Johann Joachim Eschenburg.

Manual of classical literature : from the German of J.J. Eschenburg, with additions online

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Construction and parts of Roman ships.
§ 304 Different kinds of vessels. § 305
Rewards of generals. § 306 Laws on the
subject. § 307 The triumph. § 308 The
ovation. § 309 Military system under the
emperors.

IV. Affairs of Private Life, p. 285-304.
§§ 310-343. = § 310 The free-born and
the free-made discriminated. §311 System
of applying proper names. § 312 Regula-
tions respecting marriage. § 313, 314
Marriage contracts. § 315 Nuptial cere-
monies. § 316 Divorces. §317 The right
and power of the father over his children.
§ 318 Emancipation of sons. § 319 Adop-



/



CONTENTS.



XVll



tion. $'320 Legititnation. § 321 Educa-
tion of youth. ^ 322 Slaves. ^ 323 Slave
trade. '$> 324 Emancipation of slaves.
i 325 Dwellings. Parts and ornaments of
a Roman house. § 326 Country seats or
villas. § 327 Manner of life. Morals.
§ 328 Daily routine of employment. Bath-
ing. § 329 Food and meals. Furniture
for eating. '5> 330 Different courses at
supper. Roman hospitality. § 331 a.
Drinking and games at banquets. Dice.
^ 3316. Wines. § 332 Dress. The toga.



^ 333 The tunic. Badges. § 334 The
stola and other garments of women.
§ 335 Various outer garments. Use of silk.
§ 336 Coverings for the head and feet.
§ 337, 338 Dress of the hair. Personal
ornaments. § 339 Funeral customs. Ex-
posure of the corpse. <> 340 Funeral pro-
cessions. Eulogy. ^ 341 Burning. Place
of burial. Tombs. Phials of tears. § 342
Mourning for the deceased. Games and
sacrifices. *^ 343 Consecration, or deifica-
tion of deceased emperors.



PART IV.



ARCHAEOLOGY OF LITERATURE AND ART.



Introduction, p. 307-321.

§§ 1-32. = § 1 The original capacity
and knowledge of men. § 2 Develope-
ment of the same. ^ 3 Aided by language.
§ 4 Origin of arts and sciences. § 5 First
character of the same. ^ 6 Attainments
made before the Deluge. § 7 Effects of
the dispersion of the human family, by the
confusion of tongues at Babel. '§ 8 Earliest
employments; food. §9 Effect of climate
and other causes ; influence of agriculture
on arts. § 10 Rise of architecture and
use of metals. Tools of stone. "^ 11 Imi-
tative arts. § 12 Origin of Language.
§ 13 Origin of Writing. § 14 Previous
methods of communicating thought. § 15
Picture-writing; by Mexicans; N. Am.
Indians. '& 16 Hieroglyphics. *$> 17 Ab-
breviated pictures. § 18 Syllable-writing.
Chinese; Cherokee; Persian, &c. '5> 19
Alphabetic writing. § 20 Materials and
implements. "S" 21 Contents of earliest
writings ; writings of Moses and Job the
most ancient; claims of the oriental re-
cords. ^ 22 The earliest sciences. § 23
Origin of Medicine. '$> 24 Of Arithmetic.
^ 25 Of Astronomy. $26 Of Geometry.
$ 27 Of Geography. $ 28 Egypt and Asia
the cradle of the sciences. $ 29 High cul-
ture of the Greeks and Romans. Import-
ance of classical studies. $ 30 Object of
the present treatise. $ 31 Utility of the
same. $ 32 References to works illustrat-
ing the subjects included.

ARCHEOLOGY OF GREEK LITERATURE.

I. Of the origin and first steps of Gre-
cian culture, p.~323-328.

U 33-44.=$ 33 First population of
Greece. The Pelasgi. $ 34 Early state
of society. Colonies from the east. $35
Origin of Greek language. Various theo-
ries on the subject. $ 36 Language of
Noah ; nature of the Confusion of tongues.
Languages of western Asia. Semitic and
Sanscrit families. $ 37 Japheth and de-
scendants. $ 38 The probable foundation
of the Greek. $ 39 Causes of the great
perfection of the Greek. $ 40 First im-
pulse to Grecian civilization. $ 41 In-
(2)



fluence of eastern nations on the religion
of the early Greeks. $ 42 On their arts.
$ 43 Influence of the Greek bards. $ 44
Of the Greek games.

