Johann Joachim Eschenburg.

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number, 'AyWa {Spiendor), ©a'Xfta (Pleasure), and 'Ev^po6vvr] {Juy). They
were honored especially in Greece, and had temples in the principal cities.
Altars were often erected to them in the temples of other gods, especially Mer-
cury, Venus, and the Muses.

1 u. They are frequently represented on ancient monuments as beautiful young virgins, com-
monly in agroup, holding each other by the hand, and without drapery

i. Thus they appear in the Sup. Plate 8, a representation wl>ich very nearly resembles what
is seen on two beautiful antique engraved gems, given by Ogle, Ant. Exp. Plates 47, 48. In the
Sup. Plate 7, the Graces are employed in adorning Venus. An antique painting fiuind, with
other pieces, at Rome, in a vault near the Colissum, in 1668, exhibits them dancing, with slight

Of. Piiid. Olymp. xiv — Manso, Abh. Qber die Horen und Grazien, in his Mythoh Fersuchen.—Massieu, sur les Graces, in tha
Mem. de V.lcad. des hiscr. iii. 8.

§ 105. The Horse, 'Opat, were the goddesses of Time, presiding especially
over the seasons and the hours of the day, and were considered as the daughters
and servants of Jupiter. They came at length to be viewed as tutelary patrons
of beauty, order, and regularity, in reference to which Themis was said to be
their mother. They were named Evro^aia, Aixrj, ELprivr;.

The Graces, Hours, and Muses, are all supposed by some writers to have had
originally a reference to the stars and seasons, and to have afterwards lost their astro-
nomical attributes, when moral ideas and quahties became more prominent in the
Greek system of fictions.

The Hours are usually represented as dancing, with short vestments, and garlands of palm-
leaf, and rII of the same age. In some monuments of later periods, /owr Hours appear, corre-
sponding to the four seasons.— In the Sup. Plate 10, the Hours are represented by four virgins
attending Aurora.

In renresenting the seasons, the Romans used the masculine gender; thus in our Plate IX.
which exhibits them as sculptured on the Arch of Severus, we see four lads or young men, each
with witiss, and appropriate symbols of Sf)ri(ig, Summer, Autumn, and Winter. The Romans
also personified the Months, usually representing them by male figures.

Cf. Winchclmami, Hist, de I'Art, 1. iv. ch 2. § »3 -Montfaucon, Ant Exp. Suppl. vol. i. p. 22 .ss. Here he gives also, Pla-ea
5-16, from Lambecius, engravings of the tepresentaions of the months as beautifully depicted in a manuscript belonging to the Impe-
rial Library at Vienna ; February alone is represented by a female.

§ 106. (fi) The Fates. The very common poetic representation of human
life under the figurative idea of spinning a thread, gave rise to the notion of tb


Fates, called Motpat by the Greeks ; by the Romans, Parcse. They were three
sisters, daughters of Night, whom Jupiter permitted to decide the fortune and
especially the duration of mortal life. One of them Clotho {YJkd^CS), attached
the 'thread; the second, Lachesis (Aa;(^fffij), spun it; and the third, Jitropos
("Arportoj), cut it off, when the end of life arrived. They were viewed as in-
exorable, and ranked among the inferior divinities of the lower world. Their
worship was not very general.

The Parcae were generally represented as three old women, with chaplets made of wool and
interwoven with the flowers of the Narcissus, wearing long robes, and employed in their works :
Clotho with a distafi"; Lachesis having near her sometimes several spindles : and Atropos hold-
ing a pair of scissors. Such is their appearance in the Sup. Plate 14, which is not copied from
any ancient monument, but designed after the description of the poets.

See Calull. EpithaJ. Pel. et Thet. v. 305.— Manso's Abliandl. v. Parzen. in his Mylhol. Versuchen.—Banier, Sur les Parques, in
the M^m. Acad. Inter, vol. iv. 648.

