Johann Joachim Eschenburg.

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compartment being subdivided by two perpendicular lines of hieroglyphics into three compart-
ments, a larger one in the center, and a smaller one at each side of it. The five compartments
thus formed are crowded with figures, with hieroglyphics interspersed. The whole is surrounded
by a border, also crowded with tignres and hieroglyphics. The engravings in our Plate XV. are
ail drawn from this Table. In that Plate Isis is given as seen in the center of the Table, sitting
in a splendid gate-way.

A fine engraving of the whole Table with some explanation, is given by Montfaucon, Ant. Expl. vol. ii. p. 340, as cited § 12. 2 (d).
—II is given also in Cayltis, Recueil des Antiquites, vol. vii. p. 34, cited P. III. § 13. 2.— Cf. Shuci-ford, Sacr. and Prof. Hist. Con
bk. viii.— £nn/d. Ameri. vol. vii. 83.— A/aj/o, Mythology, vol. ii. S2,

Among the most remarkable ruins discovered at Pompeii, is a Temple of Isis. The columns
which surrounded it are almost entirely preserved. The temple itself was entirely built of brick,
and on the outside covered with a very solid stucco. It had the form of a square, and was not
covered, but was surrounded by a covered gallery, which was supported by colunms, and served
for a shelter in bad weather. " In this temple have been found all the instruments which apper-
tain to the religious ceremonies, and even the skeletons of the priests, who had been surprised
and buried by the shower of cinders in the middle of the occupations of their ministry. Their
vestments, the cinders and coals on the altars, the candelabra, lamps, sistrums, the vases which
contained the lustral water, pateree employed in the libations, a kind of kettle to preserve the
intestines of the victims, cushions on which they placed the statue of the goddess Isis when they
offered sacrifices to her, the attributes of the divinity with which the temple was adorned, &;c.,
are still shown. Many of these vases have the figure of an ibis, of a hippopotamus, of a lotus ;
and what renders them still more important, they were found exactly in the situation in which
they were used, so that there can now be no doubt as to their reality and their use. The walls
of the temple were adorned with paintings, relating to the worship of the goddess; there were
figures of priests in the costume of their order : their vestments were of white linen, the heads
of the officiating priests were shaved, their feet covered with a fine thin lace, through which tlie
muscles might be distinguished." Stuart, Diet, of Architecture, article Pompeii.

3. Apis. This is the name of the ox in which Osiris was supposed to reside, rather
than a distinct deity. The ox thus honored was known by certain marks ; his body
was all black, excepting a square spot of white on his forehead, and a white crescent
or sort of half-moon on his right side ; on his back was the figure of an eagle ; under
his tongue a sort of knot resembling a beetle {canthanis) ; and two sorts of hair upon
his tail. This ox was permitted to live twenty-five years. His body was then em-
balmed, placed in a chest, or Y.opoq, and buried with many solemnities. A season of
mourning then followed, until a new Apis, or ox properly marked, was brought to
sight. — It is a curious fact that Belzoni, who succeeded in finding an entrance into the
second of the great pyramids of Egypt, found in the corner of a large and high cham-
ber in the interior of the pyramid a llopds, which, on being carefully opened, presented
the bones of an ox.

MxEvis is the name of the sacred ox consecrated to the Sun, and worshiped espe-
cially at Heliopolis. He is described as being white.

In Plate XV. are two representations, from the Isiac Table, supposed to be Apis and Mvevis;
each is attended by two priests ; under the head of each is a standard supporting something,
perhaps the eating-trough of the sacred animal.

Cf. Land. Quart. Rev. xix. 201.— Banier, L'Orig. du culte que les Egyptiens rendoient aux animanx, in the Mem. .Acad. Inter
iii. 84.— Also Blanchard, Des animaux respectes en Egypte, in the Mem. fyc. is. 20.— Prichard, as cited § 12. 2 ( f ).

