Johann Joachim Eschenburg.

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of mythological traditions from one generation to another. When the different tales
are united, they form a very incongruous mixture, combining historic narrative, poetic
ornament, and philosophical allegory,

4. Sir William Jones, with much ingenuity and learning, has attempted to show that the Greeks
and Romans embodied in their Jupiter the special attributes which the Hindoos ascribe distinc-
tively to the three divinities of their famous triad, named Brahma, Vishnu, and Siva. In essen-
tial attributes, Brahma is said to be the creator, Vishnu the preserver, and Siva the destroyer
and re-producer. Each of these offices is ascribed to Jupiter in the classical fables, according to
Sir William. — The Hindoo deities are given in our Plate XH. as usually seen in Bengal : Brahma
with four faces and four hands, holding a spoon, a rosary, a portion of a Veda or Hindoo sacred
book, and a vessel of the water of ablution ; Vishnu with four hands, in one of which is a sort
of ring or discus, which is said to send out flames of fire when twirled on his finger, and in the
others a shell used for a trumpet, a sort of club, and a lotus ; Siva, having a trident in one hand
and a rope in another for binding offenders, with serpents for his ear-rings, and a string of humaa
heads for his necklace. He has a third eye in his forehead.

It is worthy of notice, that the Hindoo fables represent Vishnu as assuming difTerent forms oy
successive incarnations, in the exercise of his attributes as preserver. Ten incarnations, or
Avatars, are specially designated. These are represented by the ten engravings in our Plate
XIII. "All the Avatars are painted with gemmed Ethiopian, or Parthian, coronets; with rays
encircling their heads; jewels in their ears; two necklaces, one straight and one pendant on
their bosoms with dropping gems ; garlands of many-colored flowers, or collars of pearls, hang-
ing down below their waists ; loose mantles of golden tissue or dyed silk, embroidered on their
hems with flowers, elegantly thrown over one shoulder ; with bracelets on one arm and on each
wrist ; they are naked to the waists, and uniformly with dark azure flesh ; but their skirts are
bright yellow, the color of the curious pericarpium in the centre of the water-lily ; they are
sometimes drawn with that flower in one hand; a radiated elliptical ring, used as a missile
weapon, in a second ; the sacred shell, or left-handed buccinuin, in a third ; and a mace or bat-
tle-axe, in a fourth." Nine of these incarnations the Hindoo tales describe as having alreadv
occurred. The tenth is to take place at some future period, when Vishnu will descpnd from
heaven on a white winged horse, and will introduce on earth a eolden ase of virtue and poace.—
It should be remarked in this connection, that Crishna is celebrated in Hindoo mythology as aA


incarnate deity. According to Sir VVm. Jones, he is considered distinct from all the Avatars
these had only a portion of the divinity; "while Criihna was the person of Vishnu himself in
human form " In the Hindoo pictures, Crishiia sometimes appears among the Avatars; he is
*'more splendidly decorated than any of them, and wears a rich garland of sylvan flowers as low
as his ankles, which are adorned with strings of pearls."

See Sir Wm. Jones, on the gods of Greece, Ilaly, and India, in his IPbrhs and Life by Lord Teignmouth, Lond IS07. 18 vols. 8.
(Toi. iii. p. 318.)— Cf. Monthly Papers of the A. B. Comm. for For. Miss., Nos. ii. and vii. May and Oct. 1832.— f^ard, as cited § 12.

§ 26. (5) Juno. The wife and sister of Jupiter, daughter of Saturn and
Rhea, and as wife of Jupiter mistress of gods and men, was called by the
Greeks "Hpa, and by the Romans Juno. Her birthplace was assigned by the
Greeks to Argos, or the island Samos, and to other spots in Greece, although
her story and her worship were rather of Phoenician origin. The chief pecu-
liarities of her character were love of power, and jealousy ; the latter passion
was constantly inflamed and fed by Jupiter's infidelity. — In consequence of this
jealousy she wrought several metamorphoses, as in the case of Calisto* and
Galanthis^. Hence also her wrath against lo'' and SemeleS and her ill-will
towards the Trojans because Paris denied her the prize of beauty in the contest
with Pallas and Venus. By her jealousy she often aroused the anger of Ju-
piter, who once, according to Homer's representation^, suspended her in the air
by a golden chain. Ixion's love for her was punished by Jupiter with ever-
lasting torture, he being bound to a wheel constantly revolving.