II. Of the Alphabet, Method of Writing,
a7id Books, p. 328-334.

$$ 45-60. = $ 45 Letters introduced by
Cadmus. Resemblance of Grecian and
Phoenician alphabets. $ 46 Number of
letters in the alphabet of Cadmus. $ 47
Changes in form of Greek letters. $ 48
Direction of letters and lines in writing.
$ 49 Uncial and Cursive characters. Ab-
breviations. $ 50 Breathings. $ 51 Ac-
cents. $ 52 Punctuation. $ 53 Materials
used in Greece for writing. $ 54 Inssru-
ments. $ 55 Material used for ink. $ 56,
57 Form of books. $ 58 Copyists. $ 59
Infrequent use of writing in early times.
Whether Homer commiued his poems to
writing. $ 60 Instruction given orally.

III. Of the most flourishing period of
Greek Literature, p. 334-340.

$$61-77. = $61 Circumstances favor-
able to progress in letters. Diflerent cha-
racters of different Hellenic tribes. Actual
studies and attainments. $ 62 Design of
the author under the present head of the
subject. $ 63, 64 The Grecian system of
education ; Gymnasia ; Music. $ 65, &&
The Musical and Dramatical contests.
$ 67 Rehearsals public and private. $ 68
Professed Readers. $ 69 I'he Symposia
or literary feasts. $ 70 No learned pro-
fessions among the Greeks. $ 71 Gram-
mar as a part of education. $ 72 Philo-
sophy ; Esoteric and Exoteric. $ 73 Me-
thods of teaching; Socratic. $ 74 The
sreat public schools; Academy, Lyceum,
Porch, Cynosarges, Garden. $ 75 Regu-
lations and discipline of the Gymnasia and
schools. $ 76 Greek hbraries. $ 77 Tra-
vels of learned men.

IV. Of the decline of Greek Literature,
p., 340-343.

$$ 78-85.=$ 78 Causes of its decline.
$ 79 Greek language still extensively used.
$ 80 Greek letters cultivated at some
places ; Rhodes, Pergamus, Alexan



XV m



CONTEXTS.



dria, &c. § 81 Greek letters patronized
by some of the Emperors. ^ 82 Schools
of Athens suppressed. ^ 83 Opposition
between Chrisiianity and pagan literature;
influence of Christianity. S» 84 Loss of
Classical manuscripts, in various ways.
^ 85 Political condition of the Greeks after
the Christian era.

V. Of the Remains and Monuments of
Grecian Literature, p. 339-357.

^•S 86-108. =^ 86 Division of these into
three classes.— I. Inscriptions. ^87
References to works on Greek inscriptions.
§ 88 General design and character of in-
scriptions. § 89 Qualiticaiions requisite
for interpreting inscriptions. "5' 90 Notice
of some of the most important inscriptions
of a date prior to Alexander. ^ 91 Of those
of a date between Alexander and the
Christian Era. § 92 Of a period subse-
quent to the Christian Era. — II. Coins.
<! 93 Utility of an acquaintance with coins.
^ 94 Uncoined metal first used. § 95 Ear-
liest Greek coins. Chronological classifi-
cation of Greek coins. § 96 The coins in
most common use among the Greeks.
Number of ancient coins preserved. % 97,
98 Forms of letters on Greek coins. § 99
References to works on Numismatics. —
III. Manuscripts. §.100 Utihty of
them, noi Their antiquity. How made
and preserved. Pahmpsesti. "^i 102, 103,
104 Marks by which the age of a MS. is
kno%vn ; or criteria of Paleography. "^ 105,
106 Importance and advantages of collating
manuscripts. § 107 Notice of some of the
oldest and most curious manuscripts ex-
tant ; Greek Scriptures ; Herculanean
Rolls; Egyptian Papyri ; Hebrew Penta-
teuch. § 108 Libraries containing Greek
manuscripts.