4. Serapis. This was one of the Egyptian denies, considered by some to be the
same with Osiris. Magnificent temples, generally called Serapea, were erected to him
at Memphis, Canopus, and Alexandria. I'acitus relates a marvelous tale of the re-
moval of an effigy of this god from Sinope, on the southern shore of the Pontus Euxi-
nus, to Alexandria. The worship of the god existed, however, in Egypt at a much
earher period. The mysteries of Serapis were introduced at Rome under the em-
perors, but soon abolished on account of their licentiousness. — Some derive the name
from 'Elood; and "Amj, as having signified at first merely the chest or box in which the
body of Apis was deposited.

In the Slip. Plate 24, we have a very remarkable statue of Serapis; resemblins as to the form
of the body that of Cybele in Sup. Plate 5, and that of Diana Ephesia in Sup. Plate 10; around
the body twines a huge serpent, whose tail is grasped in the hand of Serapis, while the head
appears at his feet; on the portions between the folds of the serpent are various figures of per-
sons and animals. — In the Sup. Plate 25, we have another, more in the Roman style; Serapis
sits, in full drapery, with sandals on his feet ; one arm raised in earnest action ; given by Mont-
faucon as beloncins to the cabinet of Fauvel. In the same Plate is another representation from
an Abraxas (cf. P IV. J 200. 2); he holds a spear in his right hand, and points upward with the

other; a Cerberus stands at his side. In all these images we notice the face and beard of a

Jupiter, and also the calathus or basket on the head which is the mark of Serapis.


It has been supposed by some, and the notion is adopted by Dr. E. D. Clarke, that the Egyptian ^pis was a symbol of Joseph ; and
that the various legends connected with the worship of this god grew out of the history of that patriarch.— Cf. FoisiiLs, de Theologis
Gentili. Amst. 1642.— CiarAc, Travels, P. ii. sect. 2. ch. 5.

5. Anubis. This was another deity connected in fable with Osiris. He was said
to be the son of Osiris, and to have accompanied Isis in her search after her husband.
He is represented as having the head of a dog. He is also called Herma7nihis ; or, a&
others say, the latter is the name of another deity of a similar character.

He appears to be represented in the monument exhibited in our Plate XVITI. fi^. B. Cf
$ 34. 2. — In the Sup. Plate 67, we have images of Anubis. The first is from a piece of marbU
sculpture given by Montfaucon from Boissard ; he stands with one foot on a crocodile, holding
in his left hand a cadnceus, and in the right a short rod attached to a globe : by his head on ont
side is a palm leaf, on the other a laurel-branch; on his right is seen also the head of Serapis,
and on his left that of Apis, from which circumstance the inscription on the original monument,
6EOI AAEA'l'OI, is supposed to designate Serapis, Apis, and Anubis. The other image in this
Plate is drawn from an engraved gem; presenting Anubis with the Roman coat of mail and a
bow and arrow.

CvNocEPiiALUs is by some considered to be the same as Anubis; but this name in Egyptian
mythology merely designates the dog as converted into a divinity. The term CynocepJiali is ap-^
plied by Greek writers to a race of beings said to exist in Asia (Diod. Sic. iii. 34). The image in
Sup. Plate 27, is given by Montfaucon, under the name of Cercopithecus, as being the monliey-
god of Egypt.

-^LURUs designates the cat, as deified by the Egyptians, and especially honored at Bubastis;
whence the name Diana Bubastis, applied to the same animal. Their images are given in
Sup. Plate 27.

6. Hakpockates. He is supposed to be the same as Horus, son of Isis, and was
worshiped as the god o^ Silence. He was much honored among the Romans, who
placed his statues at the entrance of their temples. He was usually represented in
the figure of a boy, crowned with an Egyptian mitre, which ended at the points as it
were in two buds ; in his left hand he held a horn of plenty, while a finger of his right
hand was fixed upon his lips to com.mand silence and secrecy.

Cf. Porphyry, Cave of Nymphs (cf. P. V. § 199. 2).— Class. Journ. iii. 142.— Mtmgez, Recueil des Antiqui'^s. Par. 1S04. 4.

