Johann Joachim Eschenburg.

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Heyne, Qber die Vorstellungsarten der Venus, in his .intiquar. AufsUtze.—Manso, Abhandl. Qber die Venus, in his Varsuche. ilber
mythologische Gegenstiiyide.

2 u. Various attributes were given to her, under the different characters of Venus
Urania, Marina, Victrix, &c. She was hkewise known under the names Eryciiia,
Anadyomene (dvacvonhri), Paphin, Idalia.

3. Her names and epithets were exceedingly numerous ; as, Cypria, Uav^vito;, Cythe-
Tea, ^ikojiubm, TiXecrciyaiioi, Verticordia, 'Eraipa, Acidalia, Lihertina, Saligenita,
Kia\aaaia, &LC.

§ 50. The son of this goddess, ^'Epu?, Jrnur, or Cupid, was her common
companion, and the god of love, which he was supposed to influence by his
arrows. He is represented with a bow and arrows", often with a burning torch
in his hand. He was very frequently exhibited on ancient works of art, and
ID agreat variety of fo^ms^ Often several Cupids appear in company. — 'Avrfpwj,



p. Tl. - SUPEklOR GODS. VULCAN. 107

.inferos, who is usually considered the god of mutual love, was originally t) o
god that avenges despised love. He is sometimes represented as wresthnif
with Cupid.

a See our Plate XI. fig. 9. 1> Cf. Manso, as cited § 49. 1.— See Plate X. fig. 6, and Sup. Plates 7 and 9.

1 u. The attachment of Cupid to Psyche is the chief incident in his history and forms
one of the most beautiful allegories of antiquity.

The allegory is found in Jipulnvs (cf. P. V. $ 471. 2). For expositions, cf. Keightley, p. 148, as
cited $ 12.2. (ft). — Psvche is usually represented with the winsrs of a butterfly; as in the statue
(Psyche in terror of Venus) given in our Sup. Plate 8.— See also Plate XLVII. fig. 5; cf. P. IV. $ 198.

2. Hymenaeus was also one of the imaginary companions of Venus. He presided
over marriage. He was represented as of fair complexion, crowned with the amaracus
or sweet marjoram, carrying in one hand a torch and in the other a veil of flame color,
indicating the blushes of a virgin.

In the Sup. Plate 9, Hymenaeus is seen leading by a chain Cupid and Psyche ; from an antique
sculpture representing their nuptials.

§ 51. (13) Vulcan. In unenlightened periods, the violent agencies of the
elements, as well as the appearances of the heavenly luminaries, excited as-
tonishment and were deified. Traces of the worship of fire are found in the
earliest times. The Egyptians had their god of fire, from whom the Greeks
derived the worship of "H^at'jroj, called by the Romans Vulcanus or Vulcan.
Fable styles him the son of Jupiter and Juno. On account of his deformity
his mother thrust him^ from Olympus; or, according to another story, Jupiter
hurled him out, because he attempted to help Juno when fastened by the golden
chain. He fell upon the island Lemnos, afterwards his chief residence, and
was, according to the later fictions^ lamed by his fall.

» Ham. U. xviii. 395. i. 590. a Vad. Flac. Argon, ii. 87.

§ 52. To Vulcan was ascribed the invention of all those arts that are con-
nected with the smelting and working of metals by means of fire, which ele-
ment was considered as subject to him. His helpers and servants in such
works were the Cyclops, sons of Uranus and Gaia, whose residence also was
in Lemnos, and of whom there are commonly mentioned three, Brontes, Sle-
ropes, and Pyrakmon. These are to be distinguished from the Sicilian Cyclops
of a later period.

1. The epithet Cyclopean is applied to certain structures of stone, chiefly walls, in
which large masses of rough stone are nicely adjusted and fitted together.

Cf. p. rv. § 231. 3. Freret, L'Histoire des Cyclops, Mem. Acad. Inscr. xxiii. 27.

2ii. Mount .(Etna was represented as the workshop of Vulcan ; so also Lipara, one
of the ^Eohan isles, called hkewise-Vulcanian. — Works requiring peculiar art and
extraordinary strength, especially v,'hen metals were employed as materials, were
called by the poets Vulcan's masterpieces. Among these were the palaces of Phoebus',
of Mars2, and Venus^; the golden chain of Juno'*, the thunderbolts of Jupiter^, the
crown of Ariadne^, the arms of Achilles'', and of ^neas"^, &c.

