Johann Joachim Eschenburg.

Manual of classical literature : from the German of J.J. Eschenburg, with additions online

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is made belongs to the same Part with the section in which the reference is made,
the abbreviation for the Part is omitted ; thus, e. g, the abbreviation cf. § 3, occurs
on p. 40 in § 136 of Part I., and it directs the student to § 3 of the same Part I. In
Bome instances, a subsection is itself divided ; thus, cf. P. V. § 297. 4. (f), directs to
the paragraph marked (c), under the subsection 4. in § 297, of P. V. The references
made to the Plates need no explanation, except the remark that the abbreviation Sup,
always indicates one of the Supplemental Plates, contained in a separate volume,
which the purchaser of the Manual may obtain if he chooses.

A copious Index was essential to accompUsh the design of this book ; and in order
to secure greater copiousness, and at the same time give the student the advantage
of a very obvious and useful classification, four distinct Indexes are furnished at the
close of the work: an Index of Greek Words; an Index of Latin Words ,- a Geo-
graphical Index; and a General Index ; besides which the Contents (in a systema-
tic view prefixed to the body of the work) are exhibited so fully, that the inquirer
may easily ascertain in what section any topic is noticed. When one seeks informa-
tion on a particular point from this volume, he is requested not to conclude that it
contains nothing on the subject, until he has carefully examined the Indexes, the
Statement of Contents, and the Description of Plates.

* " Whentfver if is purchased by a student, he shnuld retain it as one of the hooks of Ms permanent library. Through life he may
ike it a most useful companion of his literary toils and recreations." (From a notice of the work in the North Amer. Review.)
X



PREFACE

TO THE THIRD EDITION.



When the second edition of this Manual was issued, .it was ex-
pected that a more full view of Roman Literature than the work
then contained would be prepared for separate publication by the
author. Circumstances, which it is unnecessary here to specify,
delayed the execution of the plan until the last summer, when the
publisher of the Manual requested an immediate preparation of a
third edition. The design of a separate publication was then re-
nounced, from a conviction that the convenience and advantage of
the student would be better served by incorporating the whole into
one work. The present edition, accordingly, contains a new trans-
lation of that part of Eschenburg Avhich relates to the Roman Au-
thors, with large additions.

Besides this essential improvement, a considerable quantity of new
matter is also introduced in other portions. The value of the work
is, moreover, augmented by the insertion of numerous illustrations.
These are carefully combined in Plates to avoid the loss of room
occasioned by scattering single cuts separately over the pages ; and
the whole printing is executed in a very compact style ; so that,
notwithstanding all the additions and the accession of several hun-
dred cuts, the sensible bulk of the volume is scarcely increased.

The author would here make a general acknowledgment to those
friends who have favored him with remarks and notes. With spe-
cial gratitude he mentions the very valuable assistance received
from Prof. Sears, of the Newton Theological Seminary, who freely
furnished critical remarks, corrections, and additions, for the whole
of the part on the Archxology of Literature and Art, and also the
History of Greek Literature; to his generous attentions much of the
improvement in these portions of the work is entirely due.

The work of Eschenburg still enjoys high estimation in Germany,
as is evinced by the fact that a new edition has very recently been
published at Berlin. It is believed that the American Translation
is not rendered less truly valuable by the large amount of various
matter which it now contains in addition to the original.
Amherst College, September, 1839.



PREFACE

TO THE FOURTH EDITION.



Since the publication of the third edition, the American Translation
of Eschenburg's Manual of Classical Literature has been introduced
mto some of our most distinguished colleges and literary institutions;
this circumstance, while it has afforded encouragement under the
toil of revising the sheets for a new edition, has added much to the
author's regret that paramount engagements and duties would not
allow him to accomplish more towards perfecting the work. Some
important improvements, however, have been made ; respecting
which it is unnecessary here to speak. Among the valuable recent
publications, from which help has been derived, the Dictionary of
Antiquities, by W. Smith, ought to be specified. In the order of
the Five Parts, of which the Manual consists, there is a considerable
change ; for this a sufficient reason will be seen at once in the obvious
propriety of the present arrangement.

