.—Hyde, Rhode, ^-c. cited P. V. § 183. 3.—
Herder's Persepolis, in his Works.— Hea-en, as above cWei.—Grotefend, &c. cited P. IV. § 18. i.—J. B. Frazer, Hist, of Persia, ia
Harper's Fam. Library, No. Ixx.— Sir /. Malcolm, Hist, of Persia from the earliest period. &c. Lond. 1829. 2 vols. 8. 2J ed.

VII. The Syrian; or the Kingdom of the SeleucidcB. This was one of the four
monarchies formed out of the empire of Alexander. It was commenced after the
battle of Ipsus, by Seleucus Nicator, B. C. 301. We may include its history in two

The 1st period is from Seleucus Nicator to the time of the collision with the Romans
in the reign of Antiochus the Great, B. C. 190.

The capital of this kingdom was Antioch. The territory under its sway included the northern
part of Syria ; all Asia Minor, except Bithynia ; Armenia, Media, Parthia, Bactriana, India, Per-
sia, and the valley of the Euphrates. — Antiochus was brought into a war with the Romans espe-
ciallv by protecting Hannibal. His defeat, in the battle uf Magnesia, B.C. 190, deprived him of
pan of "his territories and greatly weakened the kingdom.


The 2(1 period extends from Antiochus the Great to the complete conquest of Syria
by the Romans under Pompey, in the reign of Antiochus Asiaticus, B. C. 69.

In the first part of this period occurred the revolt of the Jews under the Maccabees, B. C. 168,
in consequence of the persecution of Antiochus Epiphanes.— The throne of this kingdom, on its
overthrow by the Romans, had been held by twenty-three successive kings, most of them lawful
heirs of the house of the Seleucidse.

For the Syrian history; Vaillant, Imperiuru Seleucidanun, cited P. IV. § 93. l.—FrSlicK, Annales rerum Syriae. Vieon. 1754. —
The Univerial Hitt, above cited, vol. 8th of the Ancient.

VIII. The Parthian; or Kingdom of the ArsacidcB. The Parthians occupying
the country on the south-east corner of the Caspian, were subject to Persia when con-
quered by Alexander. On the division of his empire, they fell to the share of Seleucus
Kicator. But under the third king of Syria they revolted and established an independ-
ent kingdom under Arsaces, B. C. 256.

The Parthians were constantly at war with the Syrians, and afterwards with the Romans ;
but could not be conquered. They obtained dominion from Armenia to the Indian Ocean, and
from Syria to the river Indus; including Bactriana, Persia, the countries in the valley of the
Euphrates, and Armenia. Their capital was Hecatompylos.

The Parthian kingdom continued until the revolt of the Persians, who dethroned the
Arsacidae, and established the kingdom q/" Modern Persia, A. D. 223.

For the Parthian history ; yaiUant, as cited P. IV. § 93.— C. F. Richter, Historisch-kritischer Versuch Qber die Arsaciden-und-
Sassaniden-Dynastie, &c. Lpz. 1804.

^ 212. We will notice next the states, whose capitals were in Africa. Of these we
have but two of importance ; the EgyptiaJi and the Carthaginian.

I. The Egyptian. The first king named in the Egyptian dynasty is Menes,
generally supposed to be the same as Mizraim, son of Ham and grandson of Noah ;
he settled in Egypt about B. C. 2200. With this date the real chronology of Egypt

A high antiquity, in part surely fabulous, was assigned to this kingdom by two Egyptian
works now lost; one was the Old Chronicle, cited by Syncellus (cf. $ 201); the other, the work
ofManetho, cited by Eusebius (cf. P. V. $ 236).

The 1st period in the Egyptian history may be that extending from Menes to the
Escape of the Israelites, B. C. 1492.

Of this period profane history gives us no connected or satisfactory account. Most that can
be relied on is to be drawn from the incidental notices found in the Bible. Some chronologers
place the celebrated Sesostris at the close of this period ; some consider him to be the Pharaoh
that was drowned in the Red Sea.