ARCn/EOLOGY OF ROMAN LITERATURE.

T. Of ilte sources of Roman culture.
p. 359-362.

<»§ 109-114. = § 109 Origin of the Ro-
mans. Two different theories respecting
the inhabitants of Italy. Early tribes.
Uncertainty of the early history of Rome.
^110 Origin of Latin written characters.
^^ 111 Intercourse of the Romans with the
Greeks. ^ 112, 113 State of culture be-
fore the Punic wars. § 114 Origin and
progress of the Latin Language. Monu-
)nents of its early character.

II. Of the Alphabet, Writing, and Boohs,
y 362-365.

^^ 115-118. = "S 115 Number of original
letters. § 116 The early and later ortho-
graphy. ^ 117 Forms of letters. Alibre-
viations ; Nola Tironiana;. § 118 Form
of books. Materials and instruments for
writing. List of names and terms used in
relation to writing, (fcc.



III. Of the most flourishing period of
Roman Literature, p. 365-368.

% 119-127.=^ 119 Influence of the
Greek colonies in Magna Grsecia. "^ 120
Introduction of the Greek philosophy.
% 121 Most brilliant age in Roman letters.
Causes. § 122 Branches cultivated. % 123
Change in the system of education. 'Ji 124
Instructions of the Grammarians and Rhe-
toricians. § 125 Public schools. Atlie-
neum. Literary exercises specially prac-
ticed by the youth in the course of educa-
tion, &c. § 126 Libraries at Rome. § 127
Custom of finishing study abroad. Places
visited for the purpose.

IV. Of the decline of Roman Literature,
p. 368-370.

^ 128 Causes of the decline. Com-
mencement of it. Exertions and influence
of some of the Emperors. Effect of inter-
course with provincials ; of the removal of
the seat of government to Constantinople.
Schools of learning in the empire ; Byzan-
tium, Berytus, Blassiha, Augustodunum.

V. Remains and Monuments of Roman
Literature, p. 370-377.

%^ 129-143. = '^ 129, 130 Roman In-
s c r i p t i n s ; References to works on
the subject. "^ 131 Abbreviations and ini-
tial letters on Roman coins. % 132 Pecu-
liar advantages of study of Roman inscrip-
tions. § 133 Notice of some of the most
important inscriptions that are preserved.
^ 134 Roman Coins; when first struck.
Connection between poetry and medals.
% 135 Division into Consular and Imperial.
§ 136 Legend on coins. Peculiar forms of
writing on early coins. § 137 False coins.
§ 138 References to works on Roman coins.
§ 139 The most valuable collections of an-
cient coins. Symbols on coins and medals.
§ 140 Roman Manuscripts; few exist-
ing of a very early date. § 141 Successive
changes in the manner of writing. § 142
Zealous search for manuscripts on the
revival of letters. Petrarch, Pojjgio, and
others interested in it. Depositories of La-
tin manuscripts. § 143 Some of the most
ancient Latin manuscripts known.

ARCH.^OLOGY OF ART.
Preliminary RemarJis, p. 379-381.

«^^ 144-153. = § 144 Meanmgs of the
word Art. § 145 Divisions of the arts into
the ISIechanical and the Fine. § 146 The
plastic arts. ^ 147 Objects represented by
them. Allegorical images. § 148, 149
Requisites in the artist, connoisseur, and
amateur, severally. ^ 150 Utility of some
knowledge of the history of art. ^ 151 Ari-
tiques and the study of them. § 152 Ori-
ginal design of the monuments of ancient
art. Science of iEsthetics ; references on
the same. '5' 153 Object of the present
treatise. Four branches of art particularly
included.



CONTEXTS.