The additional illustrations by cuts, and especially by the engrav-
ings on copper, and the several tabular constructions, now first
inserted, will be found to enhance greatly the value of the work.
References are given also to engravings contained in a volume of
Supplemental Plates, which, it is believed, the purchaser will never
regret having taken with the Manual.

The author must not omit to acknowledge his increased obligations
to friends Avho have kindly furnished corrections and hints respecting
improvements ; especially to Prof. B. Sears and Prof. B. B. Ed-
wards : from whose eminent scholarship and earnest labors in
classical and sacred literature, the public, already enjoying much,
may expect to realize still more and richer fruit. Perhaps the author
will be pardoned for taking this occasion also to make a respectful
request for suggestions from any who may think the book worthy
of their least contribution to its utility.

The work is now again offered for the service of scholars, and
committed to the blessing of Him to whom belong the treasures of
science and the fullness of the earth ; may it hold some humble
place among the means of advancing classical learning, and of pro
moting thereby the knowledge of God and of Jesus Christ, " whom
to know is eternal /i/e."

Amherst College, July, 1843.
xii



CONTENTS.



PART I.



CLASSICAL GEOGRAPHY AND CHRONOLOGY.



EPITOME OF CLASSICAL GEOGRAPHY.

Inlroduction, p. 3, 4.
§vS 1-5. = 'Si 1-3 Portion of earth known
to ancients. "^ 4, 5 Ancient divisions.

I. Of Eukope, p. 4-43.

§§ 6-148. = ^ 6, 7 E.xtent and bounda-
ries. ^ 8 General subdivisions. ^ 9-15
Northern count ries of Europe ; Scandina-
via, Ciinbrica, Sarmatia, Germaiiia, &c.
^ 16-26 Middle countries of" Europe ; Gal-
lia, Rhaetia, Noricuni, Pannonia, lUyri-
cnni, ?.I(Esia, Dacia. % 27-129 Southern
countries of Europe. ^ 29-31 Hispania.
§ 32-50 Italia. $ 51-71 Topoixraphy of
Home. § 51, 52 Ga'es and roads. § 53
Bridges and hills. ^ 54 Districts. Re-
ferences to writers on the topography of
the city. ^ 55 Campi. *$> 56 Streets. § 57
Fora. ^ 58-60 Temples and groves.
§61-63 Curiae, basilicae. circuses; theatres,
&.C. *i 64 Baths. ^ 65-67 Schools, por-
ticos, columns, trophies, &c. § 68 Aque-
ducts. Sewers. *5i 69 Monuments to the
dead. "S* 70 Dwellings. §71 Villas. Sub-
urbs. § 72-75 Thracia. § 76 Four na-
tural divisions of Grajcia. § 77-81 Mace-
donia. § 82-85 Thessalia. § 86-88 Epirus.
§ 89-103 Hellas. § 104-116 Tojwgraphy
cf Athens. § 104, 105 Its situation. § 106
The Acropolis. § 107 Parthenon and
other buildings of the citadel. § 108-110
The lower city and its temples. § 111
Porches. Odea. Ceramicus. § 112, 113
Forums. Aqueducts. Stadium. § 114
AreopagMS. Pnyx. § 115 Theatres. Cho-
ragic monuments. § 116 Harbors. Re-
ferences to writers on the topography of
Athens. § 117-125 Peloponnesus. §126-
129 Topography of Sparta. § 126 Form
and situation. § 127 Forum. § 128 Co-
l.inins and statues. § 129 Hippodrome.
Harbor. References to writers. §130-148
European Islaiids. § 130-136 Britannia
and adjoining islands. § 137 Baleari<'je.
Corsica and Sardinia. § 138-140 Sicilia.
§ 141, 142 Ionian islands. § 143-148
iEgean islands.