Tn Plate XLVII. fig. 1, from an Mraras, we have Harpocrates sitting on the lotus flower; cf. P.
IV. $ 198. In the Sup. Plate 25, the first image of Harpocrates presents him with a singular
head-covering, from which a large horn descends below the shoulder. The secotul is remark-
able, because he has the wing of Mercury, the panther-skin of Bacchus, the owl of Minerva, the
hound of Diana, the serpent of .35sculapius, together with the horn of plenty.

7. Canopus. He is said to have been the pilot or admiral of the fleet of Osiris in
his expedition to India. In the Egyptian mythology he seems to be the god of the
waters of the Nile.

Nearly all the representations of him are formed by the head of a person or animal appearing
at the top of one of those vases in which the Egyptians kept the waters of that river ; the body
of the vase is frequently covered with hieroglyphics. Two such representations are given in
our Plate VHI.

III. — Mythical Beings, whose history is intimately connected with that of the


§ 97. (1) Titans and Giants. The enterprises of the Titans are celebrated in
the ancient fables of the Greeks. They have already been mentioned in the
account of Saturn (§ 14), to whom they were brothers, being generally con-
sidered as sons of Uranus or Ccelus and Titaea. The oldest was called Titan,
and from him, or their mother, they derived their common name. The preva-
lent tradition assigned to Uranus five sons besides Saturn, viz. Hyperion, Casus,
Japetus, C'm<s, and Oceanus ,- and likewise five daughters besides Rhea, wife
of Saturn, viz. Themis, Mnemosyne, Thya, Phoebe, and Tt/Aj/s, called Titanides.
On account of their rebellion against Uranus, in which however Saturn and
Oceanus took no part, the Titans were hurled by their father down to Tartarus,
whence they were set free by the aid of Saturn. With Saturn also they after-
wards contested the throne, but unsuccessfully. The Cyclops, mentioned in
speaking of Vulcan (§ 52), may be considered as belonging to the Titans.

The number of the Titans is given variously ; ApoUodorus mentions 13, Hyginus 6.
The number of 45 is stated by some. The name of one of them, Japetus, is strik-
ingly similar to Japhct, mentioned in the Bible, whose descendants peopled Europe?
and it is remarkable that in the Greek traditions Japetus is called the faihcr of man
hud Some have considered the Titans as the descendants of Gomer, the son ci .




Japliet'. — They have also been supposed to be the Cushites, or descendants of Cush^,
and the builders of the tower of Babel. — Others think them merely personifications
of the elements^ ;_ and suppose their fabled war with their father CcbIus, or against
Saturn, an allegorical representation of a war of the elements.

Hesiod's Battle of the Titans is often named as a remarkable specimen of subhmity.
It will be interesting, to compare^ it with Homer's Battle of the Gods, and Milton's
Battle of the Angels.

1 Cf. Pezron, Aniiquit. des Celtes. 3 Bryant, Analys. of Ancient Mythology. 3 cf. Hermann, Briefe Qber ds Wesen der

Mythologie. ■» Compare Horn. II. xx. 54 ss. Hes, Theog. 674 ss. Milt. Farad. Lost, vi.

§ 98. The Giants were a distinct class, althouo-h their name (yt'yaj, from yyj
and yj'rco) designates them as sons of Earth, or Gaia, who gave them birth, after
the defeat of the Titans by Jupiter, and out of vengeance against him. The
most famous of them were Ence/adus, Hakyoneus, Typhon., JEgeon, Ephialtes^
and Otus. According to the common description, they had bodies of extra-
ordinary size and strength, some of them with a hundred hands, and with
dragon's feet, or serpents instead of legs. Their most celebrated undertakino-
was the storming of Olympus', the residence of Jupiter and the other gods'
In order to scale this summit, they heaped mountain upon mountain, as Qilta
Pelion, Ossa, and others. But Jupiter smote them with his thunderbolts,
precipitated some of them to Tartarus, and buried others beneath the moun-
tains. Typhon or Typhosus, for instance, he pressed down with the weight of
iEtna^, under which, according to the fable, the giant constantly strives'^to lift
himself up, and pours from his mouth torrents of flame.