-■.§ 107. (7) The Furies and Harpies. Among the divinities of the lower
world were three daughters of Acheron and Night, or of Pluto and Proserpine,
whose office it was to torment the guilty in Tartarus, and often to inflict ven-
geance upon the living. The Greeks called them 'EptV^rf 5, iur/es,- and also
by a sort of euphemism, or from design to propitiate them, Ev^jn'St?, signify-
ing kindly disponed; the Romans styled them Furise. Their names were
Thiphone (from ticn; and f^6vo{), whose particular work was to originate fatal
epidemics and contagion; J/ecto, (from a%r^xtoi), to whom was ascribed the
devastations and cruelties of war; and Megsera (from fisydipu), the author of
insanity and murders. Temples were consecrated to them among both the
Greeks and the Romans, and among the latter a festival also, if we may con-
sider the FurinaUa as appropriated to them and not to a separate goddess Fa-
rina, as some suppose.

1 u. They were represented with vipers twining among their hair, usually with frightful coun-
tenances, in dark and bloody robes, and holding the torch of discord or vengeance.

2. See the Sup. Plate 14, where they are seen in drapery, with the serpent hjcks and scorpion
whips with which the artists represented them. On two vases in the Haniillon collection they
have serpents in their hair. In the Sup. Plate 13, they are introduced as lashing a criminal with
their whips.

Of. yirg Georg. iii. 551. Mti. vii. 341, 415. xii. 846.— Oo. Met. iv. 474.— Of. C. A. BSttiger, Furienmasken im Trauerspiel und
auf d. Bildwerken d. alt Griechen; eine archaeol. Unlersuchung. Weim. 1801. S.—£a7iier, sur les Furies, in the Mem. Acad, liuar
rol. V. p. 34.

§ 108 a. The fable of the Harpies, "Aprtvtat, seems to have had reference
originally to the rapidity and violence of the whirlwind, which suddenly seizes
and bears off whatever it strikes. Their names were Jello (from daw.a, storm),
Celaeiio (from xB'Ka.Lvoi;, dark), and Ocypeta (from iLxvTiinr^i, fying rapidly), all
indicative of the source of the fiction.

They appear to have been considered, sometimes, at least, as the goddesses of storms, and so
were called QvcWai {Horn. Od. xx. 66). They were said to be daughters of Neptune and Terra,
and to dwell in islands of the sea, on the hnrderp of the lower world, and in the vicinity of the
Furies, to whom they sometimes bore otf the victims they seized.

They are represented as having the faces of virgins, and the bodies of vultures, with feet and
hands armed with claws, and sometimes as with the tails of serpents. See the Sup. Plate 14.

Kirj.iEii. iii. 210.— See FosJ, Mytholog. Briefe. Stultg. 1S27. 3 vols. 12.— Lc Clerc (in the Biblictheque Universelk, vol. i. p. 148)
supposes the Harpies to be merely locusts ; a conjecture which Gibbon seems to approve (Rom. Emp. vol. ii. p. 71. ed. N. Y. 1822).

^ 108 b. (8) The Venti or Winds. It has been already remarked (§ 78) that the
four principal wdnds were at an early period converted into mythical personages.
Among both Greeks and Romans they gained the rank of deities. The Venti, 'Ape
fioi, were eight ; Evpog, Eurus, South-east ; 'Anrihurrig, Subsolanus, East ; KaiKiag, CcEcias,
Aquilo, North-east ; Bopmg, Boreas, North ; 'ZKipov, Corns, North-west ; Zt^vpog, Zephy-
rus, Occidens, West; Noroj, Notus, Auster, South; Ar^, Libs, Africus, South-west.

Little is handed down to us respecting the worship paid to the winds. An altar dedicated to
them was found near Nettuno (cf. $ 78. 3). Pausanias speaks of one erected at the foot of a
nioumain near Asopus, where annual sacrifices were offered to them at night. The most re-
markable monument pertaining to these gods is the Temple or Tower of the eight Winds at
Athens, still existing; said to have been erected about B. C. 150; a view of it is given in Plate
XXI fig. 2; see also P. I. $ 110.