XIX



- I. Sculpture, p. 381-398.
*§ 154-191. = ^ 154 Comprehensive
meaning of the term. ^ 155, ISfi Origin
of Sciiipture. Character of the first speci-
mens. Image of Cybele. V> 157 'I'iie ma-
terials used. ^ 158 First soit ; clay, &c.
$ 159 Various kinds of wood. ^ KiO Ivory,
i 161 Marble and stone of different kinds.
i 1G2 Jironze. '^ 163 Classes of Statues;
cos'ume ; attitudes. § 164 Busts. The
kind of figure called Hermes. ^ 165, 166
Bas-reliefs. '^ 167 3Iosaic. ^ 168 In-
scriprions on statues. ^ 169, 170 Egyptian
sculpture. ^ 171 Sculpture among the
Asiatics. ^ 172, 173 Character and remains
of Etruscan Sculpture. '5' 174 Rise of
sculpture in Greece; circumstances favor-
able to its advancement. Dfedalus. §175
The four periods of Grecian sculpture.
"Ji 176 Its characterin the first period. § 177
Different schools. ^ 178 Frequent demand
for statues in Greece. § 179 Grecian
sculpture in the second period. Works of
Phidias. <$> 180 In the third period. Sco-
pas. Praxiteles. Lysippus. "5i 181 In the
fourth period, 'i 182-184 Sculpture among
the Romans. '?> 185 The most celebrated
-ernains of ancient sculpture. § 186 Of
Statues. § 187 Of Busis. § 188 Of Bas-
•elief. '§ 189 Of Mosaic. "§> 190 The most
Mmous collections of such remains. § 191
References to works on this subject.

IT. Lifthoslyphy or Gem-Engravmg,
r 398-409.

^^ 192-213. ='5 192 Explanation of the
fenn. ^ 193 Gems early known. 'S 194
Respecting the nature and classification of
gems. § 195 Notice of some of the prin-
cipal gems employed in this art. Murra.
Alabaster. Pearls. § 196 Manner of
forming the figures on Gems; intaglios;
cnmeoa. % 197, 198 Various objects repre-
sented, "^i 199 Origin and earliest instances
of the art. "Ji 200, 201 Gem -engraving of
the Egyptians. Sraraba:i ; Abraxas. §202
This art among other nations, especially
the Etrurians. § 203, 204 Among the
Greeks. § 205 Among the Romans. § 206
Uses made of sculptured gems. § 207
Mechanical operations in engraving. § 208
Fictitious gems. § 209 Advantages of
iome knowledge of ancient gems. § 210
This study facilitated by the use of paste



imitations. The 'mpressions of Lippert;
of NN'edgewood ; of lassie. §211 Some
of the most remarkable ancient gems.
§ 212 The most celebrated collections,
§ 213 References to works illustrating the
subject.

III. Painting, p. 409-416.

§§ 214-226. = § 214 Explanation of this
art. § 215 Date of its origin. § 216 Irs
early existence in Chalda^a and Egypt.
§ 217 Earliest pictures among the Greeks.
§ 218 The colors employed by Greek
painters. § 219 Methods of painting. In-
struments for painting. Fresco painting.
§ 220 Encaustic painting. Painting o?i
Glass. Mosaic. § 221 Merit of ancient
painting. Perspective. § 222 Schools in
painting among the Greeks. Celebrated
masters. Four periods. — Comparative
number of paintings and statues. Portraits.
§ 223 Etruscan paintings. § 224, 225
Painting at Rome. § 226 Monuments of
ancient painting. References to works on
the subject.

IV. Architecture, p. 416-431.

§§ 227-244. = § 227 Both a mechanic
and a fine art. Its origin. § 228 Leading
principles, or causes aflecting its character.
§ 229 Materials in early times. Tools and
instruments. Influence of materials on
the style. § 230 The grand branches
of Architecture, Civil, Military, Naval.
§ 231 Esyptian Architecture. Tultecan,
in America. Cyclopean. § 232 Archi-
tecture fts exhibited in Homer. § 233 Most
flourishing period of this art in Greece.
§234 Descrip'ion of ancient temples. § 235
Of Theatres and Odea. § 236 Of Gym-
nasia. The Stadium. § 237 Of Porticos.
§ 238 Of pillars and columns; and the
several orders of Architecture. § 239 Or-
naments of ancient Architecture. Cart/a-
(ides, Atlantides, &c. § 240 IVIost cele-
brated Greek architects. § 241 Tuscan
and Roman Architecture. Antefixa.
§ 241 a. Merits of the Romans in Archi-
tecture. § 241 h. Description of ancient
Baths. § 242 Remains of ancient Achi-
tecture. § 243 Works illustrating the sub-
ject. § 244 Notice of a style of Archi-
tecture, more modern ; the Rom'inesque.
§245 Other styles; the Saracenic, Chi-
nese, Gothic.