1 Cv. Melam. i. 151. ^ Chi, Met. v. Zi&.— Claud Gigantomach.— Piwd. Pylh. i. 31.— A/cm, de Vlastiiut, Classe d'Hist. et Lit,

.Bnc vol. vii. 98. sur la nature allegorique des centi manes, kc.—Eanier, sur Typhon, in the Mtm; Acad. Inscr. vol. iii. p. 116.

1. JEgeon or Briareus was another giant, eminent in the contest, with fifty heads
and a hundred hands. He hurled against Jupiter a hundred huge rocks at a single
throw; but Jupiter bound him also under -lEtna, with a hundred chains. — This story
of the war between the Giants and Jupiter is also explained by some as an allegori-
cal representation of some great struggle in nature which took place in early times.
This contest is to be distinguished from that of the Titans, who, although often con-
founded with the Giants, were a distinct class.

2. Orioji is by some also placed among the giants as a son of Gaia or Terra ; yet
the more common fable ascribes his origin to the joint agency of Jupiter, Mercury,
and Neptune ; according to which some derive his name from the Greek word dvpov
(urina). He was ranked among the attendants of Diana, and after liis death his name
was given to a constellation.

See Francoeur, as cited § 1 17 ( ().—De Fourmont, Le fab. d'Orion, in the Mem. Acad. Inscr. xiv. 16. atleinpting to shew a con-
nection of the fable with the story of Isaac the son of Abraham.

3. The Pysmies of the ancients were fabulous beings, of very diminutive size, supposed by
some to dwell in Egypt and Ethiopia ; by others, in Thrace and Scythia ; and by others, in India.

Cf. Ov. Met. vi. 90.— pan. Hist. Nat. vii. 2.—Heyne, on Horn. II. iii. 6.—Heeren, Ideen, vsl. i. as cited P. IV. § 111— Malta-
Brun, in the Annalts des Voyages, vol. i. p. 355.— .Bonier, Les Pygmees, in the Mem. Acad. Inscr. vol. v. p. 101.— CaZmef, as cited
P. I. 5 168 b. vol. iii. p. 113.— .5. W. Zwergius, De Pygmseis .Btdopis. Kil. 1724. 4.

§ 99. Tritons and Sirens. Triton has already been mentioned (§ 29) as a
son of Neptune and Amphitrite. From him, as most famous, the other various
deities of the sea derived the name of Tritons. They were represented, like
him, as half man and half fish, with the whole body covered with scales.
They usually formed the retinue of Neptune, whose approach Triton himself
announced by blowing his horn, which was a large conch or sea shell.

A Triton is usually represented with the form of a man in the upper part, and the form of a
fish in the lower. Sometimes the head of the fish is also retained; as in the Sup. Plate 19, from
a sculpture given by Montfaucon ; where Triton is seen bearins perhaps a Nereid, or more pro-
bably J^enus Marina, since the figure at the right appears to be a Cupid. In Plate XLIII. Triton
is announcing with his horn the approach of Neptune.— Cf. Ov. Met. i. 333.— Tir^. .£n. x. 209.

There were other minor divinities of the sea under Neptune ; but Triton seems to
have had the pre-eminence, and under Neptune a sort of control among them. Phor-
cus, Proteus, and Glaucus have been already mentioned (<S 29). Nereus was ranked
among them as a son of Oceanus, and the father of the Nereides. Ino and her son
Palaenion or Mehcertes. are also said to have been admitted by Neptune as gods of
his retinue. Palasmon is thought to be the same with Portumnus, whom the Romans
worshiped as the guardian of harbors.