II. Of Asia, p. 43-53.

n 149-172. = § 149, 1.50 E.xtent and
general division of Asia. § 151-155 Coun-
tries of the Eastern divisio7i. Scythia,
Sinae, India, Persia. Media, Parthia.
§ 156-171 Countries of the Wcster7i divi-
sion. § 156 Sarmatia, Colchis, Albania,



Iberia. § 157 Armenia. § 158-165 Asia
Minor. § 166 Syria. Phcenicia. §167-169
Palffisiina. § 168 b. Topography of Jeru-
salem. § 170 Mesopotamia, Babylonia
and Assyria. § 171 Arabia. § 172 Asia-
tic islands.

III. Of Africa, p. 53-57.
§§ 173-183. == § 173 Extent and divisions
of Africa. § 174-176 Egypt. § 177 An-
cient ruins and remains of Egypt. Works
on the subject. § 178 ^Ethiopia. § 179
Libya. § 180 Africa Propria. § 181 Nu-
midia. § 182 Mauritania. § 183 Africa
Interior. Atlantis.

introduction to classical chrono-
logy.
Preliminary Remarks, p. 59.
§ 184. Importance of the subject. De-
sign of present sketch. I'wo parts.

I. Of measuri?tg time and adjusting Us
divisions, p. 59-6.3.

§§ 185-196. = § 185 The three natural
divisions of time ; day, month, and year.
§ 186, 187 Ancient customs as to be-
ginning and dividing the day. § 188 De-
vices for marking and making known the
parts of the day. Dial, Clepsydra. §189,
190 Ihe month. The Grecian system.
§ 191 a, 191 b. Roman method of reckoning
the months, and the days of the month.
The week. Names of the days. § 192
The year. The Grecian ; Roman ; Ju-
lian. The Gregorian Calendar. Old and
new style. §"193 Cycles. § 194 The
lunar cycle. _ § 195 The solar. § 196 The
cycle of indiction. Julian Period.

II. Of fixing the dates of historical
events and arranging them in order,
p. 63-79.

§§ 197-215. = § 197 Topics noticed in
this part. § 198-201 Methods of ascertain-
ing dates. 1. Successive generations; and
successive reigns of kings. 2. Celestial
appearances. 3. Coins, inscriptions, &c.
4. Historical testimony. § 202, 203 Epochs
and eras. Era of Olympiads ; of Rome ;
the Christian ; the Mahometan ; of the
French Republic. § 204-207 Systems and
tables. § 204 Claims of the Esyptians and
Babylonians. § 205 The Hebrew and
the Septuagint chronology. Newton's.
Usher's. § 206, 207 Various plans for



XIV



CONTENTS.



charts. The best. "^ 208-215 Actual dates
of most prominent events. § 208 Common
complaint of students. Remedy. § 209
Brief outline of General Chronology. % 210
Systems of artificial memory. § 211 Chro-
nology of ancient states; eight principal



states of Asia ; references to works on tlieii
history ; Assyrian ; Jewish ; Trojan ; Ly
dian ; Persian ; Syrian ; Parthian. § 212
Oi the two principal in Africa ; Egyptian ;
Carthaginian. § 213 Of Greece. ^ 214
215 Of Rome.



PART II.



MYTHOLOGY OF THE GKEEKS AND ROMANS.



Introduction, p. 83-90,
^% 1-12. = § 1 Circumstances calculated
to give a fabulous character to early tradi-
tions. § 2 Mythology in the Greek, and
in the modern sense of the term. § 3 Dif-
ferent points of view in contemplating my-
thological fables. % 4 Changes and addi-
tions in mythological stories. § 5 Different
sources of mythological fabrications. § 6
Advantages of an acquaintance with my-
thology. § 7 Eastern origin of the Gre-
cian deities. § 8 I'he Roman gods bor-
rowed from the Greeks. § 9 The Greek
and Roman system ofclassifying their gods.
^ 10 The four classes under which they
are arranged in this work. § 11 The no-
lions of deity entertained by the Greeks
and Romans. Abode of the gods. § 12
References to works treating on the subject.