1 Ou. Metam. ii. 1. a Stat. Theb. vii. 38. 3 Claud. Epithal. Honor, et Mar. v. 5S. * Pausan. Alt. c. 20. Lacon. c 17.

5 Ou. Metam. i. 258. 6 Oo. Fast. iii. 513. ^ Horn. II. xviii. 46S. s yirg. Ma. viii. 407.

3. Vulcan is said to have formed, by request of Jupiter, the first woman; she was called Pan-
dora, because each of the gods gave her some present or accomplishment.

In the Sup. Plate 4, is a composition designed to exhibit the gods assembled to bestow their gifts on the woman. — See Hesiod,
Works and Days, vs. 94.

§ 53. According to the earlier fictions, Vulcan had for his wife Charis, oi
Aglaia; and according to the later, Venus, after Minerva had rejected him.
Harmonia was his daughter, or the daughter of INIars and Venus. The Giants
Cacus and Caeculus were called his sons. — He was worshiped particularly in
Lemnos, and the Vulcanian isles. A temple was dedicated to him upon ^tna.
At Rome the Vulcanalia were celebrated in honor of him, and at Athens the

1. A calf and a male pig were the principal victims offered in sacrifice to him. — Those
who followed arts and employments requiring the use of fire, especially rendered honor
and worship to Vulcan. " The hon, who in his roaring seems to dart fire from his
mouth, was consecrated to Vulcan ; and dogs were set apart to keep his temple."

2m. Some of his names are the following: Lemnius, Midciher, Cyllopcdes {kvWo-
vootii), Amphigyeis {dii<pLyvriei<;).

3 Some writers derive the name and story of Vulcan from Tubal-Cain, mentioned by Mose?



108 . GREEK AND ROMAN MYTHOLOGY.

(Gen. iv. 22). Cf. Holwell, Myth. Diet. The ancients gave various etymologies of the name,

Servius says it was derived from volitans, because the sparks of fire fly in the air; the account
given bj Varro is similar (see $ 54. 2).

§ 54. Vulcan was usually represented as enoraged in his work, with hammer
and pincers in his hands ; sitting more frequently than standing. His lameness
is not indicated in any existing monuments, although it was in some ancient
statues.

1. Cicero, speaking of one of these statues, says (De Nat. Deor. i. 30), "We ad-
mire that Vulcan of Athens, made by Alcamenes; he is standing, clothed, and appears
lame without any deformity." — Some of the common representations of this god are
seen in our Plate X. fig. 4, and Sup. Plate 6.

2. "That by Vulcan is understood fire, the name itself discovers, if we believe Varro, who says
that the word Vulcanus is derived from the force and violence of fire (Vulcanius, quasi Folica-
nns, quod itrnis per aereni viilitat, vel a vi ac violentia iirnis'); and tiierefore he is painted with a

blue hat, a'symbol of the celestial or elementary fire." (Tooke.) " Vulcan was represented

covered with sweat, blowing with his nervous arms the fires of his forges. His breast was
hairy, and his forehead blackened with smoke. Some represented him lame and deformed,
holding a hammer in the air ready to strike ; while with the other hand he turns with pincers a
thiindnrholt on his anvil (aKixiov). He appears on some monuments with a long beard, disheveled
hair, half naked, and a small round cap on his head, with hammer and pincers in his hand."
(Lemp.)— The medals of Lemnos usually bear a representation of Vulcan, with the legend Deo
Vulcano.

3. The representations of Vulcan show that the anvil of ancient times was formed like the modem. It was placed on a large block
of wood (a.Kji69tTov) ; cf. Horn. Oi. viii. 274. Virg. J¥,\\. vii. 629.— In early times, it was made of bronze, as were also tba
LammeranJ pincers ; cf. Uom. Od. iii. 433.— SmtlA'j Diet. Ant. p. 512.