1 Ooid, Metam. ii. 474. 2 /i. jx. 306. 3 jb. \. 568. 4 [b. iii. 156. 5 Uiad, xv. 15, 18.

. § 27. The worship of Juno was far spread, and the number of her templeg
and festivals was very great. Her worship was especially cultivated in Argos,
Samos, Sparta, Mycenae, and Carthage, cities which committed themselves
particularly to her protection. In Elis were games, every fifth year, sacred tc
her, called 'HpoTa. This was the name also of her great festival celebrated at
Argos and other places, which was likewise called kxatoji^oia, because it was
customary on the occasion to sacrifice a hecatomb of oxen at the temple of the
goddess. There was a similar festival at Rome, called Jiinonia and Junona-

Ha. From her, tutelary angels or guardians of females were called among

the Romans Junones. The Roman women took their oaths in her name, as
the men did in the name of Jupiter. Both Greeks and Romans honored her as
the protectress of marriage. — The Romans dedicated to her the month of June,
named^ after her. — She is often described by the poets as the Queen of gods
and men,

» Ovid, Fast vi. 26.

1. Juno had a great variety of names ; as Argiva, Cingula, Egeria, Juga (Zvyia)^
Lucinia or Luc ina, Moneta, Nuplialis {TaM^^<*), Opigena, Populonia, SospUa, Unxia,

2 u. Her daughters were Hebe, goddess of youth ; and Ilithyia, who presided over
births. Her messenger and servant was Iris, the goddess of tlie rainbow.

3. Hebe was employed to hand round the nectar at the feasts of the gods. Her office of cup-
dearer afterwards fell to Ganymedes. When Hercules was admitted to Olympus, Hebe became
his spouse. — In fig. 4, PI. XIV. she is represented as pouring out the nectar, with tlie bird of Jove
by her side. — In the beautiful design presented in the Sup. Plate 7, she is also seen pouring out
the drink of the gods.

§ 28. The ancient artists endeavored to exhibit the haughtiness and jealousy
of Juno in their representations of her. Among the symbols of her attributes,
the most remarkable was the peacock, held as sacred to her; and found by her
side in many figures. Sometimes her chariot is drawn by two peacocks. She
was frequently represented by Roman artists upon their coins, which, however,
often contain the Empresses exhibited as Junes.

1. She is usually represented as a grave, majestic matron; usually with a sceptre in
her hand, and a veil on her head and a crown decked with flowers ; sometimes she
has a spear in her hand, or a patera, or vessel for sacrifices. The peacock is some-
times at her feet. Thus she appears in our Plate XI. fig. 1. In the Sup. Plate 2, are
seen two peacocks and the chariot, with Iris flying above. — Homer exhibits her in a
chariot adorned with gems, having wheels with brazen spokes and naves of silver, and
horses with reins of gold. But generally she is represented as drawn by peacocAs in
a golden cnariot.

2. The fables respecting Juno are interpreted differently according to the meaning
attached to those respecting Jupiter. When Jupiter is considered as typifying, or



aJegorically representing, the active productive power iu nature, Juno is the passive.
Their quarrels are then explained as physical alie„^uries.

§ 29. (6) Neptuxe. The government of the waters of the earth was, in the
division of authority already mentioned (§ 22), assigned to the brother of Ju-
piter, called liontibCjv, or Neptune, The idea of a god ruling the waters arose
from the surprise of the first observers of the power of that element ; even be-
fore Neptune, Oceantis, son of the heavens and the earth, and husband of Thetis,
was honored as god of the sea. Oceanus was, according to Hesiod, orie of tbe
Titans, and was considered as ruler of the exterior waters encompassing the
earth, while the interior seas and rivers were assigned to Neptune.