§ 100. The Sirens were a sort of sea-goddesses, said by some to be two ift
cumber, by others, threg, and even four. Homer mentions but two', and de-
scribes them as virgins, dwelling upon an island, and detaining with them every



voyager, ■who was allured thither by their captivating music. They would
have decoyed even Ulysses, on his return to lihaca, but were not permitted. —
By others they were described as daughters of the river-god Achelous, and
companions of Proserpine, after whose seizure they were changed into birds^
that they might fly in search of her. In an unhappy contest with the Muses
in singing, they lost their wings as a punishment of their emulation. Others
make them sea-nymphs, with a form similar to that of the Tritons, with the
faces of women and the bodies of flying fish. The artists generally represent
them as virgins, either not at all disfigured, or appearing partly as birds.

1 Horn. Od. xii. 30. 166. 2 (h. Met v. 552.

Their fabled residence was placed by some on an island near cape Pelorus in Sicily;
by others, on the islands or rocks called Sirennusfe, not far from the promontory of
Surrentum on the coast of Italy. — Various explanations of the fable of the Sirens have
been given. It is commonly considered as signifying the dangers of indulgence in

§ 101. (3) Nymphs. The Nymphs of ancient fiction were viewed as holding
a sort of intermediate place between men and gods, as to the duration of life;
not being absolutely immortal, yet living a vast length of time. Oceanus was
considered as their common father, although the descent of different nymphs is
given differently. Their usual residence was in grottoes or water-caves, from
which circumstance they received their name, '^vix^at. Their particular offices
were different, and they were distinguished by various names according to the
several objects of their patronage, or the regions in which they chiefly resided.

1 u. Thus there were the Oreades, or nymphs of the mountains ; Naiades, Nereides
(cf. § 29), and Potamides, nymphs of the fountains, seas, and rivers ; Dryades and
Hamadryades, nymphs of the woods ; Napa-ce., nymphs of the vales, &.c. The Dryads
were distinguished from the Hamadryads {ayta Spvs) in this, that the latter were sup-
posed to be attached to some particular tree, along with which they came into being,
lived and died ; while the former had the care of the woods and trees in general.

2. Places consecrated to these imaginary beings were called 'NvjjKpaTa. Such was
the celebrated spot in the vicinity of ApoUonia, famous for its oracle and the fire which
was seen to issue constantly from the ground (PII21. Nat. Hist. xxiv. 7). Such was
the place and building at R.ome which was called NymphcBum, adorned with statues
of the nymphs, and abounding, it is said, with fountains and waterfalls. Festivals
were held in honor of the nymphs, whose number has been stated as above 3000.

See Fmtenu, Le Culte des divinites des eaux, in Mtm. Acad. Inscr. xii. 27.— Cf. Land. Quart. Rev. xvii. 192.

They were grenerally represented as young and beautiful virgins, partially covered with a veil
or thin cloth, bearing in ttieir hands vases of water, or shells, leaves, or grass, or having some-
thin£ as a symbol of their appropriate offices. The several gods are represented, more or less
frequently, as attended by nymphs of some class or other ; especially Neptune, Diana, and Bac-
chus. Uiider the term of nymphs, were someiimes included the imaginary spirits that guided
the heavenly spheres and constellations, and dispensed the influences of the stars ; the nymphs
being distributed by some mythologists into three classes, those of the sky, the land, and the sea.

In Plate XLIII. Nymphs are seen accompanying Neptune and Aniphitrite. — In the Sup. Plate
19, we have a Nereid upon a sea-monster whicii seems to consist of the lower part of a fish united
with the heads of two horses, which she guides by reins ; one horse has two fins or wings instead
of the two fore feet; from a gem of Maffei. In some representations, the Nereid appears a woman
with the lower part of the body in the form of a fish, thus exhibiting the mermaid.

§ 102. (4) Muses. The ancients were not content with having in their fic-
dons a god of science and a goddess of wisdom in general ; but assigned to
particular branches of knowledge and art their appropriate tutelary spirits or
guardian divinities, whom they called Muses, Moroat, and considered as the
daughters of Jupiter and Mnemosyne. They were nine in number, according
to the common account, with Greek names, as follows : KT^ftw {Illustrious),
Ka7.7.L67f ■/] (Fair-voice), MiXrioixsvT] {Siriging), ©a?.fta (Tro^), 'Eparw {Loving),
'Ev-TipTir; {Well-pleasing), Tfp4'i;top»? {Dance-loving), Ilo-Kv/xvi.a {Songful), oxid.
'Orpavia {Celestial).