I. Mythological History of the Superior
gods, p. 91-113.

§§ 13-67. = § 13 Gods included in this
class. ^ 14-17 Saturn. § 18 Janus.
<> 19-21 Cybele or Rhea. § 22-25 Jupiter.
§ 26-28 Juno. § 29-31 Neptune. <^ 32-34
Pluto. § 35-37 Apollo.' § 38-40 Diana,
"^i 41-43 Minerva. <5> 44-46 Mars. § 47-50
Venus. Cupid. <^ 51-54 Vulcan. ^55-56
Mercury. ^ 57-60 Bacchus. Silenus.
§ 61-64 Ceres. § 65-67 Vesta.

II. 31ytholosical History of the Inferior
gods, p. 113-124.

§§ 68-96. = § 68 Gods included in this
class. <^ 69, 70 Coelus. §71, 72 Sol or He-
hus. § 73 Luna. § 74, 75 Aurora. § 76 Nox.
§ 77 Iris. § 78 ^olus. § 79, 80 Pan.
§ 81, 82 Latona. § 83 Themis. Astrsa.
Nemesis. § 84 ^sculapius. § 85 Plutus.
§ 86 Fortune. § 87 Fame. § 88 Deities



peculiar to the Greeks. § 89-95 Deities
peculiar to the Romans. § 90 Tiber.
Roma. § 91. Terminus. Priapus. Ver-
tumnus. Flora. Feronia. Pales. § 92
Gods presiding over various conditions or
pursuits of men. Bellona, Juturna, &c.
§ 93 Victoria. § 94 Deified Roman em-
perors. § 95 Virtues and Vices. § 96
Egyptian deities worshiped among the
Romans.

III. Mythical beings, whose history is
intimately connected with that of the gods,
p. 124-132.

§§ 97-117. = § 97 Thans. § 98 Giants.
Pvgmies. § 99 Tritons. § 100 Sirens.
§ 101 Nymphs. § 102, 103 Muses. § 104
Graces. § 105 Hours. § 106 Fates. § 107
Furies. § 103 a. Harpies. §]08b. Venti
or Winds. § 109 Daemons. HlO Manes.
§111 Lares. § 112 Penates. § 113 Sleep,
Dreams, and Death. § 114 Satyrs and
Fauns. §115Gorgons. § 116 Amazons.
§ 117 Minotaur, Chimasra, and various
other monsters.

IV. Mythical History of Heroes, p.
132-137.

§§ 118-133. = § 118 Three periods of
Grecian story. § 119 General cause of the
deification of heroes. § 120 Two classes
of venerated heroes. § 121 Inachus, Ox-
gyges, Cecrops, and several others, ho-
nored specially among their own people.
<^ 122 Perseus. Atlas. § 123, 124 Her-
cules. § 125, 126 Theseus. § 127, 128
Jason and the Argonauts. § 129 Castor
and Pollux. § 130 Heroes of the Theban
war. § 131 Pelops and his descendants.
§ 132 Heroes of the Trojan war. § 133
Deified Roman emperors.



PART III.

GREEK AND ROMAN ANTIQUITIES.



GRECIAN ANTIQUITIES.
hitroduction, p. 140-145.
§§ 1-14. :=§ 1 Origin of the name
Grascia. § 2 Countries included under it.
§ 3 Most important Grecian cities. § 4 Po
litical changes. § 5 Fitst hihabitants. § b
Their early intercourse. § 7 Early forms



of government. § 8 The Spartan system.
§ 9 Athens. § 10 Causes of Grecian im-
provement. § 11 Utility of study of An-
tiquities, and of Grecian in particular. § 12
Original sources of knowledge on the sub-
ject. § 13 References to authors. § 14
Defects in the common treatises on Greek
antiquhies. Early and later ages distinct.



CONTENTS.



XV



I. Of the Earlier and less cultivated
Ages, p. 145-160.

^ 15 The period included. Subject di-
vided into four brandies.