1. A statue dug up at Rome about the sixteenth century, represents Oceanus as an old man
Bitting on the waves of the sea, with a sceptre in his hand, and a sea-monster by him. On an
ancient gem he is represented in a similar manner. In our Plate XLIII. he appears in a recum-
bent posture.

2 u. The wife of Neptune was Amphitrite, a daughter of Nereus or Oceanus and
Doris. He obtained Amphitrite by the aid of a dolphin, and in return honored the fish
with a place among the constellations. The principal sons of Neptune were Triton,
Phorcus, Proteus, and Glaucus. The chief characteristics of these minor deities ot
the sea were the power of divination and ability to change their forms at pleasure. The
daughters of Nereus and Doris were the so-called Nereides, or sea-nymphs, fifty in
number. They belonged to the train of Neptune and were subservient to his will.

§ 30. The principal exploits and merits ascribed to Neptune are, the assist-
ance rendered to his brother Jupiter against the Titans ; the building of the
walls and ramparts of Troy ; the creation and taming of the horse ; the rais-
ing of the island Delos out of the sea ; and the destruction of Hippolytus by
a monster from the deep. He was feared also as the author of earthquakes and
deluges, which he caused or checked at pleasure by his trident. The fol-
lowing are some of his many names and epithets ; 'Ac^uXlo^, upholding the
earth; 2 EKJi,';t^wr, earth-shaker ; "iTtri^io^, Petraeus, Co7isus.

1. Various etymologies have been given of the name noo-Ei^wj/ and Neptune. The
latter is by some derived from Niiho, because the water covers or conceals the earth;
the former from '^ovs and (Jscj, as Neptune binds the feet, that is, man cannot walk on
the water. But such speculations cannot be relied on. The government and pro-
tection of ships was committed to him. He also presided over the horse, which was
sacred to him, and over horse-races; at the festival of the Consualia all horses were
allowed to rest from labor.

2 u. The Greeks seemed to have derived the worship of this god not from Egypt,
but Libya. He was honored particularly in cities situated near the coasts, as presiding
over their navigation. Thus at Nisyrus, on the isthmus of Corinth, he had a cele-
brated temple, and also on the promontory of Taenarus. Of his temples at Rome, the
most noted was that in the ninth district (cf P. I. § 54). containing a suite of pictures
representing the Argonautic voyage. The victims usually sacrificed to Neptune were
horses and bulls. In honor of him the Greeks maintained the Isthmian Games, and the
Romans the Neptunalia and the Consualia, which were afterwards, from the place of
celebration, called Ludi Circenses.

§ 31. His figure upon remaining monuments is in accordance with the dignity
ascribed to him, commanding and majestic, with a front calm and serene even
in anger. In his hand he commonly holds the trident, or a long antique sceptre,
with three tines, with which he makes the earth tremble and throws the waters
into commotion. He is often described as moving upon the waters, drawn in
a chariot by dolphins or war-horses, and surrounded by a retinue of attendants.

The representations of Neptune are various. Sometimes he stands upright in a
large sea-shell, holding his trident, and arrayed in a mantle of blue or sea-green ; as in
our Plate X. fig. 5. Sometimes he appears treading on the beak of a ship. Often he
is sitting in a chariot, or a shell with wheels, drawn by sea-horses ; sometimes accom-
panied by his wife Amphitrite as in Plate XLHI. His image is very frequent on coins
and medals. He is described as having black hair and blue eyes.

Cf. Viri. S-rt. i. 124. Horn. 11. xiii. 20. Virg. S.n. i. 155. Stat. Achil. i. 60.— See Fonttnu, Le Culte des divinltei des eaux,
in the Mem. Acnd. Imar. xii. p. 27.

