Johann Joachim Eschenburg.

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daughter of king CEnomaus; but this monarch, having been informed that he should perish by the
hand of his son-in-law, determined to marry his daughter to him only who could outrun him in
the chariot-race; and those who entered the list were to firfeit their lives if conquered. Un-
daunted at this condition, Pelops boldly undertook the combat, and to secure his success, he
previously bribed Myrliles, the charioteer of CEnomaus, who disposed the axle-tree of the cha-
riot in such a manner as to break it on the course ; and the unfortunate kine, being thrown to
the ground, killed himself G-noma\is thus left his kingdom and his daughter to Pelops, who
acquired great celebrity, and gave his name to the peninsula in the southern part of Greece.
Pelops, after death, received divine honors. He had an altar in the grove Altis at Olympia, and
was much revered, even above other heroes (Find. Oiymp. i. 146. Puusan. v. 13). His descend-
ants were called Pelopidte. His two sons, Atreus and thyestes, were celebrated for their mutual
h:itred and crimes. But his two grandsons, Agamemnon and Menelaus, the Atridce, acquired a
more honorable renown.



). a. HEROES OF THE TROJAN WAR. 137

^ ]32u. Heroes of the Trojan War. Of all the wars of Grecian story, none is
more famous than that of Troy, which was the first mihtary campaign of the Greeks
out of the hmits of their own country. The immediate occasion of it was the seizure
of Helen, wife of Menelaus, king of Lacedasmon, by Paris, son of Priam, king of
Troy. The siege continued, according to the common account, including the prepara-
tion and marches, ten years, with various successes and disasters, until at last the Greeks
became masters of the city by stratagem. The chiefs who were engaged in this enter-
prize acquired the highest renown in Greece, and the poetry of Homer has secured
their everlasting remembrance. The chief commander was Agamenmon, and the more
illustrious of the heroes with him were Achilles, Ulysses, Diomedcs, ]\It?iilaus, Ajux
son of Telamon, and Ajax son of Oileus, Idomeneris, and Neslor. On the side of the
Trojans, Hector, JEneas, and Antenor were among the most celebrated.

The war of Troy was not more memorable in itself than for its consequences. It
gave a new spring to Grecian culture (cf P. IV. § 40). The arts of war were greatly
improved. Numerous and important civil revolutions took place in most of the states.
But all this pertains to authentic history rather than to mythic tales.

SeeMitford, ch. i. sect, i.— Gillies, ch. i. m.— Class. Jmm. v. 14, 18. vi. 25. ix. 605, 626. xviii. \A\.— Chandler, History of
Troy. See references given in P. V. § 50. T.— Bryant (in a Dissertation on the war of Troy, Lend. 1799. 4) has maintained that
he whole tale is a mere fable, and that there never was any such war.

^ 133. Although the personages specially called Heroes in Grecian story belonged to
the period termed the heroic age (cf •§ IIS) ; yet under our fourth division of the subject
iif Mythology (cf. ^ 10) will properly fall the names of a multitude of personages of
later periods, including Romans as well as Greeks, who after their death were deified
In the country where they hved, or had become renowned (cf. ^ 88. 2, and 89. 3) for
memorable attainments or achievements. Merely to have been a king or ruler was
sufficient to secure deification among a people fond of the pageantry of superstition.
I'his servile and impious adulation was particularly practiced .by the Asiatic Greeks
towards the successors of Ale.xander. Mere governors of provinces were sometimes thus
honored. After the Roman imperial power was established, it became a regular cus-
:om (cf. *i 94) to deify the emperors.

The Roman senate made it their business by solemn decree to place every deceased en.peror
in the number of the gods, and the ceremonies of his Apotheosis were united with those of his
funeral. But as the actions of each one were now faithfully recorded by history, it was impos-
sible to connect with the deified name such fabulous and mysterious tales as to give the divini-
ties, thus established by law, much hold upon the popular feelings. The list of imperial demi-
gods, therefore, is of comparatively little importance in a view of the ancient mythology.