PART V.



HISTORY OF ANCIENT LITERATURE, GREEK AND ROMAN.



GREEK LITERATURE.
Introduction, p. 435-447.
§§ 1-10. = § 1 Circumstances favorable
to literature among the Greeks. § 2 Ex-
cellence of Greek classics ; importance
of acquaintance with them. § 3 Beauty
and perfection of the Greek language. § 4
Its dialects. § 5 Pronunciation of Greek.



§ 6 Principles and methods in studying.
Analytical and Synthetical methods. In-
terlinear translations. Grammatical and
logical analysis. Other exercises. Vse of
Readine-books. §6 6. System in the Lon-
don University. § 6 c. Hints of a method
of loeical Analysis. § 7 List of various
helpsin the study of Greek. § 8 Plan to
be pursued in the present view of Greek



XX



CONTENTS.



literature. § 9 Six periods in Grecian po-
litical history, very conveniently applied
to the history of literature. § 10 The se-
veral departments or classes of writers to
be noticed.

I. Poets, p. 448-482.
§'?> 11-81. = * 11 Subjects of earliest
Greek poetry. ^ 12 Poetry first cultivated
in the northern provinces of Greece. § 13
Poetry originally connected with music
among the Greeks. References on the
origin and progress of Greek poetry. § 14
Kinds or varieties of Grecian poetry. \ 15
Sacred. § 16 The Sibyls. % 17-20 Epic.
'^ 21 The Cyclic poets. The Homeridae.
Iliac Table. § 22-26 Zt/hV poetry, '^27
The Scolion. '^ 28, 29 Elegiac § 30
Bucolic or Pastoral. § 31, 32 Didactic.
^ 33 Erotic. § 34 The Epigram. § 35
Anthologies. § 36 Dramatic poetry.
S* 37-40 Tragedy. § 41-43 Comedy. § 44
Satyre. "5> 45 Different forms of Sa-
tyre. § 46 Farces and Mimes. "5* 47 Pomp
and expense of representation. Instructing
of the actors. § 47 1. References to works
treating of the Greek poets generally. § 48
Orpheus. "5i 49 Musasus. § 50 Homer.
^ 51 Hesiod. § 52 Archilochus. § 53
Tyrtasus. § 54 Sappho. § 55 Solon.
?» 56 Theognis. ^ 57 Phocylides. § 58
Pythagoras. §59Anacreon. § 60 Pindar.
^ 61 .Eschylus. "^ 62 Sophocles. § 63
Euripides. § 64 Empedocles. § 65 Aris-
tophanes. ^ 66 Menander. § 67 Lyco-
ohron. § 68 Theocritus. § 69 Bion ;
Moschus. § 70 Callimachus. § 71 Ara-
tus. § 72 Cleanthes. ^ 73 Apollonius
Rhodius. § 74 Nicander. § 75 Oppian.
^ 76 Nonnus. § 77 Coluthus. § 78 Quin-
tns Smyrncpiis or Calaber. § 79 Tryphio-
dorus. ^ 80 Theodorus Prodromus.' % 81
Tzetzes.

II. Orators, p. 482-489.
'^'?' 82-107. = § 82 Oratory as an art not
known in the heroic ages. % 83 Eloquence
much practiced after time of Solon. § 84
History of Grecian eloquence short. ^ 85
Chiefly confined to Athens. § 86 Three
aspects in three different eras. ^ 87, 88
Era of Themistocles. § 89-91 Era of
Pericles. § 92-94 Era of Demosthenes.
"?> 95-97 Subsequent dechne. School of
Rhodes. § 98 Three branches of ancient
oratory. § 99 References to works illus-
trating the Greek orators collectively.
<?> 100 Antiphon. § 101 Andocides. § 102
Lysias. "^ 103 Isocrates. § 104 Isaeus.
^ 105 r,ycurgus. ^ 106 Demosthenes.
•§ 107 iEschines. Hyperides. Dinarchus.