§ 32 a. (7) Pluto. He was a second brother of Jupiter, and received, as
his portion in the division of empire, the infernal regions, or the world of shades.
Under this idea the ancients imagined the existence of regions situated down
"^•iir below the earth, and they represented certain distant and desert lands as


serving for a path and entrance to the under world. Hence the fictions respect-
ing Acheron, Styx, Cocytus, and Phlegethon, as being rivers of Hell. These
regions below the earth were considered as the residence of departed souls,
where after death they received rewards or punishments according to their con-
duct upon earth. The place of reward was called Elysium; that of punish-
ment, Tartarus.

1. The residence of departed souls was termed by the Greeks aSr^, Hades. It is im-
portant to bear in mind this fact in reading the passages of the New Testament, where
this word occurs. The term, although sometimes rendered grave, and sometimes hell,
properly signifies the world of departed spirits, and includes both the place of happiness
and the place of misery. C"f Luke xvi. 23.

It was a part of the office of Mercury to conduct the shades of the dead in the region called
Hades. Hence he is sometimes represented as in the act of opening or slmtting the doors or
gates of a tomb; as on the monument given in Plate XVIII. fig. 4. and in the Sup. Plate 14.
This figure is given in Taylor's Calniet to illustrate the expression ''Gates of Hades," in Matt.
xvi. 18.

On the Dieanin; of the term Bodes, see M. Stuart, Exegetical Essays, &c. Ando. 1S30. \2.— Spirit of t?ie Pilgrims, vol. iv
p. 539 ss.—CampbeU, Diss, in his Transl of the Gospels.

2. Departed mortals were adjudged to F.bjsium or to Tartarus by the sentence of Minos and
his fellow judges (cf. $ 34), in the Field uf Truth. — Elysium is described as adorned with beauti-
ful gardens, smiling meadows, and eiichaniing groves; where birds ever warble ; where the
river Eridanus winds between banks (ringed with laurel, and "divine Lethe" glides in a quiet
valley; where the air is always pure, and the day serene ; where the blessed have their de-
lightful abode. — Tartarus is represented as a "hideous prison of immense depth, surrounded by
the miry bogs of Cocytus, and the river Phlegethon which rolls with torrents of Ilames," and
guarded by "three rows of walls with brazen gates;" here the Furies torment their wretched
victims, and all the wicked sutler according to their crimes. — Viriril speaks of seven portions in

the regions of the departed ; Tartarus and Elysium being the sixth and seventh. Although

Elysium was considered by all as the residence of the blessed, its situation is variously stated;
some placed it in the center of the earth, adjoining Tartarus ; others placed it in the middle re-
gions of the air ; others, in the moon ; others, in the sun ; more commonly, however, the man-
sions of the blessed were said to be in the Fortunate Islands, Insula Fnrta'vatcB (cf P. I. $ 183). — •
Tartarus is also variously located; Homer places it in the country of the Cimmerians, supposed
by some to have been around Tarlessus in Spain, and by others to have been near Baia; in Italy;
Virgil places the entrance to it, or rather the entrance to Hades, in a cave near lake Avernus in
Italy; others place the entrance at the promontory of Ta^narus ; others, in Thesprotia. — In the
Sup. Plate 13, is a composition designed to represent the Tartarus of ancient mythology. Charon
in his boat, Pluto with his sceptre, and the three .ludgns appear in the fore-ground, with several
mortals awaiting their sentence. The Furies are lashing two criminals just given over to their
power; and various offenders are suffering their peculiar punishments as narrated by the poets;
for which see the history of Prometheus and others, especially Ixion and the other offenders
mentioned under $ 34 b.