I. Religioits Affaiks.
% 16-32. = § 16 First traces of the reh-
gion of the Greeks. § 17 Form and mode
of rehgious instruction. § 18 Influence of
the poets. § 19 Number and character of
the gods. ^ 20 Temples and sacred places.
§ 21 Images and statues. § 22 Priests
and Priestesses. 'S 23 Rites; ablutions.
§, 24 Prayers. § 25 Sacrifices ; the ma-
terials ; the origin. § 26 Altars. § 27
Sacrifices ; the ceremonies. § 28 Gifts and
offerings. "?» 29 Worship rendered to he-
roes. § 30 Funeral solemnities. § 31
Burning of corpse ; mormments. § 32
Oracles and divination.

II. Civil Affairs.
§ 33-41 . = § 33 Early rudeness. "^ 34
Power of the kings. § 35 Their retinue
and councillors. '^ 36 Courts of justice.
^ 37 Laws and punishment. 'J 38 The
Cretan laws. '5> 39 Successive forms of
government at Athens. § 40 At Sparta,
f 41 Commerce and Navigation.

III. Military Affairs.

«§ 42-51. =§ 42 Early Greeks warhke.
§ 43 Their armies, how composed. <5> 44
Weapons; Defensive. § 45 Offensive.
§ 46 The materials of which made. § 47
War-gnlleys. § 48 Camps. § 49 Order
of Battle. § 50 Division of Spoils. Bar-
barous stripping of the slain. Combat of
chiefs. § 51 Treaties.

IV. Domestic Affairs.

^^ 52-63 =^ § 52 Common food. Daily
meals. '5> 53 Social repasts. § 54 Dress.
^ 55 Practice of bathing. Cultivation of
the Hair. § 56 Houses. § 57 Hospitality.
§ 58 Employments ; agriculture; hunting,
i 59 Employments of women. ^ 60 Amuse-
ments. § 61 Marriage. ^ 62 Education
of children. § 63 Slaves.

II. Of the Later and more flourishing
Ages, p. 160-223.

I. Religious Affairs.
"5§ 64-90. = "5 64 Number of gods in-
creased. '5i 65 a. Temples more splendid.
"^ 65 b. Altars. § 66 Sacred groves. Asyla.
'J' 67 Classes of priests. Purification. §68
Sacrifices and attendant ceremonies. '5' 69
Oaths. Leagues. § 70 Oracles. Im-
posture at Argos. § 71 Oracles of Jupi-
ter; atDodona; in Crete; African desert.
^72. 73 Of Apollo at Delphi. § 74 Of
Trophonius ; of .<E?culapius, and others.
^ 75 Arts and methods of divination. § 76,
77 Festivals ; notice of the principal ; of
Adonis, of Bacchus, of Ceres, of Minerva.
§ 78 Games. § 79 The race. <5> 80 Leap-
ing. § 81 Wrestling. § 82 The discus.
5 83 Boxing. § 84 Four sacred games.



Olympic. § 85 Pythian. § 86 Nemean.
S> 87 Isthmian. § 88 System of athletics.
§ 89 Theatres, and dramatic representa-
tions. Masks. Chorus. § 90 Theoric
money at Athens.

