Johann Joachim Eschenburg.

Manual of classical literature : from the German of J.J. Eschenburg, with additions online

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•oire. Par. 1738-10. 8 vols. 12. In German, with additions by
J. A. Scfdegd and /. M Schrdckh. Lpz. 1755-65. 5 vols. 8. In
English, £37Vcr,Mvthology of the Ancients Lond. 1739. 4voIs. 8.



R. Mayo, System of Mythology. Fhilad. 1815. 4 vols. 8.

F. Crcuzer's Symbolik und Mythologie der Alten VOlker, beson-
der? der Griechen. Lpz. 1819-21. 4 Bde. 8. 3d improved ed.
commenced 1836.— Same (abridged) by G.H.Moser. Lpz. 1822. 8.

Ch. A. Lobech, Aglaophamus, sive de Theologiae mystics (Jrae-
corum causis. Reglmontii (Konirgsbergi, 1S29. 2 vols 8. op-
posing some of the views of Creuzer: it has been highly con*
mended.

J. H. Voss, Antisymbolik. Stuttg. 1824. 8.

O- Hermann, De Mythologia Graecorum antiquissima. 1817.

G. Hermann and F. Creuzer, Briefe Qber Homer und Hesiodos.
Heidelb. 1818. 8.

G. Hermann, Briefe Qber das Wesen und die Behandlung der
Mythologie. Lpz. 1819. 8.
J. A. KanneU Mythologie der Griechen. Lpz. If05. 8 — By



GREEK AND ROMAN MYTHOLOGY.



89



■am;, ersle Urkunden der Geschichte, oder allgemeine Mytholo-
pe. Baireuth, 1808. 2 Bde. 8.— By same, Paotbeou derUtesten
*faturphil05opl.ie aller Volker. Tub. 1811. 8.

/. jC. Hits, UntersuchuDjen ttber d. Mythos d. berQhmtern
Volker d. alt. Welt, vorzlglich d. Griech. Freyb. 1812. 4.

K. 0. Milller, Prolegomena zu einer wissenschaftlichen My-
thologie. Gollingen, 1S25. 8.
Buttmann, Mytholojus. Berl. IS28. 2 vols. 8.
S. A. L. RichUr, Phantasien des Alterthums, oder Samml.
myth. Sagen der Hellenen, Romer, &c Lpz. 1708-20. 5 Bde. 8.
We may add /. Sryant'i New System of Mythology. Lond.
If07. 6 vols. S.
Dupuis, Origine de tous les Cultes. Par. 1822. 7 vols. 8.
R. P. Knight, Inquiry into the symbolical Language of Ancient
Art and Mythology, in different Nos. of the Classical Journal.

Count deGebdin, Le Monde Primitif. Par. 1774-87. 9 vols. 4.
ejEplaining fables, traditions, symbols, and language.

Guigniaut, Religions de I'Antiquite. Far. 1825-30. 4 vols. 8
Co/istant, De la Religion. Par. 1826-31. 5 vols. 8.

(fc) More compendious treatises, or manuals.
C. T. Damm, Mythologie der Griechen und ROmer (ed. Zeoe-
tow). Berl. 1*20. 8. with plates.

M. G. Hirmann, Handbuch der Mythologie aus Homer und
Hesiod. Berl. 1787-95. 3 vols. 8.— By same, Mythologie der
Griechen, fUrdieobern Klassen, &c. Berl. 1801. 2 vols. 8.

K.Ph Maritz, Gotterlehere, oder mythol. Dichtungen der Alten.
Berl. 1819. 8. with plates. Also transl. by C. F. Jdeer, N. York,
IS30. 12. with plates. .Same work in English, Mythological
Fictions of Greeks and Romans. 12mo.

Fr. Ramhach, Abriss einer Mythologie fttr KUnstler. Berl.
1796. 2 vols. 8.