This deification of ihe emperors, it is very likely, gave rise to the beatification of saints, practiced by the Roman Catholics.
See Middkton's Letter from Rome, showing the conformity between Popery and Paganism, Lond. 1729. 4. 6lh ed. 1S25. S,
Also in his Miscellaneous Works. Lond. 1735. 5 vols. S.— Cf. Gibbon, Decl. and Fall, &e. ch. iii.
Respecting the ceremonies attending the Apotheosis, or Consecratio, see F, III, § 343.



18 u3



PLATE XVa.



Gods of the Greeks and Bomans, as classed in the preceding Sketch.



1. Superior Gods.

Jupiter Juno

Neptune Minerva

Apollo Diana

Mars Venus

Mercury Vesta

Vulcan Ceres

Janus Rhea
Saturn
Pluto
Bacchus



2. Inferior Gods.

Coelus Several Gods

c^i peculiar to

^' the Greeks

^0lU3 (cf. §88);

Pluius Enyo

^sculapius Er^ane
Pan Cotytto,&c.

Luna _ , ^ _,

A-.-n-o Several Gods

Aurora



Nox

Iris

Latona

Themis

Nemesis

Fortuna

Fama



pecuJ

the

(cf. § S9) ;

Priapus

Terminus

Vertumnus

Pomona

Flora

Feronia

Pales, &;c.



3. Mythical Beings.


4. Deified Heroes.


Titans


Manes


Inachus


Hercules


Giants


Lares


Phoroneus


Theseus


Pygmies


Penates


Ogyges


Jason


Tritons


Satyrs


Cecrops


Castor


Sirens


Fauns


Deucalion


Pollux


Nymphs


Gorgons


Amphictyon


aud


Muses


Amazons


Cadmus




Graces


Centaurs


Danaus


of the


Hours


Minotaur


Pelops


and ihe
Trojan


Seasons


Chinia;ra


Minos


Fates


Geryon


Perseus


wars, &c


Furies


Hydra






Harpies


Pegasus






Winds


Scylla






Genii


Charybdis






Soninus


Sphinx






Mors


Typbon







The Gods as classed by the Greeks.



Superior Gods, called
MsydAot 6eoi.



Jupiter

Neptune

Apollo

Mercury

Mars

Vulcan



Juno

Ceres

Diana

Minerva

Vesta

Venus



Inferior Oods, called simply QcoX, and
sometimes Aai/zoi'fj.



Saturn

Bacchus

-Eolus

^Esculapius

Helius or

Sol

Pluto

Pan

Plutus



Aurora

Themis

Luna

Nox

Iris

Hebe

Tyche

Latona

Nemesis

Fama



The Mythiral Be-
inffs named

above; Titans,
Giants, &c.

The Gods ppculiar
to the Greeks
(cf. § SS), except
such as fall inio
Ihe class of De-
migods.



Demigods, called 'HixWeoi.

Here fall Ina- The Theban Heroes

chus, Perseus, are —

and all named CapaneUS

above, under Tydeus

^"°''- Polynices

Here also some- Thersander, &c.

times Saturn,

Bacchus, £o- The Trojan Heroes

lus, and other are —

gods are put. Agamemnon
Achilles
Ulysses
Diomedes
Ajax, &;c.



The Gods as classed by the Romans.



Dii Majorum Gentium.



1. Consentes.


2. Selecti.


Jupiter


Saturn


Neptune


Pluto


Apollo


Sol


Mercury


Janus


Mars


Bacchus


Vulcan


Genius


Juno


Rhea


Ceres


Luna


Diana




Minerva




Venus




Vesta





Dii Minorum Gentium.



I. Semones,

Guardians over
particular ob-
jects; as

Pan

Plutus
Jiolus, &c.

Here also

Vertumnus
Terminus,

and most of Ihe
Gods peculiar
to Ihe Romans
(cf. § 89).
Here also the
Mythical Be-
ings (cf^ § 8S).



2. Miscellanei,

Persocificaiions of
various objects; as

Virtus
Fides
Honor

Spes

Pietas

Bellona

Febris

Mephitis

Victoria, &c.