On each of the eight sides of this tower is represented one of the winds; Eurvs, as a young man
flying freely and vigorousiy ; Subsolanus, a young man holding fruit in the fold of his mantle;
Aqhilo, a venerable mar. with a heard, holding a dish of olives ; Boreas, with boots on his legs,
muffling his face in a cloak, and flying eagerly; Corns, also with boots and cloak, and holding in
his hands an inverted vase of water; Zeplnjrns, a youth with naked breast, and carrying flowers;
l^utua, an old man with gloomy face; .Africus, also with melancholy looks and heavy wings


In our Sup. Plate 20, Zephyrtis is seen supported in the air, in company with Flora or Chloris,
to whom he is said to iiave been married.

See Forcdlini Lex. Tot. Lat. as edited by BaiUy, vol. ii. p. 1 155.— £eaie'.» Topography of Mheas.—Mantjaucon, Ant. Fip.
vol. i. p. 413.

§ 109. (9) The Dxmons or Genii, and Manes. In the earliest mythologies
we find traces of a sort of protecting deities, or spiritual guardians of men,
called ^diixovii, or Genii. They were supposed to be always present with the
persons under their care, and to direct their conduct, and control in great mea-
sure their destiny, having received this power as a gift from Jupiter. Bad dae-
mons, however, as well as good, were imagined to exist, and some maintained,
that every person had one of each class attendant upon him.

From the notion of an attending genius arose the proverbial expressions indulgere
genio and defraudare genio, signifying simply to gratify or de?ii/ one's self.

The dcemons of classical mythology must not be confounded with the fallen spirits
revealed in the Holy Scriptures, and represented as possessing men in the time of

See Farmer, Essay on Demoniacs.— Letters to Channin; on Fallen Spirits, by Canonicus. Boston, 182S.— Cf. Brcwnlce, Lights
and Shadows of Christian Life, p. 379. N. York, 1S37. 12.

§ 110. The Manes were a similar class of beings. Although often spoken
of as the spirits or souls of the departed, they seem more commonly to have
been considered as guardians of the deceased, whose office was to watch over
their graves, and hinder any disturbance of their tranquillity. They were sub-
ordinate to the authority of Pluto, on which account he is styled Sunimanus.
Some describe a goddess, named Mania, as their mother.

1 M. The Romans designated by the name oi Lemures, or LarvcB, such spirits of the
dead as wandered about in restlessness, disturbing the peace of men, issuing from the
graves as apparitions to terrify the beholders.

2. In Plate XXXVI. we have one face of a square sepulchral monument found at Brixia, on
which two Manes are represented, each with wings and an inverted torch; a representation not
uncommon on such structures.

See Manso^s Abb. Uber d. Genius der Alten. in his Myth. Veri. — Simun, Diss, sur les Lemures, Mem. Acad. Insar. vol. i. — Ov.
Fast. V. 421.— £iu!7i, Einleilung in Rom's alte Geschichte. Berl. 1828. 12.

§111. (10) The Lares and Penates. The system of tutelary spirits was
carried further by the Romans than by the Greeks. The former assigned to
each dwelling and family its guardian deities, which were called Lares and
Penates. The Lares were said to be sons of Mercury and Lara, or Larunda,
daughter of Almon. They received a variety of epithets or by-names, accord-
ing to the particular object, over which they were in different cases supposed to
preside, ^sfamiliares, compitales, viales, patellarii, publici, privati.

1 u. They were especially considered, however, as presiding over houses, and had
in every house their proper sanctuary (Lararium) and altar. I'hey seem to have been
viewed as the spirits of the departed ancestors, the fathers and forefathers of the
family, who sought the welfare of their descendants.

2. Public festivals were held in their honor, called Compitalia, which, ■were made very joyful
occasions; the slaves of the family shared liberty and equality with their masters, as on the

The dog was sacred to the Lares, and an image of this animal was placed by their statues.
These statues were sometimes clothed in the skins, and even formed in the shape, of dogs.