C. A. Bottiger's Grundrisse zu Vorlesungen Qber die Mytholo-
gie. Dresd. ISOS. 8.— By same, Amaltbea oder Museum d.
Kunstmythologie und bildl. Alterthumskunde. Leipz. 1821,

F. Fiedler, Mythologie der Griechen und Italischen Vdlker.
Hal. 1823.

Andrew Tooke, The Pantheon ; containing the Mythological
systems of the Greeks and Romans. 36th ed. Lond. 1831. 8. with
plates.

TaZpyj Elements of Mythology. Lond. 1832. 18. very brief.
C. K. Dillaway, Roman Antiquities and Ancient Mythologj'.
Bost. 1812. 12.
T. Kcigktley, Myth, of Greece & Italy. 2d, ed. Lend, 1838. 8.

(c) Dictionaries of Mythology.
B. Hedei-ich, Mythologisches Lexicon (ed. /. /. Schwabe). Lpz.
1770. 8.

P. F.A. Nitsc}i,-Seaes my thol. WOrterbuch (ed. F. G. Klcpfer).
Lpz. IS21, 2 vols. 8.
K. Ph. Moritz, Mythol. WOrterbuch far SchOler. Berl. 1817. 8.
/. G. Gncber, Worterbuch der allklassischen Mythologie und
Religion. Weim. ISIO. 3 vols. 8.
P. C. Chompre, Dictionnaire abrege de la fable. Par. 1818. 12.
Fr, Nnel, Dictionnaire de la fable, ou Mythologie Grecque,
Latine, Egyptienne, Celtique, Persanne, Indienne, Chinoise, &c.
Par. 1823. 2 vols. .

IVrtu Holwell, A Mythological Dictionary, &c (Extracted
from /. Bryant's New System or Analysis of Ancient Mytholo-
gy.) Lond. 1793. 8.

Bell, New Pantheon. Lond. 1790. 2 vols. 4.
Sncydopidit Methodique, the part entitled Antiquites, Mytho-
ogie, Chronologie, &c., which part consists of 5 vols. 4. Par.
1786, ss.
Biographic Universdle, partie Mytholosique. Par. 1832,
vols. g.



(d) The following works contain plates illustrating the sub-
jects of mythology, accompanied with explanations.

Bernard de Moulfaucon, L'Antiquite expliquee et representee
en figures. Par. 1719. 10 vols, in 5, fol. Supplem. Par. 1724.
5 vols. fol. Translated into English by David Humphreys.
Lond. 1721. 5 vols. fol. with Supplement, 2 vols. fol.

Joach. von Sandrart, Iconologia deorum. NUrnb. 16S0. fol.

Spence's Polymetis, or an inquiry concerning the agreement
between the works of the Roman poets and the remains of the
ancient artists. Lond. 1747. fol. 1755. fol.

Le Temple des Muses, a superb folio.

D. Bardon, The Usages, religious, civil, fee, of the Ancients.
Lond. 4 vols. 8.

A. Hirt, Bilderbuch fQr Mythologie, Archaolcgie und Kunst,
Berl. 1805-16. 2 vols. 4.

A. L. MUlin, Galerie my'hologique, ou Recueil des monu<
mens pour servir a I'etude de la mythologie, de I'histoire de
I'art, &c. Par. 1811. 2 vols. 8. containing correct pictures o(
about 800 ancient monuments — Trans. Germ, by Tblken.

A. H. Petiscus, Der Olymp, oder Mythologie der .igyjrter,
Griechen und ROmer. Berl. 1837. 8. 6th ed.

(e) The impressions on ancient gems are of much service ia
illustrating mythology, to which part of the subject belong the
following works :

A. C. Klau.nng, Versuch einer mythologischen Baktyliothek
far Schiiler. Lpz. 1781. 8. (with 120 neat impressions of en
graved gems.)