The 2d period includes the time from the Exodus to the reign of Psammeticus, B. C.
670, when the history begins to be authentic.

No connected history has been preserved of this period, and we are here also much indebted
for what we know, to the accounts in the Scriptures.— Twelve different governments under
twelve different chiefs, are said to have been united under Psammeticus.

The 3d period extends from the time of Psammeticus to the conquest of Egypt by
the Persian king Ca:\ibyses, son and successor of Cyrus, B. C. 525.

The Egyptian history now becomes more luminous. Herodotus is the principal authority.
The art of writing and the use of the papyrus as a material were now common.

The 4th period includes the portion of time from Cambyses to the conquest of Egypt
by Alexander, B. C. 332.

After the time of Cambyses, Egypt had been made a Persian satrapy, and, with the exception
of a few instances of revolt, in one of which the throne was partially re-established, had con-
tinued subject to Persia until it now changed masters.

The 5th period is from Alexander to the subjection of the country to the Romans,
resulting from the victory of Augustus in the battle of Actium, B. C. 31.

Alexander appointed Ptolemy, one of his generals, governor of Egypt ; and Ptolemy, after the
death of Alexander, became king of the country, B. C 323, and commenced the dynasty of the
Ptolemies, who retained the throne until Cleopatra, associating her fortunes with Antony, lost
it by the success of her lover's rival.— Thebes and Memphis had'been the capitals in the previous
periods. In this, Alexandria, founded by Alexander, was made the seat of the new court. —
Egypt remained a part of the Roman empire until it was wrested away by the Saracens,
A. "D. 640.

For the Egyptian history ; RbllMi Anc Hist. bk. i. — Marsham, as cited P. V. § 236.—Champdlion U jeune, L'Egypfe soui
les Pharaons, &c. Par. 1814. 2 vols. 8. (for period l)efore Cambyses.) — For the period after Alexander, yailiant, Historia Plole

maeorum, cited P. IV. ^ 93. \.—ChampoUion Figeac, Annales des lagides, &c. Par. 1819 2 vols. 8. Cf. MavorU Universal

History, vol. i. (ed. N. Y. 1S04. 25 vols 12.)— Also, the UniKTsal History before cited, vol. i. and viii.— Af. Ruud, View of Egypt.
— Cf. § 177, also P. IV. 5 16 ; § 91. 8 ; § 231.

II. The Carthaginian. The chronology of Carthage may be naturally divided
into th^ee periods.


The 1st period is from its Foundndon by Dido, B. C. 880. to the beginning of the
v>ars of Syracuse in the time of the Syracusaii king Gelon, B. C. 480.

In this period the following points nre worttiy of notice : (a) the oriain of the citij Carthage, by
aTyrian colony under Uido, in whose story much fable is mingled : (bl the pursuits of the people;
cominercifil, like those of the Phoenicians ; they had intercourse by sea with liritain and Guinea,
by caravans with the interior of Africa, and through Egypt with the eastern world ; (c) their
conquests; their commercial pursuits led them to seek possession of the islands and coasts of the
Mediterranean, and they gained Sardinia, Corsica, the Ualeares, also the Canary Isles and
Madeira in the Atlantic, and many places in Spain, and tiie northern coast of Africa ; the chief
conquests were effected by jVago, and his sons and grandsons; (d) the form of poverument; it
was a republic, but of a strongly aristocratic character ; the executive consisting of two chief
magistrates called Siiffetes, and the legislative consisting of a Senate of select grandees, and an
Assembly of the people ; as at Rome, there was a continual strife between a popular and an
aristocratic party; (e) the revenue; its sources were, 1. tributes from the subject cities and
states or tribes ; 2. customs paid on goods at Carthage and all the ports ; 3. proceeds of the mines
in Spain.

The 2d period extends from the beginning of the wars with Gelon of Syracuse to the
beginning of the contests with Rome in the First Punic War, B. C^ 264.

The principal thing which marks the history of this period, is the long continued struggle to
obtain complete possession of Sicily. The Carthaginians and Syracusans were involved in
almost constant wars.