T. Hem-pel, Diss, de Laribus. 2d ed. Zwiccav. ISIS. 9.—MUller, as cited § 112.

§ 112. The Penates were also domestic or household gods, but they were not
properly speaking a distinct class by themselves, because the master of the
dwelling was allowed to select any deity according to his pleasure, to watch
over his family affairs, or preside over particular parts of them. Accordingly
Jupiter and others of the superior gods were not unfrequently invoked in this
capacity. The gods who presided over particular families, were sometimes
styled parvi Penates. While those that presided over cities or provinces were
sty\ed patrii or publici PendiXes. Adulation sometimes elevated to the rank of
Penates even living persons ; especially emperors.

The Lares and the Penates are often confounded, but were not the same. "The Penates
were originally gods, the powers of nature personified; the mysterious action of which pro •
duces and upholds whatever is necessary to life, to the common good, to the prosperity of fa mi
lies; whatever, in fine, the human species cannot bestow on itself. The Lares were originally
themselves human beincrs, who, becoming pure spirits after death, loved still to hover round the
dwelling they opce inhabited; lo watch over its safety, and to guard it as the faithful dog does


the possessions of his master. They keep off danger from without, while the Penates, residing
in the interior of the dwelling, pour blessings upon its inn)aies." (^^nih. Lemp.)

A number of small bronze statues, representing Roman Penates, were found the last century
at Exeter, in England.

Cf. F<rg. JEn. ii. 717. iii. 148.— fleyne, Excurs. ix. ad V\rg. JEn. ii.— r. Hempd, Diss, de diis Laribus, as cited § 111— AfiUfer,
de diis Rom. Laribus et Penatibus. Hafniae, 181 1. 8. — For a notice, with plates, of the statues found at Exeter, see the Archxo-
logia, (cited P. IV. § 32. 5), vol. vi. published 1786.

§ 113. (11) Sleep, Dreams, zxid Death. Among the imaginary beings sup-
posed to exert an influence over the condition of mortals, 'TTtroj, "Oi'f ipoj, and
Qavatoi, gained a personification, being called brothers, sons of Nox or night,
and ranked among the deities of the lower world.

1 u. The residence of Sleep, "Yctoj, Somnus, v/as said to be in Cimmeria, on account
of the perpetual darkness which tradition ascribed to that region ; and the poppy, on
account of its soporific quaUties, was his common symbol. He is represented as hold-
ing in his hand a fight inverted and about to be extinguished.

The last symbol was also employed in representing Gavaro^, or Death, who wa8
often placed beside his brother Sleep on sepulchral monuments, and appeared in a
similar bodily form, and not a mere naked skeleton, as in modern art. When death
was the result of violence, or circumstances of a disgusting character, the Greeks ex-
pressed it by the word Ki]p, and they fancied a sort of beings called Kvipti, who caused
death and sucked the blood. The Romans made a similar distinction between mor$
and letlium.

2. In the representation of Somnus, given in our Plate XXXVI., he is a young man lying on the
ground asleep, with one arm on the neck of a lion, and holding the capsule of a poppy. Thana-
tos, or Death, stands by hini with a scythe and wings, in a robe bespangled with stars, as he is
seen in some paintings.

The Romans imagined death as a goddess, Mors. The poets described her as roving about
with open mouth, furious and ravenous, with black robes and dark wings. She is not often
found represented on existing monuments of art; in one supposed to represent her, a small
figure in brass, she appears as a skeleton, sitting on the ground with one hand on an urn.

Cf. Oo Mel. xi. 592, 634, 6i0.— Lessing's Untersuchung, wie die Alten d. Tod gebildet. Berl, 1769. A.— Herder's Abh. in his
Zerstreuten Blattern. Th. 2. 213.— Spmce, Polymetis, cited P. IV. § 151.

3. The god o( dreams was "Ovetpo; {Horn. II. ii. 56), more commonly called 'Mop(pcvg,
from the various images or forms (/wp^']) presented in dreaming. Morplieus is some-
times considered as the god of sleep, but was more properly his minister; Phoheior
[(poiji'iTMp), sometimes considered as the god of dreams, was another minister of Som-
nus, and Phantasus {(pavTa^u) another.

Cf. Theory of Dreams, &c., illustrated by the most remarkable dreams recorded in Histoij. Lend. 1808. 12.