T. F. RolhU mythologische Daktyliothek. Namb. 1805 (witb
90 impressed models of engraved stones).

Also Lippett's Daktyliothek (P. IV. § 210). One thousand of
his impressions belong to mythology.

The gems of which IVedgewood andBentley have given imita-
tions, pertain, many of them, to mythology ; as also those ol
Tassie (P. IV. § 210).

(/) Here we may name likewise some works on the Mythe
logy of other nations besides the Greeks and Romans.

Moore's Hindoo Pantheon.

Rhode, Ueber die religiose Bildung der h.ndus. Lpz. 1827.
2 vols. 8.

Kennedy, Researches into the Nature and Affinity of Ancient
and Hindoo Mythology. Cf. Asiatic Researches.

Maurice, Indian Antiquities. Lond. 1S06. 7 vois. 8.

Ward's View of the History, Literature, and Religion of the
Hindoos.

Monfg. Martii\, Hist, and Antiquities of Eastern India. Lond.
1838. 3 vols. 8. with some good plates illustrating Hindoo my-
thology.

C. Coleman, Mythology of the Hindus. Lond. 1S32. 4.
with plates.

Hager, Pantheon Chinois (or Parallel between the relig ras
worship of the Greeks and the Chinese). Par. 1810. 4. C£ Class
Joum. i. 178.

/. C. Prichard, Analysis of Egyptian Mythology ; in which
the superstitions of the ancie..* Egyptians are compared with
thoseof the Indians and other nations ot antiquity. Lond. 1819. 8.
also 1839, with preliminary essay by Vorx Schlegel ; and plates.

Kyerup, WOrterbuch der Scandinavian Mythologie. Copenh.
1816. 12.

E. Davits, Mythology and Rites of the British Druids. Lond.
1809. 8.

/. M. Kemble, Saxon Mythology. Cf. Bill Repos. xi. 247.

For some remarks on the resemblance of the mythology of the
Middle Ages to the Classical, cf. Editor's Preface to fFarton't
I Hist. Eng. Poetry, vol. i. p. 25 «s. ed. Lond. 1824.



12



h2




I



p. n. SUPERIORGODS. SATURN. 91



I. — Mythological History of the Superior Gods.

§ 13.* The Divinities which we include in the class denominated Superior
Go(/s, are the following- : Saturn, Kporoj, Xpdi'oj, Sat ur tins ; Janus; Rhea or
Cybele, 'Psa, 'Pfi'a, Kvtjs%7j; Jupiter, Zjrj; Juno, "Hpa; Neptune, nocjftSwv
Neplunus ; Pluto, llxovrwi' ; Apollo, 'Arto?t7.«r ; Diana, "AprfjUts; Minerva,
Ila7JMi ; Mars, 'Ap-z^j ; Venus, 'A^poSirrj ; Vulcan, "H^atoroj, Vulcanus ,•
Mercury, 'Ep^^j, Mercurius ; Bacchus, Aiorvooj; Ceres, A>y/i^r>2p ; Vesta,
'Etjr'ta.

§ 14. (I) Saturn. This was one of the most ancient of the gods, called
Chronos by the Greeks and Saiurnus by the Romans. He was said to be the
son of Uranos and Titsea, i. e. the heavens and the earth, and to have possessed
the first government of the universe. His wife was Rhea, who was his sister.
Saturn and his five brethren were called Titans, probably from their mother;
Rhea and her five sisters likewise Titanides. Saturn seized upon the govern-
ment of the universe by his superiority over his father and brothers; yet
pledged himself to rear no male children ; accordingly he is represented as de-
vouring his sons as soon as born.

§ 15. But this fate, three of them, Jupiter, Neptune, and Pluto, escaped,
through the artifice of Rhea their mother, who gave him stones to devour in-
stead of the children at their birth. Jupiter aided Saturn in recovering his
throne, after he had been driven from it by his brothers the Titans and bound in
Tartarus. But soon he made war himself upon Saturn, and seized the govern-
ment. According to Roman fiction, Saturn now fled to Italy (thence called
Salurm'a), and acquired great honor by teaching arts and morals to the people.
Under him was the so-called golden age, which the Greek poets assigned to
the reign of Saturn and described as singularly happy. Probably an idea of
the perfection and fecundity of nature, when just newly created, is the basis
of this story.