II. Civil Affairs.

^ 91-134. = §91 Athens and Sparta
distinguished by pecuharities. § 92 Draco
and Solon at Athens. § 93 The tribes and
classes at Athens. § 94 Pisistratus, and
his sons. § 95 I'he thirty tyrants. Form
of government after them until death of
Alexander. § 96 Buildings of Athens.
§ 97 The free citizens of Athens. § 98
The foreign residents. § 99 The slaves.
§ 100 Magistrates. § 101 The Archons.
§ 102 The Eleven ; Orators; Ambassa-
dors; Notaries, &c. § 103 Athenian re-
venues. § 104 Officers of the revenue and
treasury. Expenditures. § 105 Amphic-
tyonic council. § 106 Assemblies of the
people. § 107 Athenian senate. §108 Areo-
pagus. § 109 Athenian courts of justice.
The EphetcB. § 110 The Helia?a. §111
The Forty. The Diaetetae. § 112 Dif-
ferent kinds of actions. § 113 Punishments.
§114 The Ostracism. § 115 Modes of in-
flicting death. § 116 Public rewards and
honors. § 117 Attic laws. § 118 Natural
situation of Sparta. § 119 Spartan tribes.
§ 120^ Treatment of children at Sparta.
§ 121 Spartan slaves. § 122 The kings of
Sparta. § 123 The Senate. Ephori. § 124
Nomophulakes and other magistrates.
§ 125 Assemblies of the people. § 126 Pub-
lic repasts. § 127 Judicial affairs. § 128
Punishments. § 129 Laws of Sparta.
§ 130 Cretan constitution. § 131 Cretan
laws; public meals; slaves. § 132 Con-
stitution of Thebes. § 133 Constitutions
of Corinth and Syracuse. § 134 Of Argos,
of ^tolia, and Achaia.

III. Military Affairs.

§ 135-160. = § 135 The warlike character
retained ; especially by the Spartans, § 136
Persons liable to military duty. Their
support. § 137 Classes of troops. The
infantry. §138 Cavalry. Use of Elephants.
§ 139 Armor. § 140 Various officers.
§ 141 The divisions of the army. § 142
Forms of Battle-array. Manoeuvres. §143
Declaration of war. Treaties. § 144
Camps. § 145 Standards and ensigns
Signals for battle. § 146 Art of besieging
§ 147 Military engines. § 148 Defence of
cities. § 149 Treatment of captured places.
§ 150 Division of spoils. § 151 Mihtary
rewards and punishments. § 152 Means
of conveying intelligence. § 153 Crossing
of rivers. § 154, 155 Ships; Names of
their principal parts ; Vessels of war. §156
Rowers, sailors and marines ; Manner of
placing the seats of rowers. § 157 Instru-
ments employed in naval battle. § 158
Naval officer's. § 159 Manner of naval
battle. § 160 Naval victories and monu-
ments. Naval punishments.



XVI



CONTENTS.



IV. Affairs of Private Life.
^H61-187. = '^ 161 Food. Use of wines.
§ 162 The different meals. Manner of
spending the day at Athens. ^ 163 Enter-
tainments or feasts. § 164 Customs at
table. ^ 165 Substances eaten at the prin-
cipal meal. § 166 Officers and attendants
at an entertainment. "Ji 167 Drinking ves-
sels. Customs in drinking. Amusements
accompanying a feast. ^ 168 Customs of
hospitality. Officers called Proxeni. Inns.
^ 169 Dress, for the body, head, and feet.
Useofsilk. Adorning of the person. '5i 170
Bathing and anointing. ^ 171 Houses.
"^ 172 Commerce and Agriculture. ^ 173,
174 Grecian money and coins. Ratio of
Gold and silver. ^ 175 Greek system of
notation. § 176 Grecian weights. § 177
Measures. § 178 Social amusements.
^ 179, ISO Music and musical instruments.
§ 181 Condition of females. <5> 182 Laws
and customs respecting marriage. ^^ 183
-186 Funeral rites. Anniversaries held in
honor of the dead, with orations and games.
^ 187 Sepulchral monuments.

ROMAN ANTIQUITIES.

Introduction, p. 225-229.
^^ 188-198. = 'S 188 Origin of Rome.
^ 189 Principal events which affected the
appearance of the city. Comparative
splendor of ancient and modern Rome.
^ 190 Population of Rome. ^ 191 Extent
of the Roman empire. § 192 Proportion
of soldiers and other citizens. § 193 The
time of the regal government. § 194 Most
brilliant era of Roman history. ^ 195 Con-
dition under the emperors. ^ 196 Utility
of studying Roman antiquities. Original
sources of information on the subject. § 197
References to modern works and authors.
§ 198 Division of the subject.

L Religious Affairs, p. 229-248.