§ 114. (12) The Satyrs and Fauns. The idea of gods of the forests and
woods, with a form partly of men and partly of beasts, took its rise in the ear-
liest ages either from the custom of wearing skins of animals for clothing, o?
in a design to represent symbolically the condition of man in the semi-barbaron?
or half-savage state. The Satyrs of the Greeks and the Fauns of the Romans,'
in their representation, differed from the ordinary human form only in having a
buck's tail, with erect pointed ears. There were others called Fanes, which
had also the goat's feet, and more of the general appearance of the brute.

1 u. The Fauns w^ere represented as older than the Satyrs, who, when they became
old, were called Sileni. Yet the Romans represented the Satyrs more fike beasts,
and as having the goat's feet. The Satyrs, Fauns, Fanes, and Sileni, all belonged to
the retinue of Bacchus (§ 60).

2 u. The name of Fauni was of Itafian origin, derived from a national god Faunus,
who was son of Picus (king of the Latins) and the nymph Canens {Ov. Met. xiv.
.320, 336), and whose wife J'auna was also honored as a goddess.

See Hcyne's Abh. von Unterschied. zwischen Faun. Sat. Silen. und Panen, in his Samml, Ant. Axifs'dtze. Found also in Winch-

elniann, Histoire de I'Art (cited P. IV. § 32) vol. i. p. 680. Ueber faun. Sat. Pan. und Silenen. Berl. 1790-91. S.—Voss, Myth.


§ 115. (13) The Gorgons. Three imaginary sisters, daughters of Fhorcys and
Cete. were termed ropyoveg, from their frightful aspect. Their heads were said to be
covered with vipers instead of hair, with teeth as long as the tusks of a boar, and so
terrific a look as to turn every beholder into stone, 'i hey are described as having the
head, neck, and breasts of women, while the rest of the body was in the lorm of a
serpent. According to some they had but one eye and one tooth, common to them
all, which they were obliged to use in turn. Their names were Stheno, Euryale, and
Medusa. Medusa is said to have been slain by Perseus, who cut off her head, while
they were in the act of exchanging the eye.

They are sometimes ranked, with the Furies, among the infernal deities. But theu*
resicience is variously assigned ; some placing them in a distant part of the western


ocean, others in Lybia (cf. P. I. § 179), and others in Scythia. Some have ex-
plained the fable as referring to a warlike race of women, like the Amazons. Others
suppose it to have had some reference to the moon as a dark body, which is said also
to have been called ropyofLov, from the face beUeved to be seen in it.

Massieu, sur les Hesperides, aud sur les Gorgones, in the Mem. Acad. Inscr. vol. iii. p. 28, 51.

^ 116. (14) The Amazons. The Amazons were no doubt mythical beings, al-
though said to be a race of warUke women, who lived near the river Thermodon in
Cappadocia. A nation of them was also located in Africa. They are said ^o have
burnt off their right breast, that they might use the bow and javelin with more skill
and force ; and hence their name, 'Aualove;, from a and i^a^dg. They are mentioned in
the Iliad (iii. 189. vi. 186) and called avnaveipai.

Various explanations of the fable are given. Some consider it as having a connec-
tion originally with the worship of the moon. Several statues of Amazons were
placed in the temple of Diana at Ephesus {PUn. N. Hist, xxxiv. 8) , and may have
represented some of her imaginary attendants, or some of her own attributes.

A figure resemblinj an Amazon, but hiving four arms, is seen in the caverns of Elephanta. — In our Sup. Plate 22, an Amazon is

represented with her bow and quiver of arrows. Traditions respecting a race of Amazons are said to be still current in the

region of Caucasus. Cf. Edinb. Rev. No. Ivi. p. 324. On the Amazons, see Creu2ci's Symbolit.

^ 117. This seems to be the place for noticing more particularly several Monsters,
which are exhibited in the tales of ancient mythology.