Hts. Op. el Di. vs. 199 — Firg-. Mn. viii. 319.— Ou. Metam. i. 89-112.

§ 16. From the Greek name of this god, which is the word signifying time
(xpovo^), he has been considered as designed to personify time, and the first
cause of the visible world. His Latin name also, as well as the story of his
devouring his children, seems to have some reference to the idea of time, as
satiated only by the destruction of what it has produced.

1 u. This name, however, may have been given from the idea of fertility or produc-
tiveness, as he is said to have taught agriculture and the use of seeds. The word Sa-

turnus is derived from Satur, signifying /;</Z, satiated, and txho fertile. Saturn is

termed Sator, Vitisalor, Falcifer (bearing a sickle or scythe), Sterculinus or Stercutius
(having taught the fertilizing uses of manure), Canus and Leucanthes {AevKavdfii).

2. Some have traced the fables respecting Saturn to the history of Noah. See
TooJie's Pantheon, Pt. ii. ch. i. ^ 5. — " Saturn was not unknown to the ancient Ger-
mans, among whom he was worshiped by the name of Seutur ; who is described as
standing on a fish with a wheel in one hand, and in the other a vessel of water filled
with fruits and flowers." HolwelVs Diet, cited % 12. 2 (c).

§ 17. It was once customary to offer to Saturn human sacrifices, particularly
among the Carthaginians, the Gauls, and the Pelasgic inhabitants of Italy.—
His principal temples among the Greek were at Olympia, and at Drepanum in
Sicily. The temple of Saturn in Rome served also the purpose of a treasury,
in memorial, perhaps, of the general security and the community of goods in

the Saturnian or golden age. The chief festival of this deity was the Satur-

nalia of the Romans, which was, like the Peloria (llfXtjpta) of the Thessalians,
devoted to freedom, mirth, and indiscriminate hospitality.

1. The custom of sacrificing children to Saturn seems to identify him with Moloch, the Phoeni-
cian idol, to wliom the apostate Israelites sacrificed their offspring.

Se.eJalm, Bibl. Arch. § 211.— Dzorf. Sic. xx. M.—Morin, and Freret, Des victimes humaines, Mem, Acad. Inscr. vols. i. and
xviii. — Urijin of human sacrifices. Oojs. Joxirn. xiv. 3.=2. xvii. 104.

2 u. Saturn was represented by the figure of an old man having a scythe or sickle
m one hand, and often in the other a serpent with its tail in its mouth in the form of a
circle, both emblems of time. There are, however, but few ancient monuments o^
this deity.



PLATE XI.




.



I



p. II. SUPERIOR GODS. JANUS. RHEA OR CYBELE. 93

3. In our Plate X. fig. 1, he appears in a sitting posture, with a sort of sickle in one
hand. In the Sup. Plate 3, he appears with the scythe, a long beard, and wings. —
He is also thus described : "a decrepit old man, with a long beard and hoary head ;
his shoulders are bowed hke an arch, his jaws hollow and thin, his cheeks sunk ; his
nose is flat, his forehead full of furrows, and his chin turned up ; his right hand holds
a rusty scythe, and his left a child, which he is about to devour."

§ 18. (2) Janus. He was one of the Superior Gods of the Romans. They
represent him as of Thessalian origin, and as reigning- over the earliest and so-
called aboriginal inhabitants of Italy, in the time of Saturn. It was to Janus
that Saturn fled, and imder them was the golden age, a period of uninterrupted
peace. To Janus, therefore, Romulus dedicated that celebrated temple, which
was always open in time of war, and was closed with much solemnity, when-
ever there was general peace in the Roman empire ; a thing which happened
but three times during 724 years from the building of the city (cf. P. I. § 60).
From this deity the month of January was named, and the first day of the
month vi'as sacred to him.