§ 55. (14) Mercury. The Greeks borrowed the worship of this god from the
Egyptians, whose Hermes Trismegistus is so celebrated in their early history.
According to the Greek and Roman fables, 'Ep^^5, Mercurius or Mercury, was
the son of Jupiter and Maia. Maia was a daughter of Atlas, found by Jupiter
in the cave Cyllene in Arcadia, and afterwards with her six sisters placed by
him among the stars, thus forming the constellation named Pleiades from their
mother Pleione.

The principal characteristics of ]\Iercnry were cunning and dexterity, which
he exhibited even in his childhood, and not always in the most praiseworthy
manner. This appears from the tricks related of him, and from the circum-
stance, that he was considered as the god not only of mercature, but also of
theft ; although the latter, in early times was not viewed so much as a crime,
as an evidence of power and adroitness. Mercury stole the cattle of Admetus
guarded by Apollo, Apollo's arrows, the girdle of Venus, the pincers of Vul-
can, &c.

1 u. By his flute the guardian of lo, even the hundred-eyed Argus, was lulled to
sleep. {Ov. Metam. i. 668.) — The principal means of his success in his feats was his
eloquence ; this art was ascribed to him in a high degree. He invented also the lyre,
attaching strings to the shell of the tortoise, and presented it to Apollo. In return
Apollo gave him the celebrated wand {caduceus), the origin of which is variously stated;
its efficacy was potent in calming the passions and stilluig contention. Mercury carried
this rod as the messenger of the gods, and employed it to awaken dreams, and to con-
duct the shades of the dead to the lower world ; tor he was called to offices and labors
in that world, as well as on earth and in Olympus.

2 The caduceus was a rod with wings at one end, and entwined by two serpents in the form
of equal semicircles. Originally it was nothing more than a rod adorned with green leaves, and
witha skillfully tied knot as the symbol of traffic. In a later age these decorations were changed
by the poets into serpents and wings. Various interpretations of the meaning of it have been
given. Prudence is generally supposed to be represented by the two serpents, and the wings are
the symbol of diligence: both necessary in the pursuit of business and commerce, which Mer-
cury patronized."

On the mythological character of Mercury, Class. Journal, xvi. 22i.—£'6ttiger''s Amalthea, i. W4.—Bottiger's Vasengem, ii. 97.

§ 56 a. Mercury is usually represented as a slender youth, holding his wand,
almost always in motion, either flying or rapidly marching, wearing a winged
hat (peiasiis), and winged sandals {talaria). Sometimes he holds a purse in
his hand, as the god of commerce ; sometimes a tortoise appears by him in
reference to his invention of the lyre. The cock was sacred to him, and appears
sometimes as an attribute in the images of Mercury.

1. In our Plate XI. fig. 2, we have a common representation of Mercury flying ; and
another similar, in the Sup. Plate 2. — In the Sup. Plate 7, he is seen attending on
liipiter and Juno.— In our Plate XVIII. fig. 4, and in the Sup. Plate 14 (illustrations



p. II. SUPERIOR GODS. MERCURY. BACCHUS. 109

named Door of Hell and Charon), he appears in his office of conductor of the shades
of the dead. Cf. ^32a. 1.

2 m. The monuments called iJerm<B (see P. IV. "J 164) were originally statues of
Mercury. They had their origin when art was in a very imperfect slate, but were
afterwards retained, and were used to represent other gods and memorable men.

§ 56 b. The worship of Mercury was very common among Egyptians, Greeks,
and Romans, and many temples were consecrated to him. At Rome there was
a particular festival {festum Mercatorum) held for the expiation of merchants,
in honor of IMercury.

1. At this festival, held in the middle of the day, the votaries sacrificed to him a sow
or a calf, and offered especially the tongues of animals, and sprinkling themselves with
water, prayed to him to forgive all their artful measures or falsehoods in pursuit of gain.

2 u. The more common epithets applied to Mercury are Cyllenius, Atlantiades , Ales,
AsorcBUs {dyupaXoi), Caducifer.

3. Other common epithets are ' Apyct.(p6vn]; , SiaKrcop, and oSriydf, he is also termed
JdXtoj, crafty; Kspcoiog, as presiding over wealth; TpiK£(pa\os, because his statues were placed
where three ways met.