3. Peregrini,
Gods from other
nalions; as

Mithras

Osiris

Isis

Apis (fcMnevis

Serapis

Anubis

Harpocrates

Canopus, &c.



4. Tndigetes,

or Adscriplitii;

Hercules
Castor
Pollux
^neas
Romulus or
Quirinus, &c.
Also deified Empe-
rors, &C.



Gods of the Greeks and Romans, as classed according to supposed Residence.



Celestial.
Jupiter Venus



Apollo

Mercury

Mars

Vulcan

Cupid



Vesta

Aurora

Iris

Hebe

Psyche



Hymenaeus Horse
Juno Seasons

Minerva Graces
Diana Muses



138



Terrestrial.



Terra

Cybele

Ceresi

Saturn*

Janusi

Bacchus'

Terminus



Pomona

Pales

Feronia

Pan

Silenus

Satyrs

Fauns



Vertumnus Lares
Priapus Nymphs
Flora Penates, &c.



Marine.
Oceanus Tethys



Neptune
-(Eolus
Proteus
Phorcys



Amphitrite
Matuta
Ino or
Leucothoe



Portumnus Sirens
Nereus Nereids
Triton Scylla

Glaucus Charybdis
Palffimon
Tritons



Infernal.
Pluto Proser-

Charon pine
Minos Nemesis
Khada- Mors
manthus Manes
^acus Naeniai
Cerberus Parcae
Nox Furies



» Goddess of Funerals.



PART III.



GREEK AND ROMAN ANTIUUITIES.



PLATE XVI.




GRECIAN AKTiaUITIES.




Introduction.

§ 1. Gr.ecia is by some supposed to have derived its name from Graicus, a
son of Thessalus, his descendants being called Graici, Tpaixoi. The Graici,
however, were only a single tribe of the inhabitants, some of whom planted
themselves in Italy. The country originally seems to have had no common
name, comprehending properly all its tribes. Gragcia was a name used by the
Romans, not by the inhabitants themselves. It was called by them Hellas,
from Hellen, a son of Deucalion, and also Achaia, Pelasgia, Ionia ; and the
people were called by the ancient writers Achaeans, Argivi, Danai, Hellenes,
Pelasgians, and lonians. These names of the country and the occupants,
however, were not employed always in a uniform sense, but seem to have re-
ferred in their general application chiefly to the more important colonies or com-
munities, which originally occupied and peopled the land.

§ 2^. Greece, in the most comprehensive sense of the term, was bounded on
three sides by the Mediterranean sea, parts of which were distinguished by the
names of ^Egean, Cretan, Ionian, and Adriatic; and on the north extended to
the chain of mountains called Orbelus (cf. P. I. § 77) separating it from Maesia.
Taken in this extent, it is naturally divided into four parts ; Macedonia; Thes-
salia and Epirus; Hellas; and Peloponnesus (cf. P. I. § 76). Taken in a more
limited sense, excluding Macedonia, it was sometimes divided into two parts ;
Graecia Propria (including Thessalia and Epirus, and Hellas) ; and the Pelo-
ponnesus. In the most limited sense, however, it included merely Hellas,
which is perhaps usually meant by the restrictive phrase Grajcia Propria. The
name of Greeks was also applied to the inhabitants of Grecian colonies in
Asia, in Italy, and in Africa.

§ 3. It may be well to mention the principal cities which were distinguished
for their power and cultivation. These were Athens, in Attica ; Sparta or La-
cedaemon, in Laconia ; Argos, Mycenae, and Corinth, in the territory of Argolis;
Thebes, in Boeotia ; Megalopolis, in Arcadia. The more eminent foreign or
colonial cities of the Greeks were the following; Miletus and Ephesus in
Ionia; Mitylene, Chios, Samos, and Rhodus, in the islands near Asia Minor;
Byzantium on the Thracian coast; Corcyra on the island of that name; Ta-
rentum, Sybaris, and Locri in Southern Italy; Syracuse, Agrigentum, Gela,
and Leontium in Sicily ; Syrene in Africa. In later times Alexandria in Egypt,
Antioch in Syria, and Seleucis in Chaldea on the Tigris, were considered as
Grecian cities.