1. He was considered as the inventor of locks, doors, and gates, which are thence
called janiicB. His name was applied to structures which were sometimes erected on
the Roman roads where four roads divided ; a sort of gateway with an arch opening
in each of the directions, and called a Janus. He was termed Father, and sometimes
God of gods. In sacrifices, prayers were first offered to Janus, and oblations were
made to liim, as being the door of access to the gods. — His original name was Djanus
or Dianus, which some have derived from dies, day. He is called the Sun, and was
the Sun-god or God of (he Year, of the original inhabhants of Italy. The story of his
friendly reception of Saturn is by some explained as referring to the agreement be-
tween the old inhabitants of Latium and the immigrating Pelasgi to worship the two
gods in common. — Janus was not received among the gods of the Greeks.

2 m. He is represented with a double, and sometimes with a quadruple face ; hence
the epithets Birep:^, Bifrons, Quadrifrons. He is also called Patulcius, Clusius, Con-
sivius, Custos, and Claviger.

3. The representation whh two faces in Plate XI. fig. 8, and in Sup. Plate 3, gives
fiis appearance on a number of consular coins. In Plate VII., on his temple, he ap-
pears with four faces. It is worthy of notice that the Brahma of the Hindoos is repre-

-lented with four heads. See Plate XII. Janus is also represented with a key in

one hand and a rod in the other, whh 12 altars beneath his feet, supposed by some to
refer to the 12 months of the year. His statue erected by Numa is said to have had
its fingers so composed as to signify 365, the number of days in a year.

§ 19. (3) Rhea or Cybele. The common name of the wife and sister of
Saturn, was Rhea or Ops. Yet the history and worship of Cyhele were after-
wards so entirely interwoven with those of Rhea, that both were considered the
same person, and although Rhea was said to be the daughter of Earth, were
each taken for Gaia or Tellus, and often called Vesta, and the great mother of
gods. The origin of Rhea belongs to the earliest periods of mythical story,
and hence the confusion in the accounts which are given of her.

Cybele, properly speaking, lived later; and was, according to tradition, a
daughter of Maeon a king of Phrygia and Lydia ; or according to others, in an
allegorical sense, the daughter of Protogonus. Her invention of various musical
instruments, and her love for Mys, a Phrygian youth, whose death rendered
her frantic, are the most prominent circumstances of her history.

Ovid, Fast. 4. 223.— CaZuiZiu, de At. et Ber.

Besides the names above mentioned, she was called 3Iater Dyndymena, Bere-
cynthia, and Idaea, Pessinuntia, and Bona Dea.

§ 20. That this goddess was a personification of the earth as inhabited and
fruitful, is supposed from the manner in which she was represented.

1 u. Her image was generally a robust woman, far advanced in pregnancy, with a
turreted mural crown on her head. Often she was borne in a chariot drawn by Uons ;
sometimes she rested upon a lion.

2. On gems, she is seen in a car drawn by Hons, holding in her hand a tambourine.
Such is her appearance, Plate X. fig. 2, taken from Montfaucon. In the Sup. Plate
3, she sits in a chair, with keys in her right hand, attended by hons. — She was also
formed whh many breasts, with a key or keys in her hand, sometimes a sceptre, and
frequently whh two lions under her arms. In Sup. Plate 5. is a remarkable repre.
sentation, given by Montfaucon (Ant. Ex. 1. p. 18). Cf. P. IV. § 156. 2.



94 GREEK AND ROMAN MYTHOLOGY.

A figure in silver with some parts plated with gold, and the whole elegantly fini*}hed, repre-
senting Cijbile, was found at Macon (ancient Matiscu) on the Saone, in 17(34.