§ 57. (15) Bacchus. The Greeks and the Romans worshiped the inventor
and god of wine, under the name o( Bacchus, Bax;^oj; the former also called
him AtovDcfoj. In the fictions of both, he was the son of .Tupiter and Seme le,
a daughter of Cadmus. In answer to her request, Jupiter appeared to her in
his full majesty and divinity, the fiery splendor of which caused her death.^
Jupiter saved alive the infant Bacchus not yet born, and carried him in his own
thigh until the proper time of his birth. Hence, according to some etymolo-
gists, the poets called him 6t^vpa^t/3oj, as having been twice born ; a name
which was afterwards given to the irregular hyrnns^ sung at his festivals.

1 Ou. Met. iii 260. 2 Cf. F. V. § 22. P. iii. § 77. 3.

§ 58. The ancients ascribed to Bacchus manifold offices, and related a multi-
tude of achievements as performed by him. Especially was he celebrated for
his advancement of morals, legislation, and commerce; for the culture of the
vine and the rearing of bees ; and for his military expeditions and succesS;
particularly in India. He was universally worshiped as a god, and a miracle-
worker, except in Scythia.

1 u. The power ascribed to him is illustrated in the story respecting Midas, king of
Phrygia, who restored to Bacchtis his nurse and preceptor Silenus, and received as a
compensation the fatal attribute of turning into gold ' every thing he touched. — Some
of the remarkable incidents of his story are, changing the Tyrrhenian sailors into dol-
phins^ ; his residence upon the island Naxos, where he found Ariadne, forsaken by
Theseus, and espoused her, but hkewise forsook her, and after her death placed her
crown among the stars''; his descent to Hades in order to convey his mother Semele
back to Olympus, where she was deified under the name of Thyone.

» Ooid, Metam. xi. 85. J Met. iii. 630. 3 Fast. iii. 459.

2. Bacchus is also said to have traveled into India with an army composed of men and women.
The achievements of dilFerent personages are doubtless ascribed to him. Diodorus Siculus saya
that there were three who bore this name. Cicero says there were five.

3 u. He is called by various names ; LytEus, Thyoneus, Evan, Nyctehus, Bassareus,
Thriambus, Thyrsiger (cf Ov. Met. iv. 11), Liber, Bimater, &c.

§ 59. The worship of Bacchus, originating very early in tne East, probably
in India, was among the earliest and most general practiced in the Grecian or
Roman territories. Pentheus and Lycurgus, who refused to participate in it,
were punished with death ; and the daughters of Minyas and Orchomenos, for
the same reason, were changed into bats. Thebes, Nysa, Mount Cithaeron,
Naxos, and Alea in Arcadia, were renowned for their festivals in honor of
Bacchus. — The vine and ivy and the panther were especially sacred to him.
Goats were usually offered in sacrifice to him, because they are particularly
injurious to the vine.

1. The Oscophoria, Epilaenia, Apaturia, Ambrosia, and Ascolia, are named as
festivals of this god.

2 u. The most eminent of his festivals were the Trieterica and the Dionysia (see P.
ni. § 77. 3), in which his military enterprises were commemorated. These celebra-
tions at length became wild and hcentious orgies, and were finally on that account
abolished (cf. Liv. xxxix. 8, ss.) in Rome by the senate, in the year of the city 568.

Oq the worship of Bacchus, see Frertt, lis Culte de Bacchus, Mem. Acad. Irucr. vol. XJtiii. p. iM2.— G. P. Creuzer. Dionvsos. t

K



110 GREEK AND ROMAN MYTHOLOGY.

comment. Acad, de Rerum Bacchic, originibus et causis, Heidelb. 1809. 4.—Rollt, Recherches sur le Culte de Bacchus. Paris,
3 vols. 8.