HI. Sophists arid Rhetoricians, p. 490-496.
"^^ 108-128. = § 108 Description of the
Sophists. ^ 109 Their performances.
% 110 Names of some of the more eminent
in different periods. ^111 Distinction be-
tween Sophists and Rhet ricians. <5» 112
Rhetoricians in different periods. ^ 113
General references. § 114 Gorgias. ^ 115



Aristotle. ^116 Demetrius Phalereus
§ 117 Dionysius Hahcarnasseus. § 118
Dion Chry.sostomus. § 119 Herodes At
ticus. § 120 ^iius Aristides. § 121 Lu-
cian. § 122 Hermogenes. ^ 123 Athe-
naeus. § 124 Longinus. § 125 Themistius.
'^ 126 Himerius. § 127 Juhan the Apostate.
§ 128 Libanius.

IV. Grammarians, p. 496-500.

^§ 129-147. =§ 129 Time when writers
of this class first flourished ; place. % 130
Their various performances. § 131 Some
of the most distinguished before the time
of Constantine. § 132 Grammarians at
Constantinople. ^133 General references.
<i 134 Hephffistion. "5, 135 Apollonius Dys-
colus. § 136 MYiws Herodianus. ^ 137
JuHus Pollux. § 138 ^iius. Moeris.
^ 139 Harpocration. ^ 140 Hesychius.
§ 141 Ammonius. § 142 Photius. ^43
Suidas. % 144 The Etymologium Magnum.
% 145 Eustathius. § 146 Gregorius Pardus,
or Corinthius. § 147 Thomas Magister.

V. Writers of Epistles and Bomances,
p. 500-504.

^§ 141-165. = 'S 148 Extant letters as-
cribed to ancients, in part spurious. § 149
Romances unknown in best periods of
Greek hterature ; reason. § 150 Erotic
and Milesian tales. Imaginary voyages.
§ 151 Some of the authors of Romances.
§ 152 References on the writers of this di-
vision. ^ 153 Anacharsis. "5i 154 Phalaris.
% 155 Themistocles. § 156 Socrates.
§ 157 Chion. § 158 Aristaenetus. §159
Alciphron. % 160 Heliodorus. § 161
Achilles Tatius. § 162 Longus. § 163
Xenophon of Ephesus. S> 164 Chariton.
§ 165 Eumathius.

VI. Philosophers, p. 504-517.
^§ 166-201. = § 166 The poets of Greece
her first philosophers. ^ 167 The next,
her priests and legislators. Subjects of
speculation in the early religious philoso-
phy. Political philosophy. Seven Sages.
^ 168 Origin of schools in philosophy. The
earliest of celebrity. § 169 The Ionic
§ 170 The Italic. % 171 The Socratic.
§ 172 Sects derived from the Socratic.
Three Minor. Cyrenaic. Megaric. Eliac.
§ 173 Four 3Iajor. Cynic. § 174 Stoic.
'5' 175 Academic. ^ 176 Peripatetic.
§ 177 Sects derived from the Italic. Elea-
tic. Heraclitean. § 178 Epicurean. ^ 179
Skeptic. ^ 180Periodsof Greek literature
in which the several sects arose. Grecian
philosophy after the Roman supremacy.
§ 181 The New Platonists. Eclectics.
§ 182 Christian philosophy. Peripatetic
philosophy after time of Constantine. Its
propagation in western Europe. § 183
References to sources of information on
the Greek philosophy. § 184 vEsop. § 185
Ocellus Lucanus. § 186 Xenophon the
Athenean. § 187 jEschines, the philoso-
pher. § 188 Cebes. * 189 Plato. § 190
Timaeus of Locri. § 191 Aristotle. ^ 192



CONTENTS.



XXI



Theophrastus. ^ 193 Epictetus. "?. 194
Arrian. '$> 195 Plutarch. § 196 Marcus
Antoninus. § 197 SextusEmpiricus. §198
Plotinus. § 199 Porphyry. § 200 Jamb-
hchus. §200b. Proclus. Olympiodorus.
§ 201 Stobasus.