<?^§ 199-239. = '5> 199 Use of the term re-
ligio. § 200 Origin of the religion of the
Romans. '^ 201 Its connection with poli-
tics. § 202 Design of Romulus and Numa.
God?; of the Romans. § 203 Temples.
^ 204 Statues and offerings. Groves. § 205
Altars. § 206 Vessels employed in sacri-
fices. § 207 Several orders of priests. "$> 208
Pontifires. § 209 Augurs. Various me-
thods of augury. ^ 210 Haruspices. §211
Epulones. <^ 212 Feciales. "^ 213 Rex
sacrorum. § 214 Flamines. § 215 Salii.
§ 216 Luperci. '5> 217 Galli and others.
•J 213 Vestal virgins. § 219 Fratres Arva-
ks, Curiones, and others. § 220 Customs
in offering prayers. <S 221 Sacrifices and
attendant rites. § 222 Vows. <5i 223 De-
dication of sacred buildings. § 224 Expia-
tions. The lustrum. § 225 Oaths. §226
Oracles. <) 227 Lots. § 228 Divisions of
time. § 229, 230 Festivals. § 231 Public
games. § 232, 233 Ludi Circenses. Nau-
machia. § 234 Ludi Seculares. <!> 235
Ludi Gladiatorii. § 236 Ludi Florales.
^ 237 Ludi Megalenses, Cereafes, and



others. § 238 Theatres, Masks, &c
§ 239 Amphitheatres.

IL Civil Affairs, p. 248-270.
H 240-274. = § 240 Regal government.
§241 Consuls. §242 Imperial government.
§ 243 Praetors. § 244 jEdiles. § 245 Tri-
bunes. § 246 Quaestors. § 247 Censors.
§ 248, 249 Extraordinary magistrates;
Dictator; Decemviri; Military Tribunes ;
Praefects. Interrex, &c. § 250 Procon-
suls, and other provincial magistrates. § 251
Tribes. § 252 Six classes of citizens. Cen-
turies. § 253 Patricians and plebeians.
§ 254 The populace. Patrons and cHents.
§ 255 Roman nobility. Right of images.
Curule office. § 256 The Equites (^r
Knights. § 257 The Senate. § 258, 259
The Coraitia. § 260 Right of citizenship.
Government of conquered cities and na-
tions. § 261 Judicial proceedings. Public
actions and trials. § 262 Private actions.
§ 263 Penal offences. § 264 Punishments.
§ 265 System of laws. Body of Roman
civil lavv. § 266 Regulations respecting
grain. § 267 Revenue. Saltworks. Mines.
§ 268 Various Pursuits. Commerce. Me-
chanic arts. § 269 Agriculture. Carriages.
§ 270 Money. Coins. § 271 System of
reckoning and notation. § 272 Modes of
acquiring property. § 273 Auctions. Con-
fiscations. § 274 Measures of extent, &c.
Modes of determining the Roman foot.

III. Affairs of War, p. 270-285.
§§ 275-309. = § 275 Authorities on the
subject. § 276 Military estabhshment of
the kings. § 277 Persons liable to duty.
Time of service. § 278 Consular army.
Exempts. § 279 System of levy. § 280
Classes of troops. § 281 Subdivision into
maniples, &-c. § 282 Standards. Music.
§ 283 Weapons. § 284 Wages. Rewards.
§ 285 Punishments. § 286 Order of battle.
§ 287 Modes of attach. § 288 Light troops.
§ 289, 290 Cavalry. § 291 Cohorts. § 292
Auxiliaries. § 293 Attendants upon the
army. §294 Order of march. §295 Forms
of array. § 296, 297 The Camp. § 298
Watches. Exercises of soldiers. § 299
Sieges. Engines. Mounds and towers.
Battering ram and other engines. § 300
Modes of defence in a siege. § 301 The
fleets. § 302 Method of naval battle. § 303



Online LibraryJohann Joachim EschenburgManual of classical literature : from the German of J.J. Eschenburg, with additions → online text (page 2 of 153)