This was published by Count Caylus, vol. vii. pi. 71. — AiUnon's Lcuipriere. — Saiiier, sur l&s statues de Cybele, in the .Wem.
Jlcad. Inscr. vol. v. p. 241.

§ 21. Her worship was especially cultivated in Phrygia, but spread thence
through Asia. The celebration of her festivals was exceedingly tumultuous,
as her priests (called Corybanies or GalH, and the chief one Archigallus) went
about with clamorous music and singing, acting like madmen and filling the
air with the mingled noise of shrieks, bowlings, drums, tabrets, bucklers and
spears.

1 u. The removal of her image from Pessinus to Rome, and the establishment of
her worship in the latter city, was a remarkable event. The festival called Megalesia
(from ncydXri, the great mother) was maintained in her honor.

ito. Hist. 29. 10, II, 14.— KaJ. Max. 8. 15.

2. The place called Fessinus was said to have derived its name from UeaeTv, to fall,
because it was the spot upon which the iinage of this goddess fell, being hke the fabled
Ancile and Palladium sent down from Jupiter.

At her festival, the Megalesia, Roman matrons danced before her altar ; the ma-
gistrates assisted in robes of purple ; a great concourse of people and strangers usually
assembled, and Phrygian priests bore the image of the goddess through the streets of
the city. The festival called Hilar ia was celebrated in a similar manner, and attended
with many indecencies.

3. There appears to be a strong resemblance between Cybele and Pracriti, the goddess of
pature among the Hindoos. The latter is represented as drawn by lions, and her festival is
attended with the beating of drums.

See Muores Hindoo Pactheon.— Cy/er7ian'» Mytholofty of the Hindoos.

§ 22. (4) Jupiter. The highest and most powerful among the gods was
called by the Greeks Zivc,^ by the Romans Jupiter. It would seem, that by
this god was originally represented nature in general ; afterwards, the superior
atmosphere i and finally the supreme existence. Many tales of the early history
of Crete were incorporated among the traditions respecting him. He was a son
of Saturn and Rhea, educated in Crete. He robbed his father of his kingdom,
and shared it with his two brethren, so that Neptune received the sea, Pluto
the infernal world, and himself the earth and heavens. The giants, sons of
the earth, disputed the possession of his kingdom with him, and attempted to
scale Olympus, but he defeated them with thunderbolts forged by the Cyclops.

Enraged by the corruption and wickedness of men, he destroyed the whole

-ace by a vast deluge, from which Deucalion and Pyrrha alone escaped. The
supposed date of this flood is not far from 1500 years B. C.

Olid, Melam. i. 151, 2m.—ClaudtanU Gijantomachia. Cf. P. V. § 3S6.

§ 23. The ordinary residence of Jupiter was upon Olympus, a mountain of
Thessaly, which the poets, on account of the constant serenity of its summit,
represented as a suitable place for the abode of the gods. (Cf. § 11.) — His
first wife was Metis, whom he destroyed, because it was foretold him, that she
would bear a child that would deprive him of the kingdom. Afterwards the
goddess Minerva was produced from his head. By his second wife, Themis,
He begat the Horse and the Parcse. — The third and most celebrated was Juno,
by whom he had his sons Mars and Vulcan. — Tradition, particularly the tales
respecting metamorphoses, relate numerous amors of Jupiter; e. g. with Eu-
ropa'-, Danae, Leda, Latona, Maia, Alcmena, Semele^, and lo^ Apollo, Mer-
cury, Hercules, Perseus, Diana, Proserpina, and many other gods and demigods
were called the children of Jupiter. The name of son or daughter of Jupiter,
however, was often employed merely to designate superior dignity and rank,
and not intended to imply literal relationship.