VII. Mathematicians and Geographers,
p. 517-523.

% 202-221. = '5> 202 Mathematics re-
duced to scientific form by Greeks, but de-
rived from other nations. ^ 203 Tlie foun-
dation for philosophy. Views of Plato.
^ 204, 205 State of Greek mathematics in
different periods. §206, 207 Degree of
knowledge among the Greeks respecting
Geography. § 208 Treatises on Tactics.
§ 208 1. General references. § 209 Euclid.
§210 Archimedes. §211 ApoUonius Per-
gsus. § 212 Pappus. §213 Diophantus.
§ 214 Hanno. §215 Eratosthenes. §216
Strabo. § 217 Dionysius Periegetes. § 218
Claudius Ptolemy. § 219 Pausanias.
§ 220 u. Stephanus of Byzantium. § 220
Cosmas Indico-pleustes. § 221 Onesan-
der. Polysenus.

VIII. Mythographers, p. 523-525.
§§ 221 ?t-231. = § 221 u. Principal sour-
ces whence the traditionary fables of the
Greeks may be learned. § 222 Patepha-
tus. Euhemerus. § 223 Heraclitus. § 224
ApoUodorus. § 225 Conon. § 226 Par-
thenius. § 227 Phurnutus or Cornutus.
§ 228 Hepiiagstion. § 229 Antoninus Li-
beralis. § 230 Sallustius, the Platonist.

IX. Historians, p. 525-536.
§§ 231-260. =§ 231 Earliest history in
a poetical form. Earliest writers of history
in prose. § 232 The compositions styled
hsographies. § 233 The distinguished
historians in the brilliant period of Greek
literature. § 234 Writers on Attic history.
§ 235, 236 Chief historians between Alex-
ander and the Roman supremacy. § 237,
238 Principal writers during the next pe-
riod until time of Constantine. § 239 a.
Historical authors after time of Constan-
tine. The Byzantine Historians. §239b.
Grecian biography. § 240 General refer-
ences. § 241 Herodotus. § 242 Thucy-
dides. § 243 Xenophon. § 244 Ctesias.
§ 245 Polybius. § 246 Diodorus Siculus.
§ 247 Dionysius Hahcarnasseus. § 248
Flavius Josephus. § 249 Plutarch. § 250
Arrian. § 251 Appian. §252 Dion Cas-
sius. § 253 ^lian. § 254 Herodian.
§ 255 a. Diogenes Laertius. § 255 b. Phi-
lostratus. § 255 c. Eunapius. § 256 Zo-
simus. § 257 Procopius. § 258 Agathias.
§ 259 Zonaras. § 260 Dares Phrygius.
Dictys Cretensis.

X. Writers on Medicine and Natural
History, p. 536-541.

§§ 261-277. = § 261 Greeks less emi-
nent in these sciences, ^sculapius and
his descendants. Hippocrates the first
author. § 262 The Dogmatic school.
(2*)



§ 263 Dissections. Empiric school. Me-
dicine first practised at Rome by Greek
slaves. § 264 The jMethodic school. The
Eclectic school. Character and influence
of Galen. § 265 State of medicine after
time of Constantine. § 265 6. Branches or
divisions of the science. § 266 Physics in-
cluded under studies of the philosophers.
§ 267 Aristotle founder of Zoology : Theo-
phrastus, of Mineralogy and Botany. Ca-
binets of the Ptolemies at Alexandria.
Chief writers before the time of Constan-
tine. § 268 State of natural science under
the emperors of Constantinople. § 269
Collections of Greek writers on medicine
and physics. § 270 Hippocrates. § 271
Dioscorides. § 272 AretoBUS. § 273 Ga-
len. § 274 Aristotle. § 275 Theo-
phrastus. § 276 Antigonus of Carystus.
§ 277 iElian. ApoUonius. Dyscolus.

Notice of the Hebkew- Grecian and

Christian writings, p. 541-547.

§§ 278-293. = § 278 The Sepluagint.
§ 279 The Apocrypha. § 280 Works from
Christian authors. § 281, 282 Books of
the New Testame?it. Their moral aiithor -
ity. Their hterary influence. § 283
Works of the Apostolical Fathers. § 284



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