The 3d period is from the first war with the Romans to the final Destruction of
Carthage, B. C. 146.

The contests between Rome and Carthage grew out of mutual ambition. Sicily, which both
desired to own, furnished the occasion.— There were three wars called Punic ; each disastrous
to Carthage. The lirst lasted 23 years. The second was marked by the bold invasion and
splendid victories of Hannibal; ended by the battle of Zama, B. C. 232. The third lasted only
about three years, and terminated in the entire destruction of the state and city. Carthage had
existed about 700 years.

For the Carlliaginian history ; Rollings Anc. Hist. bk. n.—Rendrich, Be Republica Carlhaginiensium. 1664.— i7eerc?i, as cited
above —The Uinuersal History, vol. xv. of the Ancient.— ^o^iger's Hist, of Cartilage. Loud. 1S37. with a map.

^ 213. The ancient states which were seated in Europe remain to be mentioned.
Without naming singly the various minor states, our object in this sketch will oe ac-
complished by a glance at the Chronology of Greece and Rome.

I. Of Greece. The whole extent of time to be considered is 15 or 1600 years,
from the permanent settlements in Greece to her final reduction to a Roman province.
This whole space may be very conveniently and happily presented by a division into
six successive periods, each limited by distinguished events, and characterized by pro-
minent circumstances.

1. The 1st period comprehends the whole history from the Dawn of civilization to
the Trojan War, 1184 B. C, and from its peculiar characteristic may be denomi-
nated fabulous.

Much which is related in the accounts of this period must be rejected as idle fiction ;
yet a few important events may be selected and authenticated. — Civilization had its
first impulse in the arrival of colonists from Egypt and Phoenicia, who laid the founda-
tions of some of the principal cities, as Argos and Sicyon about 1800 years B. C. Lit-
tle advancement was made, however, until, after the lapse of more than two centuries,
other colonies were planted, at Athens by Cecrops and at Thebes by Cadmus, about
the time of Moses (P. IV. ^ 34). Between this time and the Trojan war considerable
progress must have been made in cultivation.

We find some of the peculiar institutions of the Greeks originating in this period ;
particularly the oracles at Delphi and Dodona, the mysteries at Eleusis, and the four
sacred games, the court of Areopagus at Athens, and the celebrated Amphictyonic
Council. — The arts and sciences likewise received considerable attention. Letters had
been introduced by Cadmus. Astronomy was sufficiently studied to enable Chiron to
furnish the Argonauts with an artificial sphere exhibiting the constellations. The ac-
counts of the siege of Thebes and that of Troy show that progress had been made in
the various arts pertaining to war. — But the whole history of the period exhibits that
singular mi.xture of barbarism with cultivation, of savage customs with chivalrous
adventures, which marks what is called an heroic age.

2. The 2d period includes a much shorter space of time, extending from the Trojan
tear to the time when the regal form of government was abolished, about 1050
B. C. From the most important and characteristic circumstances it may be called the
period of colonization.

The first governments of Greece were small monarchies, and they continued such
without encountering peculiar difficulties until after the Trojan war. Soon afier this
we find the country involved in fatal civil wars, in which the people, under a number


of petty chieffains hostile to each other, snfll'red extremely from calamity and oppres-
sion. These evils seem to have led to the change in the torni of Government, and the
Bubstituiion of the -popular instead of the rtgul system. The same evils also probably
contributed to the spirit of emigration, which so strikingly marks the period. The
emigrants who sought foreign settlements are distinguished as o\ three separate classes.
The earliest were the ^'Eolians, who removed from the Peloponnesus to the north-
western shores of Asia Minor and founded several cities, of which Smyrna was the
principal. The second were the lonians, who went from Attica (originally called
Ionia), and planted themselves in Asia Minor, south of the -Si^olians, where Ephesua
was one of their chief cities. The third were the Doriajis, who migrated to Iialy and
Sicily, and founded numerous flourishing settlements. Syracuse in Sicily became the

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