1 Ovid, Metam. ii. W6 2 n, \\\, 2r,5. 3 lb. \. 588.

§ 24. The worship of Jupiter was universally spread, and numerous temples
were erected to his honor. The largest and the most celebrated in Greece was
that in Olympic in Elis, remarkable for its own magnificence, and for its coloesal
Btatue of Jupiter wrought by Phidias, and for the Olympic games held in its
vicinity every fifth year. His oracle in the grove of oaks at Dodona was
renowned (cf. P. HI. § 71), and considered the most ancient in Greece. — In
Rome the Capitol was specially dedicated to him, and he had in that city many
temples.



p. II. SUPERIOR GODS. JUPITER. JUNO. 95

1 «. Jupiter is generally represented as sitting upon a throne, with a thunderbolt in
his right hand, and in his left a long scepter resembling a spear ; and the eagle, sacred
to him, standing near, or, as in some monuments, resting at his feet with extended
wings.

2. The' representation in the Sup. Plate 2 corresponds to the above description. — The
eagle sometimes is perched upon his scepter. Jupiter is plso spoken of as wearing
"golden shoes and an embroidered cloak adorned with various flowers and figures of
animals." — In the Sup. Plate 1 we have his appearance in a noble statue, from Spence's
Polyme tis. - In thestatue at Elis (see PI. XI. fig. 3) he is presented as " sitting upon
his throne, his left hand holding a scepter, his right extending victory to the Olympian
conquerors, his head crowned with olive, and his pallium decorated with birds, beasts,
and flowers. The four corners of the throne were dancing victories, each supported by
a sphinx tearing in pieces a Theban youth."

On the Olympian statue, see Flaxman^t Lect. p. 87, as cited P. IV. § 191.— Quafr. de Quincy, cited P. IV. § 160.

3. As Jupiter Ammon, he was represented as having the horns of a ram. Such
was the statue at his temple in Libya (cf. P. III. "5> 71). Thus he appears in the Sup.
Plate 29. On ceremonial occasions, and when the oracle was consulted, this statue,
sparkling with precious stones, was iDorne in a gilded barge on the shoulders of twenty-
four priests moving (it was pretended) just where the god impelled them, followed by a
troop of women singing hymns.

But the most singular representation is that given in the Sup. Plate 10, exhibiting
Jupiter Pluvialis, as found in a bas-relief at Rome, designed to commemorate his in-
terposition in sending rain on a certain occasion.

§ 25. This god received a multitude of names and titles derived from circum-
stances of his history, or the places of his worship.

1 u. The Greeks termed him Zevi, and applied to him various epithets, as the Idcean
(b 'iSaTos), Olympic {'OXvixniKos), Dodoncean (AwJwi/aroy), thimderer (Kcpavvios), deliverer
(£/\£t;9£ptoj), hospitable (^£"'0?), punisher of the perjured (ookios), &c. The Romans
styled him Optimus Maximmt, Capitolinus, Stator, Diespiter, Feretrius, &c. As the
avenger of crime, he was called also Vtjovis or Vedius ; yet some consider these as
names of another distinct divinity ; and others take them for names of Pluto.

2. Among the epithets applied by the Greeks were also the following ; from his
sending rain, SixSpio?, vetios, vecpeXvyeperris, dp(Tiv£<pr]g; from his darting thunder, dors-
porrjrrji, jSpovraio;, repTTiKEpavi/oi ; from his protection of suppliants, Ikectios, iKerfaios. The
Romans also called him sometimes Inventor, Elicius, Latiulis, Sponsor, Victor, Plu-
vialis. — His Latin name Jupiter is from ZsC Ilarep, Z being changed into J. From Zevj
(in Doric 'S6£vs and ^olic ^£vs) came also probably the Latin 3eus. The word is by
some supposed to be of eastern origin ; others say it is applied to this deity as the source
of life from ^aw.

3. Very discordant opinions have been maintained respecting the meaning of the
various fables about Jupiter. It is evident, that attributes drawn from many different
personages and probably eastern deities were associated with his name, in the descent



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