The Romans termed them Camccnm. They were frequently called by common names, derived
from places sacred to them, or from other circumstances, as Fierides, from Pieria, Aunides, Hdi-
coniades, Parnassides, Hippocrenides, Castalidea, &c.

^ 103 u. In order to represent the IMuses as excelling in their several arts, espp-
tially in music and song, the poets imagined various contests held by them ; as, for
example, whh the Sirens, and the daughters of Pierus', in which the Muses always
gainec" 'he prize. They were described as remaining virgins, and as being under the
instruction and protection of Apollo. Their usual residence was Mt. Helicon, where


was the fountain Hippocrene, and Mt. Parnassus, where was the fountain Castalia ;
the former in Boeotia; the latter near Delphi^ in Phocis. Mt. Pindus and Mt. Pierus
in Tiiessaly were also sacred to the Muses. Particular temples were also consecratDd
to them among the Greeks and the Romans. Festivals in their honor were instituted
in several parts of Greece^, especially among the Thespians. The Macedonians
observed a festival for Jupiter and the Muses, which was continued nine days.

I On. Met. V. 300. 2 See View of Delptii and Parnassus formiDg the Frontispiece to this Manual. ' See Hcyne, de Musar.

religione, ejusq. orig. et causis In Comment. Soc. res;. Gotting. vol. viii.

The Muses are usually represented as virgins with ornamented dresses, and crowned with
palms or laurels. " Accordin? to the best authorities, Clio, History, holds in her hand a half-
opened scroll ; Melpomene, Tragedy, is veiled, and leans upon a pillar, holding in her left hand
a tragic mask ; Thalia, Comedy, holds in one hand a comic mask, in the other a statf resembling
a lituus or augur's wand ; Euterpe, Music, holds two flutes or pipes ; Terpsichore, the Dance,
is represented in a dancing attitude, and plays upon a seven-stringed lyre ; Erato, .Amatory
Poetry, holds a nine-stringed instrument; Calliope, Epic Poetry, has a roll of parchment in her
.hand, and sometimes a straisht trumpet or tuba; Urania, Astronoviy, holds in her left hand a
globe; in her right a rod, with which she appears to point out some object to the beholder:
Polyhymnia, Eloquence and Imitation, places the fore-finser of the right hand upon her mouth,
or else bears a scroll in her hand." (jSnfAo/t's Zernp.)— Generally accordant with this descrip-
tion, yet in some respects different, are the figures in our Plate XXXIX. ; where the Muses are
represented as seen in the statues belonging to the collection of Christina queen of Sweden, and
described by Maffei.— A valuable monument, to guide the critic and artist in distinguishing the
Muses, is a bas-relief on a sarcophagus in the Capitoline gallery at Rome, in which the nine are

"The Muses are often painted with their hands joined dancing in a ring; in the middle of
them sits Apollo, their commander and prince. The pencil of nature described them in that
manner upon the agate which Pyrrhus, who made war upon the Romans, wore in a ring; for in
it was a representation of the nine muses, and Apollo holding a harp ; and these figures were
not delineated by art (Pirn. L. xxxvii. c. 1), but by the spontaneous handy-work of nature."
(Tooke's Panth.)

For various representations of the Muses, see Montfaucon, Ant. Exp. vol. i. plates 56-62.— Afuseum Pio-Clementinum, vol. i.
plates 17-28. vol. iv. plates 14, 15.

§ 104. (5) The Graces and the Hours. To the retinue of Venus belonged
the Graces, Xaptrf?, Grafiae, servants and companions of the g-oddess, ditfusinor
charms and gladness. They were said to be daughters of Jupiter and Eury-
nome, or according to others of Bacchus and Venus herself, and were three in

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