On the views of the ancients respecting the state of the soul after death, cf. Homer, Od. ^\.—jBSsckylxts, in bis Prometheus and
Peirae. — Plato, in his PhaeJo. — Cieero. De conlemnenda morte, and Somnium Scipionis. — VirgiL, Ma. vi. cf. Tibvll. El. i. 3 vs. 57 ss.
^Gibbon, on Virgil's Sn. vi., in hisiWusce'Zajieot/s li'orks. — Beyne, Excursuses in his editions of Virgil and Homer (cf. P. V. § 50. 5.
§ 362. 4).— C. F. Kdgelsbach, Die Homerische Theologie iu ibrem Zusammenhange. Narnb. 1840. S.—De Fuumiont, L'E«fer
Poetique, iu the Mem. Acad. Inscr. vol. iii. b.— Class. Joum. iii. 276. xi. 3IS.

% 32 u. The chief incident in the history of Pluto is his seizure and abduction of
UepaEipovrf, or Proserpine, who thereby became his wife, and the queen of the lower
world. She was a daughter of Jupiter and Ceres. The circumstances of this event
are related fully and poetically by Claudian^ and Ovid^, and furnished the ancient artists
with frequent subjects for their skill in device and representation^.

1 De raptu Proserpins, L. iii. — ^ Metam. v. 341. 3 See Montfaueon, Ant. Expl. T. I. pi. 37-41.— See also our Plate X. X

and the Sup. Plate 14 ; in both which the seizure and abduction are represented.

The name of Proserpine was sometimes applied to Diana, when considered as a goddess of the
lower world. Cf $ 39.

§ 33 u. Pluto is represented both by poets and artists with an air menacing, terrible,
and inexorable. The latter usually exhibit him upon a throne, with a bifurcated scej-
tre, or a key, in his hand. A rod is sometimes put into his hand instead of his sceptre
The device which places upon his head a sort of bushel or measuring-vessel, instead
of a crown, is of Egyptian origin, borrowed from the images of Serapis.

1. He appears crowned with ebony; sometimes with cypress leaves; sometimes
with flowers of narcissus. He is also someiimes represented in the act of bearing oft*
Proserpine in a chariot dra%vn by winged dragons ; such is the appearance in our Plate
X. fig. 3. — In the Sup. Plate 11 he appears with a long beard, in a sitting posture, rest-
ing his head on one hand, holding in the other a long sceptre, with Cerberus at his feet.

2. He is said to have possessed a helmet which rendered its wearer invisible; like the magic
ring of the Lydian Gyges (cf. Cic. de Off. iii. 9. Herod, i. 8).

§ 34 a. His worship was universal; but it was attended with special soleiu
nities in Bceotia, particularly at Coronea. His temple at Pylos in Messenia
was also celebrated. The Roman gladiators consecrated themselves to Pluto..


The victims offered to him were usually of a black color. Some of his prin-
cipal names were Zavj orvytoj, Suranus, Summanus, Febnius.

The Greeks named him IlXovruv as some suppose from »Xo{iroj, wealth, which comes
from the bowels of the earth. The Romans gave iiim the name Vis, having the same
sense. He is also called "KSn':, Orcus, Jupiier inftnius, &lc. — His chief festival was
in February, when the Romans offered to him the sacrifices called Ftbrua, whence the
name of the month. His rites were performed by niglu or in the darlt. The cypress
was sacred to him, branches of which were carried at funerals.

§ 34 b. Under the control of Pluto were the three judges of the lower
world, Minos, Rhadamanihus, and ^^acus. These decided the condition
of all the spirits brought into Pluto's realms by Charun. Minos held th
first rank. They were sons of Jupiter. They appear in Grecian history as rea

1 u. At the entrance to the world of shades, in Pluto's vestibule, lav the dog Cerle
rus, a three-headed monster, that hindered the spirits from returning to the upper
world. The most memorable of those represented as punished in Tartarus were Ixion,
Sisyphus, Tityus, Phlegyas, Tantalus, the Danaides, and the Aloides.

2. Charon is said to have been the son of Erebus and Nox. His office was to con-
duct the souls of the dead in a boat over the rivers Styx and Acheron to the realms of
Pluto. As all were obhged to pay to him an obolus, a small piece of money, it was
customary to place a coin for that purpose under the tongue of the deceased before the
funeral rites. Such as had not been honored with a funeral were compelled to wander
on the shore a hundred years before they could be transported.