§ 4. The form of government in Greece underwent, in the course of its his-
tory, three remarkable changes. In the earliest heroic ages, the several tribes
or communities obeyed petty princes or chiefs of their own choice. Subse-
quently monarchies properly so called were established in Sicyon, Argos, Attica,
Thebes, Arcadia, Thessaly, Corinth, Lacedaemon, Elis, iEtolia, ^Egialea, or
Achaia. But the Greeks were in the most flourishing condition during the
time of the two republics of Athens and Sparta. — The Achaean and Etoliari
league, the kingdom of Epirus, and the political constitution of the Greeks in
Asia Minor, are also very valuable portions of the Grecian history.

§ 5. The first inhabitants of Greece, who probably came from Thrace and
who were followed next by the Pelasgi (cf. P. IV. § 33, 34) and the Hellenes,
lived in a very rude state, without any commercial relations or even common
laws. They practiced upon each other constant robbery and violence, and

141



142 GRECIAN ANTIQUITIES.

were exposed to frequent attacks from the occopants of the neighboring islands.
Colonies from Egypt, Phoenicia, and Asia Minor, gave the first impulse to their
culture, which was aided by the commencement of the navigation. The famous
Argonautic expedition was one of the most memorable exploits in the naviga-
tion of this early period, occurring about eighty years before the Trojan war.
About fifty years before the same, the first formal state constitution was adopted,
in Crete, under the direction of Minos ; not with the perfection, however,
which was secured at Athens, through the influence of Cecrops, and after him
Theseus, The people of Attica were the first to adopt a more peaceful, quiet,
and frugal mode of life ; and this example influenced the inhabitants of other
regions to renounce their irregular habits and predatory excursions.

§ 6. Hereby was occasioned a more free intercourse between the different
people of Greece, and a greater union in regard to objects of common interest,
particularly in reference to murders and depredations. A proof of this was
given by the fact of so many states joining to avenge the injuries of Menelaus
(committed against him by Paris in the seduction of Helen) and carrying on
together the war against Troy. This war became a means of the further
advancement of Grecian culture (cf. P. IV. § 40), although it was also the
occasion of many troubles and revolutions among the states at home, and thus
led to the migration of many Greeks to neighboring islands and to Asia. Fi-
nally they became weary of wars and tumult, began to love peace, law, and
social ease, and united in adopting public solemnities and religious rites, and
maintaining social and civil order.

§ 7. Hitherto the form of government had been chiefly of a military charac-
ter ; the chieftain who commanded in war was the civil head of his people; but
now a more monarchical form was assumed. Soon however the kings abused
their power, and by their tyranny forced their subjects to throw off" the yoke.
Love of liberty then became the ruling passion of the Greeks, and the very
name of king was odious. It was this spirit which gave rise to a state of
things in which the Greeks sustained an eminence surpassing all other nations.
Throuo-h the mutual assistance rendered each other in acquiring independence,
the jealousies and discords which had previously reigned were in great measure
allayed. Amphictyon, third king of Athens, had united several of the states in
a sort of confederacy (cf. § 105), and this compact afterwards became much
more close and strong. An excess of population in this period of tranquillity
and prosperity was prevented by sending out various colonies to Italy, Asia,
and Africa.

§ 8. Among the free states, Sparta or Lacedasmon enjoyed first the advantages
of a rigid and at the same time salutary system of laws, which however in
some particulars evinced the imperfect culture of the age. Lycurgus, B. C.
about 820, the author of this code, had previously made himself acquainted with
the manners and institutions of the Cretans and Egyptians. Without intro-
ducing any violent changes, or even abolishing in form the existing twofold
regal office, he placed the relations of rulers, magistrates, and people, in a new
and improved attitude. His morals and precepts, which were in part very
severe, tended, as did his whole political system, to form a brave, constant, and
warlike people, and thus cause them to be feared and respected. His design
was accomplished, and Sparta acquired in these respects a high pre-eminence
over the other states.