3. In several points the story and worship of Bacchus resemble those of the Egyptian Osiris.
There is also thought to be a striking resemblance between Bacchus and the Schii'a of India (cf

Rhode, as cited $ 13). Sir JVm. Jones (as cited $ 25. 4), considers Bacchus and the Hindoo Rama

to be the same. "The first poet of the Hindoos," says he, "was the great Vaimic, and his Ra-
mayan is an epic poem on the same subject, which in unity of action, magnificence of imagery,
and elegance of style, far surpasses the learned and elaborate work of Nonnus entitled Diony-
siaca (cf P. V. $ 76), half of which, or twenty-four books, I perused with great eagerness when
I was very young, and should have traveled to the conclusion of it, if other pursuits had not
engaged me. I shall never have leisure to compare the Dionysiucks with the Rawayan, but am
confident that an accurate comparison of the two poems would prove Dionysos and Rama to have
been the same person."

Cf. Constant, De la Religion, vol. ii. — Voss, AnthymboYik.— Asiatic Researches, vol. viii.

4. It is worthy of remark, that the abominations of the Dionysiac festivals are to this day practiced at the temple of Juggernaut in
Hindostan. This god has two annual festivals. At the one called Ihe car-festival, his ini.ige, " a block of wood, having a frightful
visage painted black, with a distended mouth of a bloody color," is brought out of Ihe temple in gorgeous array and placed on a stu-
pendous car rising high like a tower, which rests on low wheels and is drawn by the crowd of votaries, attended with flags and
banners, amid the sound of musical instruments and the shouts of an immense multitude of pilgrims assembled from various and
distant regions. In our Plate XIII a. is a representation of this ceremony ; the horses, which appear attached to the car, are wooden.
The car is covered with indecent figures painted all over it. At intervals the car is slopped, and the priests and boys connected with
the temple render worship by obscene songs and lascivious actions to please the god, as they say, and cause him to move. — See Ward,
View cf the Religion, &c. of the Hindoos.

§ 60. The ancient representations of Bacchus are much more dignified than
those with which the later artists were accustomed to degrade him. By the
poets and artists of antiquity he was exhibited as a handsome agreeable boy,
just on the border of youth, with a form more resembling a female, than that
of Mercury or Apollo, and with ajoyful look. Of no other god have we a greater
number or variety of representations, in statues, bas-reliefs, and gems, than of
Bacchus with his train, Silenus, the Fauns and Satyrs, and Bacchanals.

1. Among the various representations of this god, we sometimes find him with
swollen cheeks, and a bloated body. He is crowned with ivy and vine leaves, having
in his hand a thyrsus, an iron-headed javelin, encircled with ivy or vine leaves ; as in
our Plate X. fi7. 8, where he appears also as a handsome youth, holding a wine-cup in
cne hand, and a'.teaded by a panther. In the Sup. Plate 15, he is a youth holding the
thyrsuri and leaning upon a column, with a tiger at his feet. Sometimes he appears an
infant, holding a thyrsus and cluster of grapes with a horn. Sometimes he is on the
shoulders of Pan, or in the arms of Silenus. On the celebrated gem (cf. P. IV. § 211)
which is given in our Plate XL VIII., he appears a bloated young man, borne by Satyrs
and also attended by Cupids and Bacchanals. Sometimes he is in a chariot, drawn
by tigers, leopards, or panthers, surrounded by his retinue of Satyrs and Bacchae, and
followed by old Silenus on an ass.

For various other representations, see Montfaxu.cn, Antiq. Expl. vol. i. Plates 142-167.

2. In our Plate XLVIII. we have also a representation of Silevns, as given from an antique by
Montfaucon ; recumbent on the hide of a panther, with one hand resting on a skin full of wine,
and the other on an inverted goblet. — An image of Silenus is mentioned by Pliny (Hht. J^at.
xxxvi. 5), as existing in the marble quarry of Paros, said to be the work of nature. There is
now in the same quarry a curious bas-relief, of which the image of Silenus forms a part. Dr.
Clarke supposes this image to have been a lusus naturae, and the other pieces now in the bas-
relief to have been added to it by sculpture. "It represents a festival of Silenus. The demigod
IS figured in the upper part of it as a corpulent drunkard, with ass's ears, accompanied by laugh-
ing satyrs and dancing girls. A female figure is represented sitting with a fox sleeping in her
lap. A warrior is also introduced, wearing a Phrygian bonnet [see Plate XXII. fig. ?» and o].
There are twenty-nine figures ; and below is this inscription : AAAMA2 0APYSI12 JsYMifAIS."