In the Sup. Plate 14, Charon is seen sitting in his boat, in the act of receiving the obolus from
a mortal introduced by Mercury.

3. The fable respecting Charon is borrowed from the Egyptians, who had the custom of a trial
and sentence upon their deceased, before allowing them the honors of burial. For this trial afl
were carried across a lake in a boat, whose helmsman was called Charon.

Rollin, Anc. Hist. bk. i. cti. 2. sect. 2— Of Class. Joum. vol. xxiii. p. T.— Bulletin dts Sciences Historiques, vol. iv. p. 352.

4. There are numerous representations on the monuments of Egyptian art which seem to refer
to this trial or judgment of the soul. It appears to be often symbolized by the figure of a pair of
scales or balances, as if it were a loeio-hinsr "f the snul (iLivx''<^Ta(Ti(i); to which there may be an
allusion in the prophet's interpretation of the mysterious writing on the wall of Belshazzar's
dining-room {Dan. v. 27). In fig. B. of our Plate XVIII. is a representation of this kind; in
which we see the Egyptian balances, and a number of priests and allegorical or mythical per-

This drawing is reduced from one given in the great French work styled Description ds VEgypte, &c. cf. F. IV. § 231. — SeeMem
de VJnstitut, Classe d^Histoire et Lit. Anc. vol. v. p. S4. sur la Psychoslasie, ou pesse des ames, with piate.

§ 35. (8) Afolt.o. The earliest and most natural form of idolatry was the wor-
ship of the stars, and especially of the sun, whose splendor, light, heat, and salutary
influence upon all nature, were taken as the supernatural and independent powers
of a deity. Hence the ancient fiction ascribing personality to this luminary,
which was worshiped by the Egyptians under the name of Ilorus, by the Per-
sians under that of Mithras, by the later Greeks and Romans under that of
Phoebus (^ot,i3o$) and Apollo. The two latter people, however, considered their
"H^ioj and Sul as a separate divinity, and attached tQ the history of Apollo
many circumstances not connected with his original character as the god of

The worship of the Persian Mithras {'■'■Mithras Persidkus"), is said to have been introduced at
Rome in the time of Pompey ; altars being erected with the inscription, Deo Soli invicto Mifhrm —
Some of the antique representations of this god are very remarkable. On the engraved stones
called Abrazas (cf P. IV. $ 200), he often appears under the figure of a lion, or of a man with a
lion's head. In the Sup. Plate 9, are two representations. The first is from a bas-relief found
at Rome, about IfifiQ; the image is a man draped below the loins, bavins two wings on each
shoulder, with a head partly that of a lion, and a lighted flambeau in each hand; a serpent
twines around his shoulders and wings, and from his mouth issues a sort of fillet or ribin,
which in the original monument floats over a blazing altar. — The other is from a marble bas-
relief, found at Rome in a house near the theatre of Pompey ; in this Mithras appears a vigorous
young man, with a turban on his head, his knee resting on a prostrate bull ; with one hand he
holds the nostrils, and with the other plunges a dagger (uciiiaces) into the neck of the animal ; a
dog leaps up to catch the falling blood, while another lies near by, apparently barkins: ; a scor-
pion adheres to the lower side of the bull, and a slain or sleeping serpent is stretched at his feet.
The monument has several accompanying images, some of which are given in the engraving,
although not in their original place ; two youths appear with flambeaux, that of one being in-
verted ; a man with a radiated head occupies a chariot with four horses leaping in apparent
fnght; in another chariot is a woman with horns or crescents attached to her head, almost
thrown out by the stumbling of her horses ; denoting doubtless the sun and moon.

See Monffaucon, Antiq. Expl. vol. i. p. 367-384.— Creuzer, Symtiolik und Mythologie, &c. vol. i. p. 345 ss.— Cf. Sm\th, Did
»f Aatu). o. &


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