See /. K. F. Manso, Sparta, ein Versuch zur Erklaning d. Geschichte und Verfassung dieses Staats. Leipz. 1800-1805. 3 Tb. 8.
— Cf. references given P. V. § 7. 7(d).

§ 9. Next to Sparta, Athens became distinguished. Being advanced in
culture by the legislation of Solon, B. C. about 594, and subsequently acquir-
ing glory and power from the defeat of the Persians at Marathon, she became
more and more jealous of the superiority of Sparta. This jealousy led to mu-
tual animosities and finally to the well known Peloponnesian war, which was
carried on for eight-and-twenty years (from 431 to 404 B. C.) between Athens
and Sparta, and in which almost all the other states of Greece took part on one
side or the other. Sparta finally was triumphant, but her glory did not endure
lonor after this. Athens rose far higher in political and literary character, and



p. III. INTRODUCTION. 143

became the residence of refined manners, useful knowledge, and cultivated taste
in the arts.

Ifm. Yoimg's Political History of Athens.— Trans, into German. Leips. 1777. S.—jlthenian Letters, or the epistolary corres-
pondence of an agent of tlie king of Persia, residing at Athens during the Peloponnesian war. Lend. 1799. 2 vols. 8 —Trans into
Germ, by F. Jacobs, Leipz. ISOO.—Bultoer, Rise and Fall of Athens.— Cf. P. V. § 7. 7 (d).

§ 10. The progress and decline of culture in Greece we are to notice more
particularly in the Archeeology of Literature (P. IV. § 33ss. 61 ss,), and here
it is only necessary to allude to the causes, which conspired to render Greece
so eminent in this respect. Some of the causes were, besides the highly pro-
pitious climate of the land, its numerous population, whose very necessities as
well as mutual emulation excited and fostered a spirit of activity and invention;
its enjoyment of an encouraging and ennobling liberty ; its commercial inter-
course, and the general prosperity which resulted. These, with other favorable
circumstances, raised the Greeks to a nation which is even to the present day
one of the most remarkable in history, and whose works in literature and art
are still valued as our best models.

§ 11. Hence our diligent attention is properly bestowed on the antiquities of
the Greeks, by which we become acquainted with their religious, civil, military,
and domestic institutions and customs. The general utility of such knowledge,
especially as an aid in the investigation of history, language, criticism, mytho-
logy, and art, commends the study of antiquities to every one, who engages at
all in classical pursuits. It adds to the interest and value of Greek antiquities,
that, among all the various objects of knowledge, the language, literature, re-
ligion, history, and whole genius of the Greeks, hold so high a place in point
of relative importance. Some acquaintance with what is denominated their
Aiiliquities is essential to enable us to enter much into these subjects, to com-
prehend well their spirit and character, or to contemplate the various monu-
ments of their literature and art in a definite and correct view.

On the utility of the study of classical antiquities, we introduce the following re-
marks, abridged, from Rollin (as cited P. II. § 5w.)— "To a certain extent, this study
is indispensable for all who make pretensions to education. Whhout it, there are
a multitude of expressions, allusions, and comparisons which they cannot understand;
v/ithout it, it is scarcely possible to advance a step even in reading history, without
being arrested by difficulties which a tolerable knowledge of antiquity would readily
solve. Like all other studies, when carried too far, it threatens with its dangers.
There is sometimes connected with it, a sort of learning, abstruse and badly con-
ducted, which is occupied only on questions equally vain and perplexing, which on
every subject searches for that which is least known and most difficult to be compre-
hended. Seneca (de Brev. Vit. c. 14) more than once complains that tliis vitiated
taste, which originated with the Greeks, had passed over to the Romans. Juvenal
also (L. iii. Sat. 7) ridicules the corrupt taste of his contemporaries, who required that
a preceptor should be able to reply without preparation to a thousand absurd and ridi-
culous questions. It is to know very fittle of the worth of time, and grossly to mis-
apply one's talents and exertions, to occupy them in the study of things obscure and
difficult and at the same time, as Cicero says (Off. L. i. n. 19)," unnecessary and some-
times even vain and frivolous. Good sense will lead the student carefully to shun this
danger. He will remember the sentiment of Quintifian (L. i. c. 8), that it is a foolish
and pitiable vanity, which prides itself in knowing upon every subject all that inferior
writers have said ; that such an occupation consumes unprofitably the time and strength
which ought to be reserved for better things ; and that of all the eminent qualifications
of a good teacher, that of knowing how to be ignorant of certain things is by no means
the least.