(a) The Minotaur was said to be half man and half bull. The story is, that Minos,
king of Crete, refused to sacrifice to Neptune a beautiful white bull, which was de-
manded by the god. The angry god showed his displeasure by causing Fasiphae, the
wife of Minos, to defile herself with this bull, through the aid of Daedalus, and give
birth to the monster. Minos confined the Minotaur m the famous labyrinth. Here
the monster devoured the seven young men and the seven maidens annually required
from the Athenians by Minos.

Theseus, hv the aid of the king's daughter, Ariadne, slew the Minotaur and escaped the laby-
rinth (cf. it 125).

{h) The Chimcera was said to be composed of a dragon, goat, and lion united : the
middle of the body was that of a goat, the hinder parts those of a dragon, the fore
parts those of a lion ; and it had the heads of all three, and was continually vomiting
forth flames. This monster lived in Lycia, in the reign of Jobates, king of that
country. This king, wishing to punish Belleropbon in order to gratify his son-in-law
Prsetus, sends him against the Chimasra; but Bellerophon, by the aid of ]Miiierva,
and the winged horse Pegasus, instead of perishing himself, destroyed the monster.

This fable is by some supposed to refer to a volcanic mountain on the Lycian coast.— See Clarke's Travels, pt. ii. sect. ii. ch. 8.
(vol. iii. p. 211. ed. N.York, iSl5).—Plin. N. Hist. v. 2T.—£anier, and Freret, on Beilerophon, in the Mtm. Acad. Liscr. vii,
37, 69.

{c) The Cenfauri were said to be half men and half horses. Some make them the
offspring of Ixion and the cloud ; others refer their origin to the bestiaUty of Centau-
rus, the son of Apollo. They were said to dwell in Thessaly. The principal inci-
dents related of them are their rude attempts upon the women at the marriage of
Pirithous and Hippodamia, and the consequent battle with the Lapithae, who drove
them into Arcadia. Here they were afterwards chiefly destroyed by Hercules. {Ov.
Met. xii. 530.) — Some have imagined this fable to allude to the draining of the low
parts of Thessaly, as the horse is in general symbolical of water.

Knight's Inquiry, &c. in the Class. Joxtmal.—Cf. Mitford, ch. 1. sect. S.—£anier, La Fable des Cent, in the Mem. Acad. Inscr,
iii. 18.

(d) Geri/on was a monster said to be the offspring of Chrysaor and Callirhoe, and
to have three bodies and three heads. His residence was in the island of Gades,
where his numerous flocks v/ere kept by the herdsman Eurythion, and guarded by
a two-headed dog called Orthos.

The destruction of this monster foj-med one of the twelve labors of Hercules ($ 123).

_ (e) The TTi/dra was a monstrous serpent in the lake Lerna, with numerous heads,
nine according to the common account. When one of these heads was cut off, an-
other or two others immediately grew in its place, unless the blood of the wound was
stopped by fire.

The destruction of the Hydra was another labor assigned to Hercules, which he accomplishea
by the aid of lolaiis, who applied lighted brands or a heated iron as each head was removed.
The arrows of Hercules, being dipped in the Hjdra's blood, caused incurable wounds.

(/) Pe<:^asus was not so much a monster as a prodigy, being a winged horse said to
have sprung iVom the i^Iood, which fell on the ground when Perseus cut off the head
of Medusa. He fixed his residence on mount Helicon, where he opened the fountain
called Hipj)ocrene flWof and ^-p^Jw/). He was a favorite of the muses, and is called " the
muses' horse." The horse, having come into the possession of Bellerophon, enabled
him to overcome the Chimaera. Afterwards Pegasus, under an impulse from JupUer,


%hrew off Bellerophon to wander on the earth, and himself ascended to a place among
the stars.

An engraving is given by Winckelmann of a beautiful bas-relief in white marble, representing Bellerophon and Pegasus; the
original, preserved in the palace of Spada at Rome, is of the natural size.— See Wincltelmann, Hist, de I'Art, vol. ii. p. 652. iii. 2S1.
— Cf. Francaw, Uranographie ou Traite Elementaire d'Astronomie. Far. 1S18. 8. containing '.he ancient Fables respecting the

(o-) Cerberus was the fabled dog of Pluto (§ 34), stationed as centinel at the entrance

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