§ 61. ^^16) Ceres. However useful the planting 'f the vine might be, agri-
culture in general was much more so, and formed one of the earliest and most
common pursuits of men. The observation of its importance and of the pro-
ductiveness of nature occasioned the conception of a particular divinity, to
whom its discovery and improvement were ascribed. The usual name for this
divinity was Arjfxritrjp among the Greeks, and Ceres with the Romans. She
was considered as one of the most ancient of the goddesses, and was called a
daughter of Saturn and sister of Jupiter. Her native place was Enna, situated
in a fertile region of Sicily.

In this country she is said to have first taught men to cultivate grain, and to
instruct them in all the labors pertaining to it. To her is ascribed also the
establishing of laws, and the regulation of civil society. Afterwards she im-
])arted her favors to other lands, and the peojile of Attica particularly boasted
of her protection, and her instruction in agriculture and the use of the plough.
She associated Triutolemus with her as a companion in her travels, and sent



PLATE XIII a.




112 GREEK AND ROMAN MYTHOLOGY.

him over the earth, to teach husbandr}', and thereby raised him to the rank of
a god.

See Homer, Hymn to Ceres.— Orid, Fast. iv. 507-562. Metam. t. 642-661.

§ 62. The seizure and abduction of her daughter Proserpine by Pluto has
been already mentioned (§ 3'2u). Ceres sought for her with a burning torch
everywhere, and thus diffused universally a knowledge of agriculture and good
morals. She at length discovered that Pluto had borne her to his realms, sup-
plicated Jupiter for her deliverance, and received a favorable answer, on con-
dition that Proserpine had tasted of no fruit of the infernal world. But she
had just tasted of the pomegranate, and therefore received her freedom and
liberty to return to this world only for half the year.

Ovid, Metam. iv. 552.— Claudian, De Raptu Proserpinse. Of. P. V. § 386.

1 u. To the history of Ceres belong also the following mythical circumstances; her
changing herself into a horse and into one of the Furies, to escape the pursuit of Nep-
tune ; her transformation of Lyncus into a lynx on account of his perfidy' ; and her
punishment of Erysichthon, who had violated a grove sacred to her, by atflicting him
with insatiable hunger^, so that he devoured at last his own hmbs.

t Ov. Met. V. 649. a 7J. viii. ISi.—Callim. Hymn, in Cer. v. 29.— See Emati's Excursus, iu his ed. of Callimachus (cited

P. V. § 70. 2). vol. i. p. 262.

2 u. Ceres bore several names and epithets, as Atjw, QtuytoipSpos, i.itu} ; and Eleusinia,
Erinnys, &c.

3. Uhe name Ariiifj-rrip is by some derived from Srj for yn and firirrip, signifying mother'
earth.

See KnighPs Enquiry into the symbol. Lang. &c. Class. Joum

§ 63. One of the most celebrated festivals of this goddess was the 0f(?^o(|)opca,
which was maintained in many Grecian cities, especially in Athens, in honor
of her as having taught the use of laws. Still more celebrated, however, were
the Eleusinian Mysteries^ which were likewise sacred to Ceres, and which were
of two sorts, the greater and the less, the latter held annually, the former only
every fifth year. Besides these, the Greeks and Romans honored her with
several festivals before and after harvests, e. g. the npoj;p6cta, and the 'AXwa,
the Cerealia and the Amharvalia.

On the Eleusinian Mysteries, see P. HI. § 77. 4. P. rV. § 4\,—Warburton. in his Divine Legation of Mo^es.—J. Meuraii, Elen-
sinia. Lugd. Bat. 1619. 4.—Sainte Croix, Recherches histor. et crit. sur les Mysteres (St7u. de Sacy ed.) Par. 1817. 2 vols. 8.—
Ouwaroff, Essai sur les mysteres d'Eleusis. St. Fetersb. 1815. S.—Sougainville, in the Mem. .Scad, laser, ixi. S3.— Claw. Journ,
xiii. 399. xiv. 165. xv. 117.

On the Thesmophoria, see Dutheil, as cited P. V. \ 65. 3. On the Ambarvalia, cf. P. IU. § 219.

1. Among the ceremonies in her worship were the sacrificing of a pregnant sow, and



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