After these precautions, we cannot too highly recommend the study of antiquities
either to students or teachers. High attainments in this very comprehensive branch
of learning ought to be the aim of every youth, who proposes to pursue important
studies himself, or to direct those of others. The extent or difficulty of the work
should dishearten no one. By devoting every day a fixed portion of time to the read-
ing of ancient authors, intellectual riches will be amassed, little by fittle, which will
afterwards be a source of astonishment even to the possessors themselves. It is only
necessary to make the commencement, to employ time profitably, and to note down
observations in order and with accuracy.

Most of the topics connected with antiquities might be embraced under seven or eight
heads: religion; political government ; war; navigation; monuments and public edi-
fices ; games, combats, shows ; arts and sciences ; the customs of common life, such
as pertain to repasts, dress, &-c. Under each of these divisions are included many



144



GRECIAN ANTIQUITIES.



subdivisions. For example, under the head of religion are comprised the gods, priests,
temples, vases, furniture, instruments employed in different rehgious ceremonies, sacri-
fices, feasts, vows and oblations, oracles and omens; and so of the other heads." ,

See K. H. Milhauser, Ueber Philologie, Allerthumswissenschaft, und Alterthumsstudium. Far Studirende. I.ps. 1837. 8. pp. 88.
—Bwrsiii, Essay on the Study of Antiquities, Oif. 17S2. %.—PlcUlner, as cited § 196. 3u.— See also P. IV. § 29 ; and works there



§ 12. The sources of Greek antiquities are in part the classical writers, and
especially the historians, more particularly such of them as give details of the
whole constitution of Grecian societ}^ the manners, customs, and modes of
thinking and feeling. Among the classical writers, the poets also must be
considered as sources of information on this subject, especially the epic poets,
whose narrations, notwithstanding their fictitious ornaments, have some truth
for a basis, and whose representations give much insight into the character and
views of the people of the times. But another important source is found in
the remaining monuments of art; inscriptions, coins, statues, bas-reliefs, gems,
and vessels of various kinds. These, being sensible objects, give us a more
distinct and complete conception of many points than could possibly be gained
from mere verbal descriptions, and are, moreover, of great value as illustrations
of beauty and taste.

§ 13 u. Various modern writers have collected from these sources scattered items of
intbrmation, and arranged them methodically for the benefit of those who wish to gain
a knowledge of antiquities, and apply it to the study of Greek literature. Other writers
have investigated particular topics in a more full and extended manner.



1. For an account of works of both kinds, see

J. Ji. Fal/ricii Bibliographia antiquarii. (Stud, et op. P. Sdiaffs-
haiaen.) Hamb. 1760. 4. cap. ii.

NitichU Beschreibung des, &c which is cited below (Th. i.
p. 35.)

Kreba, Handbuch der philolol. Bacherkunde (Bd. ii. p. 211).

Cf. Sulzer's All?. Theorie, Men.

Meuzd's Bibliotheca Historica, vol. 3d, as cited P. V. § 240-
enumerates the writers on Antiquities.

2. The most important collection of particular treatises on
Greek Antiquities is Jac Groncwii Thesaurus Antiquitatum
Grsecifum. Lug. Pat. 1697-1702. 13 vols. fol. Ven. 1732. An
account of the contents is given in the work of Fabricius, just
cited. — A mass of valuable matter relating to various branches of



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